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An apology is due to the reader for the late appearance 
of this second volume. Various causes have contributed to 
delay its completion. The character of the work which 
demanded the utmost care in printing, the immense 
labour required in re-editing the glossary and in adapting 
the great number of references therein contained to the 
English edition *, the appearance of new treatises or articles 
on Assyriology and lastly the heavy and continuous pressure 
of my own engagements as a college tutor have all cooperated 
to defer the fulfilment of my task. It is hoped that the 
reader will recognize the compensating advantages of com- 
pleteness and accuracy which have entailed much additional 
trouble and expense in publication. It will be found that 
due note has been taken of the important contributions to 
Assyriology which have appeared during the last three years. 
Fried. Delitzsch's Assyrische Lesestiicke (3'''^ ed.), Zimmern's 
Busspsalmen , Jeremias' new edition of Istar's Descent to 
Hades (in his "Vorstellungen vom Leben nach dem Tode") 
as well as Prof. Sayce's Hibbert Lectures on Babylonian 

* We take this opportunity of calling the reader's attention to the 
notice at the beginning of the Glossary. The numerals refer to the 
page-numbers of the German edition retained in the margin of the Eng- 
lish work; when another numeral follows, it refers to the line of in- 
scription cited. In the Indexes the page-numbers similarly refer to the 
pagination of the Orerman edition. 


Religion have been frequently cited or referred-to in this 
second volume of the English work. In the glossary as 
well as in the 'Additions and Corrections' reference has 
been made to Dr. Craig's recently edited transcription and 
translation of the Monolith-Inscription of Salmanassar II 
(Hebraica, July 1887). 

I have once more the pleasure of acknowledging the 
ever ready and helpful kindness of Prof. Schrader in pre- 
paring this volume for the press. The English edition is 
enriched by his own recent brilliant combinations on the 
field of early Babylonian History whereby he arrives at the 
identification of the Biblical Amraphel with king Hammu- 
rabi. A translation of an important Excursus in his own 
monograph, read before the Royal Academy of Sciences at 
Berlin, will be found in the Notes and Addenda at the close 
of this volume. Dr. Schrader has moreover added valuable 
Appendices on Assyriological literature as well as on the 
Moods and Tenses of the Assyrian verb. This edition also 
owes much to Mr. Pinches of the British Museum whose 
great erudition and ready command of cuneiform literature 
are at the service of every inquirer. My indebtedness to 
him has been duly notified in each case. 

A word of grateful acknowledgment is due for the kindly 
welcome accorded to the first volume. Among the nume- 
rous friendly notices I would especially mention the long 
and able review signed 'E', which appeared in the 'Expositor' 
(Sept. 1885), and also the cordial and weighty testimony 
of Dr. Carl Bezold in the Zeitschrift fiir Keilschriftforschung 
(Nov. 1885). 

Supplementary notes of my own (enclosed in square 
brackets with Tr. or Transl. appended) have been added to 
this as to the previous volume. I have also contributed 


some additional remarks, on matters of interest to the Old 
Testament scholar, in the 'Notes and Addenda' at the end 
of this volume and in the 'Additions and Corrections' 
which immediately follow this preface. I cannot claim 
to be an independent investigator in the department of 
cuneiform research ; but, as a student for some years past 
of the works produced by specialists such as Schrader, 
Sayce, Delitzsch, Pinches and Haupt, I have endeavoured 
to supplement the translation by comments, suggestions 
or references, likely to be of interest and value to the 
English reader. Through the kindness of Mr. Pinches 
I am able to give a brief account, illustrated by short cita- 
tions, from an important Babylonian document which seems 
to contain a mythological reflection of a great Biblical 
truth; see Vol. II p. 313. The Addenda might well have 
been enlarged to more than double their present dimensions. 
Every fresh number of the Zeitschrift fur Assyriologie or of 
the Transactions and Proceedings of the Society of Biblical 
Archaeology, every new treatise or monograph brings addi- 
tional material, valuable not only to the Semitic philologist 
but also to the Old Testament student. But the work has 
already extended considerably beyond its former limits: 

claudite iam rivos pueri, sat prata hiberunt. 

0. c. w. 

July, 1888. 


Vol. I p. 15 Gen. I. 14. In line 3 of the inscription quoted Dr. Schrader 
now reads misrata umassir with Prof. Haupt; see 'Notes and Ad- 
denda' to Vol. II p. 304 footn. (read misrata for misratu). 

p. 56 line 3 read: — Sama§-nap i§ti. — Mr. Pinches, however, in a 
communication to me (May 30. 1888) states that he has come to the 
conclusion that we ought to read the first portion of the group of signs 
(from which the determinative of deity is absent) as Um- or NCr-. — 
Um-napi§ti or Niir-napi§ti will therefore mean 'day-, or light of 
life', Comp. Delitzsch, Assyr. Lesest. 2^^ ed. No. 215. Others read 
Pir-napi§ti (m) 'sprout of life', see Zimmern, Busspsalmen p. 26 footn. 
p. 68. With respect to the variant At nana (for Jatuana), Prof. 
Schrader is now of opinion that the form At nan a in the bull-inscrip- 
tions is a mere blunder of the cuneiform scribe. See Zeitsch. fiir Assyr. 
Ill (1888) p. 112. 

p. 75. Comp. Vol. II p. 296 (Notes and Addenda). Ed. Meyer in 
Zeitsch. fiir Alttestamentl. Wissenschaft 1888 pp. 47—49 connects the 
name Nimrod with the Libyan (not Egyptian) Nmrt, Nmrd and takes 
the name to be an interpolation in the table of races Gen. X. The 
Hebrews had become acquainted with the name since the time of the 
22°'! dynasty, or Sheshonk I (Shishak). — Schr. 

p. 120 foil. (Gen. XIV. 1). The views here expressed must be modi- 
fied in accordance with Dr. Schrader's present views. Vol. II p. 296 
foil., whereby Amraphel is identified with king Hammurabi. 

p. 139 '^13{^. Owiug to the discovery of a large number of cunei- 
form tablets at Tell el Amarna, showing that in the time of Ameno- 
phis III and his son Amenophis IV (15 t^ cent. B. C.)* an active cor- 

*) We find Amenophis III called in these cuneiform tablets Nimmu- 
rija, and his son, Amenophis IV, N apchu rurija. The wife of 
Amenophis III is correctly designated Ti-i-i. It is interesting to note 
king BurnaburiaS (or Purnapuria§) of Babylon among the correspon- 
dents of Amenophis IV. This name is to be fouad more than once 
in the lists of Babylonian kings. The father and predecessor of this 

respondence was carried on by Egypt with Babylonia and the upper 
Euphrates, Dr. Schrader takes a different view respecting "IT^i^ and 
abarakku and considers them to be closely connected. The term either 
migrated from the Aegyptians to the Babylonians and Assyrians or it 
was borrowed by the Aegyptians from the Babylonians. Comp. the 
word targumannu 'interpreter' occurring in these tablets, the Assy- 
rians having it in the form turgumanuu (which word is Aramaic 
in origin). See Sitzungsberichte der Konigl. Preuss. Akad. der Wis- 
sensch. May 1888 : Der Thontafelfund von Tell-Amarna. Comp. also 
my note in Expositor, August 1888, p. 157 foil. 

p. 141. Exod. IX. 7. Instead of ik-bu-ud Fried. Delitzsch, followed 
by S. Alden Smith (Keilschrifttexte Asurbanipal's Heft I pp. 10, 91), 
would read ik-pu-ud from kapadu 'think' or 'plan'. This significa- 
tion is supported by Asurbanipal, cyl. col. I. 120 lib-ba-§u-nu-ti 
ik-pu-ud limut-tu da-bab-ti sur-ra-a-ti id-bu-bu-ma (see Glossary 
33"[). "Their heart devised evil, plans of insurrection they planned 

p. 175 line 10 from below read: — vicegerents. 

p. 180 line 5 from below read : — combatant (subjugator). On p. 181 
line 2 read : — conqueror. 

p. 183 foil. Dr. James A Craig has made a fresh collation of the 
monolith-inscription of Salmanassar II , published in 'Hebraica' July 
1887. I here insert the corrections of the text as published by 

monarch , Kurigalzu, must therefore have been the contemporary of 
Amenophis III. The chief correspondent of Amenophis III was king 
Dusratta of Mitanni. From a notice by the Aegyptian keeper of the 
royal archives we learn that Naharina = Mitanni as a geographi- 
cal term (comp. Vol. I p. 100 and footn. ***). This kingdom evidently 
was one of the most powerful in the 15 t^ century politics. 

The above paper draws attention to the palaeographical peculiarities 
of the cuneiform : — a word, written ideographically, is repeated in 
phonetic form, for the sake of clearness; a dual sign is prefixed 
instead of affixed; the phonogram pi is used also to express ma 
(perhaps owing to confusion). Still more interesting are the linguistic 
peculiarities: Si-mir-ra is here written Su-mu-ra (Heb. "^l^li Vol. I 
p. 89); As-ka-lu-na for Is-ka-lu-na (ibid. p. 153); (m§,t) Misir, as 
in Babyl., for Assyr. (mat) Musur or 'Aegypt' Vol. I p. 71 foil. 
Ak-ka for Assyr. Ak-ku-u (p. 161); Ma-ki-da probably for Megiddo, 
Assyr. Ma-gi(or ga)-du (p. 156). It is also interesting to note the 
form a-nu-ki employed as the first personal pronoun instead of a-na- 
ku due, Prof. Schrader thinks, to Canaanite influence (Hebr. l^J}^). 


Dr. Schrader Vol. I p. 183 foil. I may add that Dr. Craig's alterations 
have in nearly eveiy case been confirmed by Mr. Pinches. 

col. II. 78 a horizontal wedge has been overlooked. After Dajan- 
Asur read: — ina arah. Also read: — i§tu ir Ninua after 
line 81 read: — na-kan-ti-§u lu apti etc., also read: lu a-mur 
ga-ga-gu bu§a-§u (Sa-su-su) i. e. 'his store-house I opened, 
his treasures I saw\ On the readings §a-ga and sa-su, now uni- 
formly adopted by Dr. Schrader in place of GAR. GA and 
GAR. SU, see glossary under '^y 
line 82 for nir Dr. Craig reads si pa [the two transcriptions 
are really identical (Schr.)]. — in line 84 for KAM . MIS is read 
dikari 'vessels' (dikari siparri 'vessels of copper'), 
line 89 for i-du read ad-di (see Glossary). 
The concluding passage is difficult. One portion of Dr. Craig's text 
we transcribe entire with rendering appended 98 . . . kima (ilu) 
RammS.n ili-gu-nu ri-hi-il-ta u-Sa-az-nin u-ma-si sal-mat-§u-uu (?) 
99. pa-an na-mi-i u-§am-li rapsati ummanati-su-nu ina kakki 
u-sar-di dami-su-nu har-pa-lu(?) §a-na-gu(?) 100. i-mi-is siri which 
Dr. Craig renders 98. "Like the god RammSn upon them an inundation 
I poured out, scattered their corpses. 99. The face of the plain I 
filled with their numerous troops. With the weapons I made their 
blood to flow over the extent of the field." The passage that follows 
in Dr. Craig's text is very obscure and I have not quoted it. In 101 
for lam-ti-i-ri he reads kima ti-i-ri 'like a bridge' (?) 
p. 228 line 5 from below read: lubusti. 

p. 263. The hypothesis of Fried. Delitzsch that the town Sam(b)- 
ara'in (of the recently published Babylonian chronicle) destroyed by 
Tiglath-Pileser II (III), is the Biblical Samaria, which has been 
strongly maintained by P. Haupt (Proceedings of the American Oriental 
Soc. at Baltimore Oct. 1887), seems to have been successfully refuted 
by H. Winckler in Zeitsch. fiir Assyr. II (1887) pp. 350—352, III 
(1888) p. 108—111. (Schr.). 

p. 279 line 12 read:— Si-du-un-ni. 

p. 281 foil. In the Taylor-cylinder of Sennacherib the following pro- 
posed readings or corrections of those given should be noted: — col. 11.42 
for ra-ru-bat read ra-sub-bat (Del.) 'the might of the arms of Asur 
my Lord had cast them down etc' With ra§ubtu 'might', comp. the 
adjective rasbu or ragibu fern, rasibtu 'mighty'. — 46. for la 
naparka-at lu etc. Del. reads la ba-at-lu "without cessation", batlu 
being derived from the root batalu 'to cease'. — 56. for mat-lu-ti we 
should probably read §ad-lu-ti, sidi' sadluti meaning 'widely extended 
regions', the adj. gadlu fem. gadil-tu being from the root ^"I^. See 


Del. Assyr. Lesest. S""^ ed. and S. A. Smith, Keilschrifttexte Asurbanipals 
Heft II p. 15. — 68 read ak§u-ud. — col. III. 3. for a-lib read a-lul 'I 
hung {ov fastened) their corpses', Kal aorist.-Imperf. of al&lu to bind. 
— 22. Prof. Schrader now follows Delitzsch in taking a-si-i as plur. of 
the partic. tsn (root J^Jil) "whosoever came forth from his city-gate 
I compelled to return" (see below the correction to Vol. II p. 156). — 
34. Del. reads ni-sik-ti and renders 'precious stones'. Comp. II Eawl. 
67. 26. 28 where it is called bi-nu-ut tam-tim 'product of the 
sea'. Haupt suggests the rendering 'pearls' (comp. Schrader's rendering 
in Vol. I, 227, 228 Notes and Illustrations). With this passage comp. 
the Annals of Asurbanipal (cyl. R™ 1) col. II. 39 kaspu hurasu ni- 
sik-ti abni sa-gu ikalli-Su ma-la ba-su-u 'silver, gold, precious 
stones, the things of his palace as many as there were' (S. A. Smith, 
Keilsch. Asurb. I p. 92). 

p. 293 line 10 from below. A line has here dropped out. After the 
word 'plural' a new sentence should begin. Read: — Sikriti 'palace 
women'; in the text stands the ideogr. RAK. UN with plur. sign mean- 
ing "female people" etc. 

Vol. II p. 16 ad init. The 'Babylonian Chronicle', recently published 
by Mr. Pinches in the 'Journal of the Royal Asiatic Soc. of Great 
Britain and Ireland' Vol. XIX Part. IV, gives explicit information re- 
specting the murder of Sennacherib, col. III. 34 foil, arah Tibiti 
<imu i§r& Sin-ahi-ir ib a sar mSt As§ur 35. m&ru-su ina si-hi 
iduk-§u 'In the month Tebet, the 20 1'^ day, Sennacherib, king of 
ASsur, 35. his son in a rebellion, killed him.' The original text goes 
on to state that the insurrection lasted from the 20*^ of Tebet to the 
2°d of Adar and that Asarhaddon succeeded to the throne on the 18tl». 

p. 30 footn. last line, read: — pp. 308 foil. 

p. 35 line 11 from below read: — In Sennacherib's account of his 
second campaign. 

p. 53 line 4 read:— XVII. 8. niD"|iDK^ kri for itthib niD^'IDtJ'- 

T • : 

p. 92 line 18 for 'British Museum' read: — Berlin Museum. 

p. 107 Jer. XXII. 14. With the word "i^l^n Barth compares the 
technical Assyrian term bit h ilSni 'portico'. That this was a Canaan- 
ite term appears from the following passage : Sarg.-cyl. 64 bit 
hil&ni tamSil ikal Hatti mihrit babisin aptikma "a portico 
after the style of a Hittite palace I erected before their gate-ways." 
We are expressly informed that this phrase was a loan-word sa ina 
li§an m§,t aharri bit hil§,ni i§asu§u "which in the language of 
the Western country they call (root HDIi' "^^^^ suff.) bit hiiani" 
(Zeitschr. fiir Assyr. 1888 p. 93). Comp. Asurbanipal's cyl. (R™ 1) 
col. VI. 123, X. 102. Thus in 1 Kings VI. 4 '^yi'-)^] n"'2 = dSiN in verse 3. 


p. 122 line 3 from below read: — §arri; — and in footn. line 7 
from below read : — Biredsbik. 

p. 133 line 2 read: — does not stand in the way of the assump- 
tion etc. 

p. 137. Prof. Sayce, 'Babyl. and Oriental Record' Dec. 1887 p. 18 
foil, suggests that Jareb was the original name of Sargon II, just as 
Pul was of Tiglath-Pileser. He is supported in this view by Dr. Neu- 
bauer, Zeitsch. fiir Assyr. 1888 p. 103. But against this hypothesis it 
is to be observed that no such name as Jarib , Aribu or I'ribu for 
Sargon is to be found in the Babylonian list (where for 709 B. C. we 
find Sar-ukin Vol. n p. 333) or in any other record. Moreover the 
occurrence of the name Jareb in the prae-exilic writings of Hosoa 
(whatever views may be held respecting the text) and the use of the 
name Pul in 2 Ki. XV. 19 may be due to entirely difi'erent causes. In 
the latter case it is not difficult to see a later, direct Babylonian in- 
fluence. I still hold the opinion , as against Nowack and other cri- 
tics, that the superscription to Hosea's oracles is to be accepted in its 
entirety. I believe that at least the latest oracles (chapters XII — XIV) 
may be contemporary with the first year of Hezekiah's reign (B. C. 
726 ; the reference in XII. 1, 3 harmonizes with the supposition 
that Ahaz was still on the throne of Judah, comp. Vol. II p. 322). 
But beyond this date it would not be safe to go. Comp. my intro- 
duction to Hosea in Bishop Ellicott's 'Old Testament for English 
readers.' It is impossible to reconcile the language in Chap. VII. 11, 
XII. 2, where the prophet refers to the rival policies of an Egyptian 
and of an Assyrian alliance, with the circumstances of the year 722 
when Ephraim was absolutely at the mercy of the Assyrian. If we 
accept Prof Sayce's view, the term Ti^D) applied to Jareb in V. 13, 
X. 6, can only be understood on the supposition that the prophecies 
were composed in or subsequent to this fatal year. Comp. Canon I 
Vol. II p. 183. But throughout the oracles there is no hint that the 
final overthrow was actually taking place or had already taken place. 
Chap. XIII shows clearly (verses 7 — 15) that the Prophet saw it im- 
pending, but Chap. XIV, so full of hope, is inconsistent with a retro- 
spect of utter ruin. Comp. also chap. XI. 9 foil. Moreover the king 
vanishing "like a chip on the water's surface" (X. 7) may well be under- 
stood to be Pekah (Vol. I p. 247 foil. 251). Certainly the 'wound' of 
Judah (V. 13) does not specially apply to any period after 735 B. C. 
and has absolutely no fitness when referred to a date 12 or 13 years 

p. 152 line 9 read: — a§§ati-§u. 

p. 153 (Zech. I. 7) read :— Shebdt. 

p. 156 Insc. line 7 read: — zu-um-mu-u. — That itii in line 4 


(= itfitu) means 'darkness' is proved by the variant ik-li-ti. See 
Del., Assyr. Lesest. 3'd ed. p. 110. — Line 5 Dr. Schrader now 
renders vsrith Jeremias 'to the house of which the enterer cometh not 
forth' (lit. 'not a passer out'); 4su is a partic. and also i'ribu. The 
latter stands according to rule for '4ribu 3"lV, the S. changing to i' 
(1) on account of the \} and (2) through the following i. 

line 11 render: — over the door and bolt (sikfiru, root "|3D, comp. 
Heb. "IJO) "^u^* spread (§apuh). 

p. 19^ year 751 read:— gallimani. 

p. 217 line 15 for 'goddess' read: — god. 

p. 218 line 4 read: — Bi'l-sar-usur. 

p. 224 line 20 for 'god' read : — goddess. — And in line 7 from below 
read: — _Ar?. 

p. 227 line 2 for 'occasionally with direct accusative' read: — or else 
with ultu (V Rawl. 8, 100; 9, 12). 

p. 237 line 3 read : ")l^i^3. 

p. 244 line 6 for Impft. read : — Imper. 

p. 258 line 17 from below read: ^HD- 

p. 299 line 3 from below read : non- 

p. 313 foil. Mr. Pinches has cited to me another passage IV Rawl. 
pi. 15 obv. line 20 ilu [Gibil] sibitti §unu, ikama aldu, ik^ma 
irbu 'the fire-gods, seven are they; how were they born, how did they 
grow up'? where ik^ma has some such meaning as that proposed. We 
may compare it with the form ikiam (kiam = thus) the preformative 

i being probably connected with Arabic /cJ, Aram. ^], Hebr. "ij^ having 
interrog. force. — The form kimahha is to be retained since the Assy- 
rians and Babylonians seem always to have used the Akkadian word. 
Mr. Pinches cites the word para-mahhu (mahu) 'sanctuary' from 
Akkadian bara and mah. 

p. 319 Song of Songs V. 10. The proper interpretation of the pas- 
sage is 'gazed at (i. e. an object of admiration) more than ten thou- 

p. 820. The reader may also be referred, on the subject of Hebrew 
chronology, to the exhaustive article, in the 2nd ed. (1886) of Herzog 
and Plitt's Realencyclopadie, entitled "Zeitrechnung", and also to the 
chapter 'Judah and Israel' in Vol. II (Eng. transl.) p. 227 foil, of Max 
Duucker's History of Antiquity and lastly to the thoughtful essay in 
the 'Church Quarterly Review' Jan. 1886 on the 'Chronology of the 
Kings of Israel and Judah.' 

p. 321. The date 734 for the accession of Hoshea is not by any 
means certain. Even if we assume that Pekah was slain in 734 and 


that Hoshea was placed on the throne by Assyrian influence, as may 
be inferred from Vol. I p. 247 foil. 251, it does not follow that his 
rule was recognized by Israel. If we assume an anarchic interregnum 
and that the formal recognition of Hoshea's sovei-eignty did not take 
place till 730, we might connect with this the social disorders described 
by the prophet Hosea in chapters IV and V. These, however, might 
with better reason be referred to Menahem's reign. But such an inter- 
regnum is implied in Hos. X. 3. 4. — If we accept the view of Barth 
which identifies the rod in Is. XIV. 29 with Tiglath Pileser II, we seem 
to have in the brief section (verses 28 — 32) an indication that the death 
of Tiglath-Pileser and that of Ahaz took place at nearly the same 
time. There are valid grounds, however, for doubting this. Verse 28 
and the following superscriptions or prefaces came probably from a 
later editorial hand. On verse 28 see Prof. Cheyne's introductory note 
Vol. I p. 95, Srd ed. (1884). — The association of Hezekiah with Ahaz 
may have been due to the effort of the latter to strengthen his dynastic 
position in face of the Egyptian party who opposed the Assyrian alliance 
We know that in the Northern kingdom this party gained the upper 
hand and brought about a complete change in the policy of Hoshea 
about this time. This could not fail to react on the politics of Jeru- 
salem. Isaiah's prophecies of a divine ruler of Jesse's seed acquire 
additional significance if we regard them as the ideal counterpart sug- 
gested to the mind of the prophet by the youthful co-regent Hezekiah. 
The idea is not yet exj^ressed in Is. VII. 14 foil, but is manifest in IX. 5. 
— Moreover the two-fold system of reckoning, which arose in conse- 
quence of the initial dates of Hezekiah's conjoint reign and of his 
sole reign (2 Kings XVIII. 9 and 13), finds a parallel in the case of 
Jotham in which the apparent discrepancy of 2 Kings XV. 30 and 33 
may be explained from a similar cause. Lastly the dates assigned on 
p. 821 for the accession of Ahaz and the accession (i. e. beginning of 
the sole reign) of Hezekiah harmonize much better with the respective 
ages of Ahaz and Hezekiah on their accession to the throne of Judah 
(2 Ki. XVI. 2, XVIII. 2). 

Bredenkamp in his recent commentary on Isaiah (pp. 2 and 98) 
places the death of Ahaz and of Salmanassar in the year 723, the 
latter being identified with the 'rod' (XIV. 29). But we have no evi- 
dence that Salmanassar ever undertook a campaign against the Philis- 
tines. Also the proposed date solves no chronological difficulty. There 
is more historic probability in the view adopted by Cheyne and also 
Driver (Isaiah, His Life and Times p. 87 foil.) which refers the 'snake' 
to Sargon who died in 705, Sennacherib being the more terrible 'fly- 
ing serpent'. 


14. against J^akish (ntt'^Db), Comp. Inscr. No. III. The 
place in question is the modern Umm-Lakis in the South- 
West corner of Juda, close to the Philistine frontier, on the 
road from Eleutheropolis to Gaza and West of 'Adshlan 
(Eglon) ; see Badecker-Socin, Palest, p. 325. Since the road 
from Aegypt to Palestine and Judaea led past Gaza, Lakish 
was for Sanherib a very suitable spot in which to await the 
advance of the Aegyptians. Then, as the great Aegyptian 
army actually approached, Sanherib felt compelled to take 
up a position further North, and so retired to AltakH near 
Ekron. On this subject see above p. 298 foil. (Vol. I). 

I have done amiss CDNIOn) ; comp. the expression hittu 
"missing" or "failure", used of the revolt of the Ekronites 
in the inscription col. Ill, 2. 6. 

that which you impose on me Qh^ ]Fin Iti'^ HN) precisely 
as in the Assyrian text : uktn siru§sun "I imposed on 
them" col. Ill, 29. 

300 talents of silver and 30 talents of gold. On the cy- 
linder of Sanherib the tribute is likewise stated to be 30 
talents of gold ; but of silver 800 talents (col. III. 34). The 
difference in the statement of the amount of tribute in silver- 
talents arises, as Brandis conjectures (Miinz-, Mafs- und 
Gewichtswesen in Vorderasien. Berlin 1866, p. 98), fromsn 
a different computation based on the Babylonian light, and 
on the Palestinian heavy silver talent, respectively. Brandis 



holds that we may assume the latter to have been V3 of 
the former. If this be the case, the Assyrian and the 
Biblical statement respecting the amount of the tribute 
would exactly coincide. Reduced to English money the 
tribute would, according to the remarks on Gen. XXIII, 
16, amount to about £ 200,000 in gold and £ 110,000 
in silver*. We see that it was paid in the proportion of 
about one part in silver to two in gold, and, moreover, 
that it did not essentially differ in amount from the tribute 
paid by Menahem to Pul-Tiglath-Pileser (2 Kings XV, 19). 
The former was altogether valued at ^ 310,000. Pul's 
1000 silver talents amounted to £ 375,000 or about 
one fifth more , which appears quite natural , when we 
bear in mind the greater territorial extent of Northern 
Israel. The name of "Talent" or Hundred-weight (60 
Kilogr. or about 132 lbs avoirdupois), called in Hebrew 
133 from the spherical shape of the weight, or rather from 
the metal mass constituting the weight, in Assyrian desig- 
nated originally "tribute" (biltu from 7DN (731) "present" 
offer re), then the weight, which was chiefly employed in 
payments of tribute. 
3J9 17. ]n"in Tartan, the Assyrian official name of the 
commander-in-chief, occurring also in Is. XX, 1. The 
form of the word in Assyrian is tur-ta-nu in accordance 
with the official list (List of Governors) II Rawl. 52. Obv. 

* When we consider that the amount of the sum in silver exactly 
coincides, at least according to our conjecture, while that of the sum 
in gold is at any rate precisely the same, in both cases, we can 
scarcely regard it as admissible to suppose that the tribute mentioned 
in the Bible as paid to Sanherib refers to some other than that re- 
corded in the cuneiform account, — a view which has occasionally been 


32; Salmanassar obelisk 160 etc. etc. It may be con- 
jectured that the name was adopted from the old-Chal- 
daean, non- Semitic tongue. Similar foreign titles and 
official names have also in other cases a tendency to main- 
tain their existence in languages; see immediately below*. 
D^'1D"2"1 chief of the eunuchs is probably the translation 
of a corresponding Assyrian title. But it has not been 
possible to say anything more definite hitherto. The word 
DHD "eunuch" has not yet been found in the inscriptions. 

nj^ti^'S"] chief cup-bearer. This title beside the two others 
Is necessarily surprising. We certainly find "Tartan" and 
"chief of the harem" mentioned side by side in the inscrip- 
tions (compare only the official list) ; but we never find 
any mention of the chief cup-bearer as a high dignitary 
and state-official. We suspect that we here have a Hebra- 
ized or rather Aramaized form of a pure Assyrian or else 
old-Chaldaean and Babylonian title, i. e. the Hebraic form 
of the name Rab-sak, which occurs in the inscriptions 
as a title of high military officers (e. g. H Rawl. 31, 34a). 
Now we have the simple form sak (in the plural), Smith's 
Assurb. 233, 119, with the meaning "captains" "officers", 
in conjunction with the avil §a bit h alii the "horsemen" 
and avll sabikasti "archers"; and with this agrees the 
fact that the sign sak in the Assyrian script is the stan- 
ding ideogram for the conception "head" ris. Accordingly 320 
when sak refers to persons, it means "captain", and 
rab-sak "chief captain" "commander". The generalis- 
simo (Tartan) was accompanied therefore by a commander 

* According to Delitzsch, Assyr. Studien I, p. 129, the name has 
been transmuted by pronunciation from TUR. dan "holder of power", 



(rabsak) and bj a captain of eunuchs — the latter posses- 
sing literary qualifications ; comp. the basreliefs. It is not 
the generalissimo (or commander-in-chief) who delivers the 
speech, for that would have been beneath his dignity; nor 
is it the eunuch, for a speech so energetic as that of the 
Assyrian would have sounded very strange from his lips; 
but it is the Rab-sak i. e. according to my view the 
General staff- officer. It may also be remarked that we 
have likewise a notice in an Assyrian inscription that the 
Great King of Assyria availed himself of the services of 
the Rabsak as an envoy. We read in the inscription of 
Tiglath-Pileser II (II Rawl. 67, 66) : Su-ut-sak-ja rab- 
sak a-na ir Sur-ri as-pur i. e. "my officer*, the Rab- 
sak, I despatched to Tyre". 

19. 77te great king, the king of Assyria. This form of 
title is in agreement with that found in the inscriptions. 
As a rule the Assyrian despots describe themselves as 
Sarru rabti, §arru dannu, sar ki§§ati, §ar mS,t 
A§§ur i. e. "great king, mighty king, king of the multi- 
tude, king of the land Assur". Compare the opening 
321 words of the inscriptions of Tiglath-Pileser, Sargon and 
Sanherib, also those inscribed on bricks etc. 

* The word sutsak has unquestionahly some such meaning, as 
is at once obvious from a series of passages e. g. Smith's Assurbanipal 
28, 43 (Rassam cyl. II, 15). Whether, however, the name is a phonetic 
or an ideographic one, whether it is to be pronounced only in this way 
and not otherwise, as, for example, su-par-sak, cannot be definitely 
settled. If it is to be read phonetically (and such a course in this parti- 
cular instance is certainly recommended by names of analogous for- 
mation, such as rab-sak Hpti^D"')' ^® have here once more a title 
borrowed from the ancient Babylonian, exactly like Tartan and the 
above-quoted Rabsak. The word, which occurs so frequently in the 
inscriptions, has neither Semitic derivation nor Semitic form. 


26. Speak, I pray thee, to thy servants in Aramaic, for 
loe understand it and do not address us in the Jewish 
language before the ears of the people. From this passage 
(from which it assuredly follows that the Jews did not 
understand the Assyrian language as they may be supposed 
to have understood the Aramaean) the strange inference 
has been drawn that Assyrian cannot have been a speech 
closely allied to the Hebrew, otherwise the Hebrews would 
surely have understood it — clearly a mistaken conclusion ! 
The fact that two nations cannot understand one another, 
and the fact that their languages are radically different, 
are propositions that have absolutely no logical relation 
to each other. The one may very easily occur, while the 
other by no means necessarily follows. Compare on this 
subject Keilinsch. und Gesch. pp. 63 foil. 

32. till 1 come and fetch you etc. It need scarcely be 
expressly stated that we do not have here before us the 
actual words of the Assyrian envoy, but a speech freely 
reproduced and represented from the atmosphere of thought 
in which the writer lived. A recommendation like this, 
that the city should be surrendered to the Assyrians, 
would certainly have been somewhat injudicious even for 
an Assyrian. The process of deportation to which allusion 
is here made is ofcourse in itself one that was quite 
common among the Assyrians; see Vol. I, p. ^2^^ foil. 
268 foil. Nevertheless we must here draw attention to 
one special circumstance. Both in this passage and in 
chap. XIX, 13, among the kings subjugated by Sanherib we 
find expressly mentioned those of Hamath and Arpad. But, 
when we examine the inscriptions in which the conquest 
of these regions is referred-to, we find that the accounts 
of this conquest do not occur in the inscriptions of San- 


322 herib but in those of Sargon (see the inscription of Khor- 
sabad lines 33 foil. 49. 56). In the records of Sanherib 
there is no longer any mention of either of these cities. 
Hence it seems as though the historian transferred to 
Sanherib what properly - speaking belonged to Sargon. 
Accordingly we must assume that there was here a 
blending of the military campaigns of Sargon and those 
of Sanherib*. If this hypothesis be correct ^ we can at 
once understand : 1) that in the historical records of the 
Bible not a word is said throughout of Sargon or of his 
expeditions in the years 720, 715 and 711, which we know 
to have affected Juda also (comp. Is. XX. 1 and my 
observations on that passage). 2) That Sanherib's cam- 
paign, which, as we have seen above, cannot under any 
circumstances have occurred before 701, has been placed 
80 early in Hezekiah's reign as the year 714**. This cam- 
paign has evidently been confused with the previous ex- 
peditions of Sargon, and simply substituted for the latter, 
so that these latter have been entirely passed over in the 
narrative. It is only in such anachronisms as the mention 
of the destruction of the kingdom of Hamath as Sanherib's 
military exploit, whereas it was really Sargon's, as well as 
in the confused chronology, that we still perceive some in- 
dication of a dim recollection of the actual course of events. 
34. Wliere are the gods of Hamath and Arpad? where 

* On this subject see Studien und Kritiken 1872, pp. 733 (Sayce). 738. 
** On this compare also P. Kleinert in Stud, und Krit. 1877, p. 177. 
But this writer assigns too high an importance to the numerical 
statements of the Bible. See on this subject Nowack ibid. 1881, pp. 
300 foil., and comp. above p. 303 foil, footnote. Vol. I. [But the Bibli- 
cal and Assyrian statements would agree chronologically if we place, 
with Kamphausen, the accession of Hezekiah in 715 (714) — Translator.] 


the gods of Sepliarvaim, Hena and Ivva that they might 
have delivered Samaria out of my liand'^ — With this comp. 323 
chap. XIX. 12 foil. Evidently the writer here gives a 
retrospective glance at the earlier subjugation of these 
localities by the Assyrians. We also possess notices on 
the monuments bearing upon these events, at any rate in 
the case of Hamath, Arpad and Sepharvaim. 

non Hamdth (compare note on Gen. X. 1 8, Vol. 1, p. 90) 
was in fact deprived of its independence and incorporated 
in the empire of Assyria not by Sanherib himself, but by 
another Assyrian monarch, Sargon. This king gives a sum- 
mary report of the conquest of Hamath in the passage Botta 
40, 20: §a-lil ma-li-ki Ir Gar-ga-mis vaki A-ma- 
at-ti m^t Kum-rau-hi Ir As-du-du avll Ha-at-ti-1 
lim-nu-ti i. e. "I who carried forth into captivity the 
princes of the city Karkemish, the land Hamath, the land 
Kummuch, the city Ashdod, the hostile-minded Chattaeans". 
The full account of these transactions may be read in the 
triumphal inscription, where the passage runs as follows 
(Botta 145. 2, 9 foil. = Khorsab. 33 foil.) : Ja-u-bi-'-di 
mit A-m a-ta-ai za-ab . . . la bil kusst avilu pa-tu-u 
lim-nu a-na §ar-ru-ut mat A-ma-at-ti lib-§u ik-bu. 
ud-ma ir Ar-pad-da Ir Si-mir-ra Ir Di-ma§-ka 
ir Sa-mi-ri-na it-ti-ja uS-pal-kit-m a pa-a 1-da 
u-§a-a§-kin-ma ik-su-ra tahaza. Um-ma-na-at 
(ilu) A-§ur gab-§a-a-ti ad-ki-ma ina ir Kar-ka-ri ir 
nadtiti-§u §a-a-su a-di mun-tah-si-§u al-vi ak-§udir 
Kar-ka-ru ina isati ak-mu sa-a-§u ma-sak-su 
a-ku-us. Ina ki-rib ir§,ni-su-nu-ti btl hi-it-ti 
a-duk-ma til lum-mu-u u-sa-a§-kin. II. C. nar- 
kab^ti VI. C. bat-hal-lim i-na lib nisi vati 
A-ma-at-ti ak-sur-ma ill ki-sir sarrli-ti-ja 


u-rad-di i. e. "Jahubi'dl of Hamath, a man ....*, who 
324 possessed no claim to the throne, an intriguing, wicked 
man, had set his mind on ruling over Hamath and seduced 
Arpad, Zemar, Damaskus, Samaria into insurrection against 
me and made them of one mind and assembled (his troops) 
to battle (literally , assembled the battle). The entire 
armies of the god Asur I mustered and besieged in the 
city Karkar, the city of his exaltation, him together with 
his warriors, captured (the city), consumed Karkar with 
fire, himself stripped of his skin. Amid their cities I slew 
the evil-doers, made the former into a heap of ruins (?). 
200 chariots, 600 horsemen I took away (for myself) 
among the inhabitants of Hamath and cast (them) into 
my royal portion". Lastly, we gather from the annal- 
inscription (Botta 70, 10 foil.) that this event occurred 
in the year 720 B. C. See the remarks on Is. XX, 1 
and comp. also those on Gen. X. 18, 2 Kings XVII, 30. 
IQ^X Arpad, Assyr. (Ir, m^t) Ar-pad-du; see List of 
Officers; obverse 12 (Rammannir^r) ; Rev. 16 (Asurdanil). 
30. 32. 34 (Tigl.-Pileser II), Inscr. of Khorsabad 33 
(Sargon). Arpad, as far as I have observed, is not 
mentioned again in the inscriptions after the time of 
Sargon. Respecting its position (about 13 English miles 
North of Haleb, at the spot where now stands the mound 
of ruins Tell Erf^d), see Kiepert in Zeitsch. der 
Deutsch. Morgenl. Gesellsch. XXV, p. 655 ; comp. pp. 
528 foil. 

njJt^l VV^ Hena^ and Ivvd, two localities in other re- 
spects altogether unknown. According to G. Hoffmann 
(Auszlige aus den Akten syr. Martt. p. 163 note) the two 

* Oppert, Records of the Past IX. 6 : "a smith" (?). 


words should be connected together thus : n"lj;ii;jn, and this 
form should be taken as the partic. Nif. of the verb ^V^V 
(of which we have also the form □''j;^W in Is. XIX. 14) 
= "the thoroughly depraved (city)", standing at the same 
time in apposition to Sepharvaim, which was probably 
so called "because it had once been subjugated by Assyria, 
but had revolted". This would, according to Hoffmann, 
dispose of every difficulty. Such an error would, however, 3'>5 
belong in this case to a rather early date, since even the 
LXX, in their day, with their rendering ]4va xal ji^a 
(just as in XIX. 13), evidently combined the characters 
in the same way as the Masoretes did. We must bear 
in mind too that in chap. XVII. 31 the W^^V (LXX 
Evaioi), i. e. the inhabitants of Avva (see note on the 
passage), are mentioned, exactly as in the present verse, 
along with the Sepharvites. In that passage, however, it 
is absolutely impossible to suppose that there was an ap- 
positional D''')X/1i;j, There must at all events have existed 
a place riJJt;. Hence for J/^n also the only assumption that 
remains possible is to regard it as the name of a locality. 
n!'l'15P Sepharvaim. According to 2 Kings XVII. 24 
Sargon deported the inhabitants of this place to Samaria. 
This was obviously connected with an insurrection which 
the Sepharvites had attempted — probably in union with 
the Babylonians — against the Assyrians, in other words 
with an alliance concluded between the Babylonians and 
Sepharvites against the Assyrians, just at the commence- 
ment of Sargon's reign. In the inscriptions of Sargon 
there is no express mention of his conquest of Sipar and 
the deportation of its inhabitants ; only we can clearly 
infer from the Khorsabad inscriptions that at any rate in 
the time subsequent to the capture of Babylon (710 — 9) 


Sipar had no independent ruler. This by no means ex- 
cludes the possibility that the conquest of Sipar had abready 
occurred some time before, particularly after the first cam- 
paign of Sargon against Babylonia (721 B. C); indeed 
it renders the assumption essentially probable. Compare 
too 2 Kings XVII, 24 and my remarks on that passage. 
See also Keilinsch. und Gesch. p. 428 note. 

XIX. 8. Libna, a spot, whose position is uncertain. 
We must at any rate seek for it in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood of Lakish, perhaps to the West of that town. 
326 If it is Tell-es-Safijeh, North-North- West of Eleutheropolis, 
that is meant, and lying about mid -way between that 
town and the Timnath mentioned in the cuneiform text, 
it follows that Sanherib was at this moment in full 

9. And when he heard of Tirkaka (Hj^ri'lJI), king of Aethiopia 
(tt'lD), that it was said : see, he has marched forth to fight 

with you In Sanherib's inscription the name of this Aethio- 

pian king is not mentioned, but we become acquainted 
with it in an inscription of Asurbanipal, where in the 
Assyrian transcription it is pronounced Tar-ku-u (see 
Smith's Assurbanipal 15, 52 ; 19, 85 etc.*). It is, however, 

* Asurbanipal, successor of Asarhaddon, opeos the account of his 
campaign against the revolted Aegyptians in the following words : 
I-na mah-ri-i gir-ri-ja a-na mat Ma-gan u m. Mi-luh-ha lu-u 
al-lik. Tar-ku-u sar m. Mu-sur (u) m. Ku-u-si §a Asur-ah-iddin 
sar mat A§§ur abu ba-nu-u-a apikta-§u is-ku-nu-ma i-bi-lu 
mS,t-su u su-u Tar-ku-u da-na-an Asur Istar u ili rabiiti bi'li-ja 
im-si-ma it-ta-kil a-na i-muk ra-ma-ni-su i. e. "In my first cam- 
paign I marched against Makan and Miluhha. Tirhaka, king of Aegypt 
(and) Aethiopia, on whom Asarhaddon, king of Assyria, the father, 
my begetter, had inflicted a defeat and had taken possession (^^2) 

of his land, this Tirhaka despised (1,*m./«) the might of Asur, Istar and 


quite clear from Sanherib's inscription that the Aethiopian 
monarch (he is there called "king of Mlluhhi") was the 
chief personage in the event : it is his steeds, chariots and 
archers which are expressly referred-to by the Great King 
of Assyria (Cyl. II, 74). 

12. Gozan, Harran, Resseph and the sons of Eden roho 
(dwelt) at Telassar. Respecting Goz^n see the remarks on 
chap. XVII. 6, Vol. I, p. 267, and on Harran, the comment 
on Gen. XI. 31. — Resseph ^^"}, a Mesopotamian town, which 32'; 
is frequently mentioned in the inscriptions in the formRa-sa- 
ap-pa or Ra-sap-pa; see the list of officers Obv. 14. 43; 
Rev. 24. 37. The town appears throughout in conjunction 
with the other Mesopotamian towns : Nisibis, Arrapcha and 
Amid. Comp. II Rawl. 53, 37, where the place is men- 
tioned along with Arrapcha (here "Arbacha"), Ihsan and 
Gozan; Keilinsch. und Geschichtsforschung p. 167. — Sons 
of Eden y^V. 'J? (comp. Is. XXXVII. 12). The question 
arises whether we should not connect the kingdom thus 
designated with the Btt-Adini of the inscriptions, so 
frequently mentioned in the records of Asurnasirhabal and 
Salmanassar II, and which we must suppose to have 
stretched along both banks of the middle Euphrates, on 
the tract extending between Balis and Biredshik. * Since 
Eden is here mentioned along with Gozan and Harran, 
which are undoubtedly West -Mesopotamian towns, and 
also along with Resseph; and since, moreover, all these 
towns are stated to have been already destroyed by San- 
herib's forefathers, a fact which harmonizes particularly 

the gi-eat gods, my lords, and depended on his own powers (poj?)" 
(Smith's Assurb. 15 foil.; comp. V Rawl. 1, 52-57). There follows 
the account of Tirhaka's revolt. 


well with the Btt-Adini of the inscriptions, a strong argu- 
ment may be adduced in favour of the combination pro- 
posed. Compare Riehm's Handworterbuch I. 176"; see 
Keilinsch. und Geschichtsforschung p. 199 footnote. Com-, 
pare likewise Amos 1, 5 and Ezek. XXVII. 23. — Telassar 
P^'nSp) Assyr. Til-A§-su-ri (comp. Layard. 68, 12). 
The name properly signifies either "Assyrian hill", or else, 
and more probably, "hill of Asur" (adjectives of reference 
terminate in Assyrian not in i, but ai). It is one of the 

numerous names of places compounded with TTl, Jj. With 
regard to the position of the spot, we may conclude from 
the passage referred-to, one of Tiglath-Pileser's, that the 
place is to be sought somewhere in the neighbourhood of 
BS,b-ilu "Babylon", at all events in the Babylonian 
region, though in the direction of Assyria. Yet there 
328 might have been other cities with this name, e. g. on the 
middle Euphrates, where Salmanassar II had already given 
to a town the name of Lita-Asur "glory of Asur" (Mono- 
lith II. 34 foil.), and the mention of pV ^J3 = Btt-Adini 
points mainly in the direction of this combination. Comp. 
Keilinsch. und Gesch. p. 199. 

13. Arpad, Assyr. Ar-pad-du. Further details respec- 
ting the mention of the town or land Arpad on the monu- 
ments, — also regarding the time when the independence of 
the kingdom Arpad may be supposed to have come to 
an end, — and lastly on the geographical position of the 
town, which has meanwhile been settled by Dr. Haus- 
knecht's discovery , may be gathered by consulting the 
remarks on 2 Kings XVIII. 34. Respecting Hamath see 
the notes on Gen. X. 18 ; 2 Kings XVII. 30; on Sepharvaim 
see the comments on 2 Kings XVII. 24, 31 ; XVIII. 34. 


35. And it happened in the same night, there went forth 
the angel of Jahve and smote in the camp of the Assyrians 
185,000 men. The Assyrian inscriptions shed no light on 
this obscure passage. Sanherib in his inscription is alto- 
gether silent about the character of the retreat and its 
causes. Compare the remarks above p. 300 (Vol. 1). 

36. and returned and dwelt in Niniveh. We learn also 
from the cylinder - inscription col. III. 39 that Sanherib 
retired to Niniveh, his capital. But if the reader, by pres- 
sing the phrase used by the Hebrew historian : "and he 
remained, or dwelt (31|i^!'.l) in Niniveh", were to conclude 
that Sanherib, after the misfortune in the Palestiuo-Aegyp- 
tian war, wholly abstained from military enterprises, he 
would make a very great mistake. On the Taylor-cylinder 
Sanherib himself relates five other larger or smaller mili- 
tary enterprises, all of which were in fact directed to the 
East, North or South of his realm. Consequently for the 
Western nations, like the Hebrews , they were as though 329 
they never happened, and hence are not mentioned 
by them. Among these expeditions, we have several 
conducted against Babylonia, directed, moreover, against 
Merodach-Baladan, whom he had already conquered (and 
dethroned) in the first campaign, and also against a son 

of Merodach-Baladan, called Nabli-§um-iskun*, whom 
Sanherib captured alive in the battle (Taylor-cylind. col. 
HI. 50 foil. VI, 6). Respecting Merodach-Baladan see 
also the comment on chap. XX. 12. 

37. And as lie prayed in the temple of Nisroch his god. 
In place of Nisroch ("^^PJ) the LXX read '^aaaQax (if we 

* Respecting this name = "Nebo bestowed the name", see Assyr. 
Babyl. Keilinsch. p. 127, no. 8. 


are to regard this as the proper emendation, with Well- 
hausen, for the traditional NaOdQax or Mecsgax, comp. the 
yigdax/] of Josephus). It is probable that we have, here 
a reference to the God Asur and that the final ax {ay) 
is to be regarded as an agglutination of some sort. At 
any rate we have evidence here of an Assyrian God ASur, 
who at the same time appears as the Assyrian supreme 
deity, not of a god Nisruk, as many have assumed, myself 
among the rest. The name of the divinity, which, it was 
supposed, was thus pronounced, ought rather to be read 
as la and is identical with the divine name 'Aoq in Damas- 
cius (see above Vol. I, p. 12); accordingly it has nothing 
to do with the above. — J. Haldvy and F. Delitzsch are of 
opinion that the name in question is a corruption of that 
of the Assyrian god N u s k u. 

Adrammelech and Sharezer ("1^X1.2^) [his sons] slew him 
with the sword. About Adrammelech see the remarks on chap. 
XVII. 31, Vol. I p. 276 foil. Sharezer, Assyrian Sar-usur, 
is the ultimate abbreviation of a fuller form A§ur (Bil, 
Nirgal)-sar-usur i. e. "Asur (Bel, Nergal) protect the 
king!" — see Assyrisch. Babyl. Keilinsch. p. 128, No. 11; 
p. 156, No. 66. We have a similarly abbreviated name 
in Abal-usur "protect the son" II Rawl. 63. III. 9, 
employed in this shortened form by the Assyrians them- 
330 selves*. Regarding the case simply as it stands, we have, 
therefore, no reason to suppose that it was the Biblical 
historian who In the first instance contracted the name in 
this fashion (see Assyr. Babyl. Keilinsch. p. 156). Our 
judgment, however, becomes considerably modified when 
we glance at the corresponding account of Abydenus con- 

* [Comp. the illustrations given in Vol. I, p. 45— Transl.] 


talned in Eusebius, Armen. Chron. ed. Mai p. 25 (Schoene 
I, 35). According to this writer Sanherib was assassinated 
by his son A d r a m e 1 u s, and was succeeded by N e r g i 1 u s, 
who in turn was put to death by Axerdis i. e. Asarhad- 
don *. Now the identification of Axerdis with Asarhaddon 
and of Adraraelus with Adranimelech, is at once obvious. 
There remains in the third place the identification of Ner- 
gilus with Sharezer. This identity likewise would be com- 
plete, if the original name of the son of Sanherib, who is 
now the subject of discussion, were Nlrgal-sar-usur 
"Nergal, protect the king" i. e. Neriglissor; see Assyr. 
Babyl. Keilinsch. p. 128 No. 12. If this assumption be 
correct, we have the interesting phaenomenon, that the 
Bible has preserved to us one half of the Assyrian's original 
name, and Abydenus the other. The reader is aware that 
Alexander Polyhistor (1. c. Mai p. 19; Schoene p. 2 7) 
only mentions Ardumusanus (Ardumuzanus) i. e. 
Adrammelech as the murderer of Sanherib **. 

* Thus according to A. von Gutschmid's correction. 
** According to V. Floigl, Cyrus and Herodotus (Leipzig 1881) p. 27, 
Nergilus is the "legitimate heir and grandson of Sanherib, son of 
Asurnadinsum" and "Adarmalik slew his father, not in order to gain 
the crown for himself, but to exclude his step-brother Asarhaddon from 
the throne, for whom it had been destined by his father, and to raise 
Nergilus to that position" (??). For a criticism of the hypothesis of 
a "five-years interregnum" after the assassination of Sanherib (A. von 
Gutschmid), see my remarks in the dissertation "On the Babylono- 
Assyrian chronology of Alexander Polyhistor and Abydenus" in the 
Reports of the Konigl. Sachsische Gesellsch. der Wissensch. 1880, pp. 
6 foil. There I stated that "the glory of Nergilus must have merely 
lasted during the brief space of time that intervened between the 
murder of Sanherib and the arrival of Asarhaddon upon the scenes, 
who had been detained upon a distant field of military enterprise" 
(ibid. 7) ; comp. also Keilinsch. u. Geschichtsforschuug p. 539 foil.— 
It should likewise be observed that Alex. Polyhistor, in his statement, 


331 The Assyrian sources of information say nothing about 
"" Sanherib's assassination. How the matter stands in this 

respect iu the case of Sargon may be gathered from the 
remarks on Is. XX. I ad fin.* 

and they escaped into the land Ararat (lD"l^f< l'^?)- ^ 
have abeady shown (Vol. I, pp. 53 foil.) that Ar&.rat, 
Assyr. Urartu, is not so much the name of the mountain 
so-called, but rather of the great plain watered by the 
AraxeS; south of which stood the mountain Ararat. It is 
no longer possible to determine with any certainty in how 
broad and in how narrow a sense this territorial designation 
was understood by the Hebrews, According to Abydenus 
quoted in Eusebius (ed. Schoene I. 35), Asarhaddon, in 
the pursuit of his defeated foes, cast them into the "city of 
the Byzantines" (m Byzantinorum urbem injecit). By this 
"Byzantium" A. von Gutschmid understands the BiC,ava of 
Procopius** to be meant, which lay somewhere on the 
frontier of Lesser and Greater Armenia. With this hypo- 

332 thesis agrees the cuneiform account which Asarhaddon has 
left us respecting these occurrences. According to this 

which differs from that of the Bible, coincides with Abydenus accord- 
ing to the emended reading (see the preceding footnote). 

The definite hypothesis that the Nergilus of Abydenus and the 
Sharezer of the Bible are identical, as well as the combination of both 
names into a single complete one : Nergal-S harezer, were originated 
by Ferd. Hitzig (Begriff der Kritik, Heidelberg, 1831, p. 195). He was 
followed by F. C. Movers, Phonizier I (1841) p. 342; Joh. Brandis, 
rerum Assyr. tempor. emend. (1853) p. 37 annot. ; M. von Niebuhr, Ge- 
schichte Asurs und Babels (Berlin 1857) p. 37; A. von Gutschmid in the 
Leipzig. Centralblatt 1870, Sp. 1157; Neue Beitrage, Leipzig 1876, p. 152; 
and by the author himself in the first edition of the present work pp. 206 foil. 
* Compare with the above the author's comprehensive article 
Sanherib in Schenkel's Bibel-Lexikon, as well as in Eiehm's Eand- 
worterh. des hihl. Alterthums. 

** Procopius de aedif. III. 4. 5, pp. 254—6 (ed. Dindorf); compare 
the Notitiae Graecae Episcopatuum III, 483. 


record, the decisive battle between Asarhaddon and the 
troops, as we may conclude, of his parricidal brothers, was 
fought on the region of Chanigalmit (?), a locality which 
may be safely placed near to Melitene, that is, in South- 
East Cappadocia, or Lesser Armenia, close to the Euphrates 
(Keilinsch. und Gesch. pp. 530 foil.). Asarhaddon's account, 
upon a broken clay cylinder (III Rawl. 15 col. I, 18 foil.), 
runs as follows : 18. il-la-mu-li-a ina irsi-tiv mS,t 
Ila-ni-gal-mi t (?) gi-mir k u-ra-di-§u-un 19. si-ru-ti 
pa-an gir-ri-ja sab-tu-ma u-rak-§a tukl4ti-§u-un. 

20. Pu-luh-ti ili rabtiti btli-j a is-hup-§u-nu-ti-ma 

21. ti-ib tahazi-ja dan-ni 1-mu-ru-ma 1-rau-u muh- 
hu-ur. 22. (Ilu) Is-tar bi-lit kabli tab §,zi ra-'-i-mat 
sa-an-gu-ti-j a 23. i-da-ai ta-zi-iz-ma ka§at-su-nu 
ta§-bir 24. t a-h a-z a-§ u-n u ra-ak-su tap-tu-ur-ma 
25. ina puhri-§u-nu nam-bu-u um-ma: an-nu-u §ar- 
a-ni i. e. "Line 18. Before me in the region of the land Chani- 
galmit (? — ) the whole of their 19. strong (properly, high) 
military force awaited the appearance of my army's ad- 
vance and they drew their troops together (root 5£^D1). 20. 
The terror of the great gods, my lords, overthrew them. 
21. The blow of my vehement onslaught they saw and 
dreaded (?) the meeting. 22. Istar, the mistress of con- 
flict (and) battle, who loved my Sangtiti (priesthood?), 
raised my hands, broke their bow (collect,), cleft through 
their battle-array (literally, "cleft their battle, the array", 
root DD~I), 25. in their ranks (literally in their assembly) 
resounded the cry : 'This (is) our king'". 

And Asarhaddon , his son , became king in his stead. 
This occurred, according to the Canon of Rulers, in the 
year 681. We read in II Rawl. 68 No. 1 Rev. 5 line 43.333 
44 : [Nabti]-ah-LA-i§. |A§ur-]ali-iddin ina kusst 



it-tu-§ib i, e. "Neboach . . . -i§*. [Asarjhaddon ascended 
the throne". Now the archonship of the above-named 
officer falls in the year 681. According to the same 
canon Asarhaddon reigned until H68, i. e. till the archon- 
ship of Marlarim (Mar-la-ar-ral). In the archonship of 
this eponymus, on the 12"' Ijjar (April or May) and, accor- 
ding to the Canon, in the year 6 (58, he abdicated his royal 
authority in favour of his son Asurbanipal. The account 
given by the latter of this transaction is as follows (Smith's 
Asurban. 4, 8 — 20) : Asur-ah-iddin §ar vatt AsSur 
abu ba-nu-u-a 9. a-mat A§ur u Bilit ili ti-ik-li-§u 
it-ta-'-id, 10. §a ik-bu-u-§u f-bi§ sarrH-ti-j a. 11. In a 
arah Airu arah I'a bil ti-ni-sl-1-ti 12. limu XII, tim 
magS,ri, si-sa §a (ilu) Gu-la, 13. ina l-bi§ pi-i mut- 
tal-li §a Asur, 14. Btlit, Sin, Saraas, RammS.n, 
Bil, Nabti, 15. iStar §a Ninua(ilu) sar-rat git- 
mu-ri, IH. iStar §a ir Arba-ilu, Adar, Nlrgal, 
Nusku ik-bu-u, 17. u-pa-hir nisi mat A§sur sahrtiti 
u rabuti 18. §a ti^m-tiv i-lit u sap-lit 19. a-na 
na-sir tur (?) §arrti-ti-ja 20. u arka-nu sarrli-ut 
mS,t A§§ur l-pi-i§ i.e. "8. Asarhaddon, king of Assyria, 
the father, my genitor, 9. held in honour the command of 
Asur and Beltis, the divinities of his confidence, 10. who 
had bid him elevate me into a king. In the month Ijjar, the 
month of Ea, the lord of the human race, 12. on the twelfth 
day, a day of grace, the festival of Gula, 13. he issued in 
execution of the exalted command of Asur, Beltis, Sin, 
Samas, Adar, Bel, Nebo, 15. of Istar of Niniveh, the 

* The verbal ideogram LA, to which is furnishes the phonetic 
complement, cannot yet be safely determined. Oppert reads Nabu-ach- 
essis; Smith : Nabu-ach-ikmis, and recently Nabu-achi-eris. 


heavenly queen of the All, 16. Istar of Arbela, of Adar, 334 
Nergal, Nusku, an edict 1 7. and assembled the Assyrians, 
young and old, those of the upper and the lower sea, 19. 
to recognize my royal authority, 20. and afterwards I 
assumed the rule over Assyria." 

Notes and Illustrations. 8. Asur-ah-iddin i. e. "Asur bestowed a 
brother" see Assyr. Babyl. Keilinsch. p. 119, no. 2 ; banfia partic. act. 
bS,ni from banfi with the suffix of the l^t pers. sing.; here substant. 
comp.Vol. I p. 5 footnote.; — 9. amat occurs in the sense of "command", "in- 
junction" in the inscriptions of Asurbanipal and elsewhere frequently. The 
root HON is probably ultimately identical with riDH "make a rustling" 

and also with p^^ ("speak") "swear". Tikil from ^^^\ itta'id "he 
held in honour" from the oft-recurring na'4du "be exalted" iA.g.J ; as 
partic. act. n&'id it occurs in the name of the last independent Baby- 
lonian king Nabfi-na'id "Nebo is exalted" i. e. Nabunit; see Assyr. 
Babyl. Keilinsch. p. 136, no. 25;— 10. ikbu 3 pers. plur. of pIDp 
"speak", here "command", "bid"; ibi§u infin. of (lj;3{< \l}'2]} ^) 
"make"; — 11. tinisi'ti nom. abstr. from ^JX (r)l"*«j') = "mankind"; — 
12. magaru here written ideographically with the signs SI'. GA. 
which are interpreted in II Rawl. 7. line 29 by ma-ga-ru; sis may 
perhaps be compared with the Hebr. tJ'iK' "joy"; — 13. pi from pu p]Q, 
ifj) "mouth"; muttalli partic. Ifta. of n*?!^! — ''^- upahhir Pael of 
pah4ru "assemble" from which comes the oft-recurring naphar 
"crowd"; sahru, sihru T'l/iJ "small", see Sanherib, Taylor-cylind. 
col. II. line 37 (see above Vol. I p. 287);— 18. tiamtu = Q")nFi; Hitu adj. 
fem. from Thv^ saplitu adj. fem. from §apalu, ^Qtif. The "upper 
sea" = the Mediterranean sea; the "lower sea" = the Persian gulf. 
See my essay "the names of Seas on the Assyr. inscriptions" (Abhand- 
lungen der Berlin. Akademie der Wissenschaften) 1877 — 8, pp. 187 foil. ; 
nasir probably stands for nasaru infin. of '^JJJ "protect" tueri, here 
"strengthen", "recognize" ; turn infin. of-^n "to be" = "existence" ('?); 
—20. arkan "afterwards" formed like ]i~inN) see Assyrisch-Babylon. 
Keilinsch. p. 213, no. 2; ipis (^fq^x) "I made", imperf. l^t pers. 
from lt'3j;(N) instead of the regular form ipus, ibus. Similarly I Rawl. 
7, no. 3, line 7, in an inscription of one of the last kings, if it be not 
the last king of Niniveh, the son of Asurbanipal, viz. Asuritilili (see below 
on 2 Kings XXIII. 29), and similarly also ibid. no. 5, line 3 i-bi-is in 
an inscription of Neriglissar. 

This statement by the son of Asarhaddon is confirmed by 



a clay tablet III Rawl. 2. No. 24 which reads as follows : 
335lna arah Abu Urn XXVII. lim-mu Mar-la-rim tur- 
tanfrKu.... inatiris A§ur-b§,iii-abal §ar mti 
Assur i. e. "In the month Ab, on the 27*'' day, in the 
archonship of Marlarim, the Tartan of the city Ku . . ., 
in the year of the appointment* of Asurbanipal (to be) 
king of Assyria". — We learn, moreover, that Asarhaddon 
was Sanherib's son ("iJ?), just as Sanherib was Sargon's, 
from Asarhaddon's lirick-inscriptions. One of these (1 Rawl. 
48. No. 3) runs thus: 1. A§ u r-ah-iddin gar mat 
AgSur, 2. abal Sin-ahi-frib §ar mS,t ASsur, 
3. abal Sarruktn sar m^t A§sur-ma e. i. 1. "Asar- 
haddon, king of Assyria, 2. son of Sanherib, king of As- 
syria" **. I append also the complete text of a brick- 
inscription from Sherif-khan (I Rawl. 48. No. 5)***, which 
runs thus : 1. A-na-ku Asur-ah-i ddin Sarru rabti 2. 
§arru dannu sar kiSSati §ar mS.t ASsur, sakkanak 
3. B^b-ilu, sar m^t Sumiri 4. u Akkadi, Sar Sarrt 
matMusur, 5. m^t P a-t u-[r uj-s i, m^t Ku-si; 6. mat 
(?) Sa ki-rib ir Tar-bi-si 7. a-na mu-sab Asur-bani- 
abal 8. abal Sarri rabti sa bit ridu[-u]-ti 
y. ablu si-it lib-bi-ja 10. ar-sip u-§ak-lil i.e. 1. "I, 
Asarhaddon, the great king, 2. the mighty king, the king 

* tiris here with the ideogram LAL having the phonetic comple- 
ment is written according to the Syllabary printed in Norris' Dictio- 
nary 688. tiris is from tarSsu, Syriac & Arabic ^r??iw,9 /wii, _^rmai;i<, 
also agnovit. 

** The reader will find the original text reproduced in a wood-cut 
in my article 'Keilschrift' (Cuneiform writing) in Schenkel's Bibel- 
lexicon III. p. 510. 

*** I have likewise communicated in a wood-cut the original cunei- 
form text of the first five lines, in Schenkel's Bibel-Lexicon III, ibid, 
in the above mentioned article "Keilschrift". 


of nations, the king of the land Assur; lord 3. of Babylon, 
king of Sumlr 4. and Akkad, king of the kings of Aegypt, 336 
5. of Pat[ro]s, of Aethiopia, 6. built the palace in Tarbiz 
7. as a residence of Asurbanipal, the imperial son (crown- 
prince) of my palace, 9. the son, (-who is) the fruit of my 
body, 10. (and) completed it". 

Notes and Illustrations. 2. sakkanak is scarcely a prolonged form 
of §akuu |JQ "viceroy", but is rather a word of Akkadian origin 
signifying "head", "chieftain", as is shown in the essay quoted below 
pp. 29 foil. Here it means "feudal lord". We have here the usual 
ideogram for this conception. The phonetic mode of writing the word 
may be observed, for example, in the Borsippa-inscription of Nebu- 
cadnezar col. I. 6 ; — 3. Respecting Sumiri and Akkadi, here represented 
by ideograms, see above Vol. I, pp. 103 foil.; — 5. The mutilated 
Patu . . si is completed by Oppert into Patu[ru]si and also com- 
pared with the Old Test, word DinflD "Upper Aegypt" Is. XI. 11. 
See his L'Egypte et I'Assyrie Paris 1869, p. 41 and comp. Keilinsch. 
u. Gesch. p. 285; — 6. m&t properly "land" can only mean in this passage, 
if the reading be correct, "country-house", "villa". In another in- 
scription of Asarhaddon, likewise discovered at Sherif Khan (I Rawl. 
48. No. 8, line 2), we read the unmistakeable word ikal 73"in 
"palace"; Tarbis ancient name of the modern Sherif-Khan, North- 
West of Niniveh*: — 7. musab 3tJ'lJ3 (from "^^H, Hebr. 2'i^^) "dwelling"; 
— 8. comp. Ill Eawl. 16. No. 2, 40 foil., and respecting bit riduti 
"children's dwelling" =: "private -palace", see particularly Smith'.s 
Assurbanipal 308, 31. 35; 312, 70 (= V Eawl. 10, 51. 55. 91); — 9. situ 
i- 6- nX!i meaning "sprout", root xiJN hebr. {i{\^i; libbu ^b ^ere in the 
sense of body; arsip 1 pers. Kal of rasapu "to adjust or fit-in blocks 
for building", comp. Hebr. njj*1, Arab. s_ji/0. ; then "to build" gene- 
rally; usaklil "I completed" Imperf. Shaf. 1 pers. from kalSlu bbD- 

As for the records of this monarch that have come 
down to us, they consist either of short inscriptions on 

* The name is probably to be connected with the root y^l "lie 
down", "rest". Thus we should have in this case an Assyrian counter- 
part to the German local names "Friedrichsruh", "Karlsruh" &c. — For 
narbasu in the sense of "abode" see Sargon's Cyprus-stele col. II (IV). 
25 (see the Transactions of the Berlin Academy of Sciences 1881 (82), 
Philolog. histor. Kl. VIII. p. 33). 


bricks as 1 Rawl, 48. No. 2 — !♦, or of long inscriptions on 
337 clay cylinders. To the latter category belongs in the first 
place the large cylinder-inscription I Rawl. 45 — 47 dated 
from the archonship of Atarilu of Lachir i. e. the year 
673 B. C. This document has come down to us in a 
two-fold recension. In the next place we have also the 
inscription of a broken clay cylinder, of which only the 
lower part has been preserved. A list, which stood on this 
cylinder, of 22 kings "of the land Chatti and in the sea" 
was formerly published (I Rawl. 48. No. 1), and the remain- 
ing portion , so far as it has been preserved (III Rawl, 
15. 16), has since been given to the world. This list 
I have published from a fresh collation of the original *. 
On the cylinder the tributary princes are merely referred-to 
in their totality, but in this newly published list they are 
individually mentioned, and here we also find recorded the 
name of Manasseh of Juda. On this subject see the 
remarks on 2 Kings XXI. 1, where the list spoken-of may 
be found. It is obvious from these inscriptions, in the 
first place, as an indirect confirmation of the Biblical state- 
ments, that Asarhaddon, before he ascended the throne, 
was compelled to engage in conflict with and to subdue the 
murderers of his father. See the remarks on this head in 
the comments upon 2 Kings XIX, 37 (pp. 14 foil.). In 
the second place we may infer that Asarhaddon subjugated 
the entire Syro-phoenician portion of Western Asia. In 
accordance with this, he assumed the proud title of "king 
of Aegypt, [Patros] and Kush" ; see above p. 21. His son 
Asurbanipal expressly informs us about these conquests, in 

* See "Zur Kritik der luschriften Tiglath-Pilesers II &c." Berlin 
1880 (1879) p. 33 (Plate II). 


his own cylinder-inscription, where we read (III Rawl. 29. 
No.ll, lines 6 foil.) : [Asur-]ah-iddi-na sar mS-t Assur 
abu ba-nu-u-a 7. [ur-]du-ma il-li-ku ki-rib-§a. 338 

8. [Apikjta Tar-ku-n §ar ni§,t Ku-u-si i§-ku-nu-ma 

9. u-par-ri-ru il-lat-su. 10. [Mit] Mu-sur ra^t 
Ku-u-su ik-§u-du-ma 11. [ina la] mi-ni i§-lu-la 
§al-la-as-su 12. [mat su-]a-tu i-na si-hir-ti-§a 
i-bi-11-ma, 13. [a-naj mi-sir mat A§§ur u-tir. 
14. [Sum]-i Ira-ni mah-ru-u-ti u-nak-kir-ma 15. [a-naJ 
i§-§u-u-tl i§-ku-na ni-bi-is-su-un , 16. [avil] ardi-su 
a-na §arrti-ti av. §aknu-u-ti 17. [i-li su-]nu-u-tl 
u-pa-ki-da ina lib-bi [bilat man-da-]at-tu bllu-ti-su 

18 u-kin si-r u-u s-§ u-u n i. e. "6. Asarhaddon, 

king of Assyria, the father, my progenitor, 7. marched 
down and penetrated into the midst of the same (i. e. 
Aegypt). 8. On Tirhaka, king of Aethiopia he inflicted 
a defeat, 9. destroyed his military power (PTri; see glossary 
sub voce n7N). 10. Aegypt and Aethiopia he conquered, 
11. innumerable captives he carried away. 12. He sub- 
jugated that country in its entire extent, 13. turned it into 
the territory of Assyria. 14. The former names of the cities 
he changed, 15. gave them new names, 16. his servants he 
entrusted with the rule, 17. with the governorship over 

them. The payment of the tribute of his rule 18 he 

imposed upon them." 

XX. 12.. At the same time Berodach-Baladan, the son 
of Baladan, king of Babel, sent a letter and present to 
Hezekiah, since lie had heard that Hezekiah was sick. We 
have first of all to consider the name of the Babylonian 
who is here mentioned. In the Bible itself we have a 
variant with respect to this name. While we find it 
written in the present passage ]l{^'f5~T]"1N~l5 (with initial 3), 


we have it In the parallel passage Is. XXXIX. 1 in the 
form JlN^a-TjlX'li? (with initial tt). We can scarcely be in 
339 doubt which of the two readings is the correct form, since 
we have also the name of the deity "^Tlip "Merodach" certi- 
fied by the Old Testament. The cuneiform inscriptions 
place the matter beyond all doubt since in them we find the 
name written Mar(u)duk.abal-i ddina i. e. "Merodach 
presented a (or the) son"; see Assyr. Babyl. Keilinsch. 
p. 129 No. 13*. The original reading can accordingly 
have only been "llNlO. 

Now the cuneiform records make repeated mention of a 
Babylonian king of this name in the epoch which we are 
specially considering. First of all, we meet with a Baby- 
lonian king Marduk-abal-iddi-na, son of Jakin**, in 
an inscription of Tiglath-Pileser II (see the passage above 
Vol. I, p. 226), and we see from the list of governors 
that he offered homage to the Assyrian monarch in the 
year 731 at Sapija. Again we also find Sargon referring 
on several occasions to Marduk-abal-iddi-na, son of 
Jakin; as, for instance, in the great triumphal inscription 
Botta 151. No. 11, line 1; as well as in the annals Botta 
65, 3 foil. &c. (fee. About him we learn from Sargon's 
inscriptions, in which he is referred-to as § a r m S- 1 K a 1-d i 
"king of Chaldaea", that the Great King frequently con- 
quered him, and that Sargon, in the 12''' and 13*'' years 
of his reign i. e. in the years 710 and 709, undertook a great 

* There is another Babylonian king with the name Ramman- 
abal-i-di-na-av "Ramm&n bestowed the son"; see Oppert, les inscrip- 
tions de Dour-Sarkayan p. 28. The name is of interest from the 
circumstance that the third element in it is written phonetically 
throughout, contrary to the prevailing usage. 

** He is there called sar ti^mtiv "king of the sea". 


campaign against the Babylonian king. This campaign 
ended in the dethronement as well as imprisonment of 
Merodach-Baladan and also in the destruction by fire of the 
city DUr-Jakin, into which the Babylonian king had beta- 340 
ken himself for refuge*. This Merodach-Baladan, son of 
Jaktn, is undoubtedly identical with the Babylonian king 
of the same name, mentioned by Tiglath-Pileser; and he 
is clearly the same king of Babel who is said in Botta's 
Annals pi. 70 to have seized the dominion over Northern 
Chaldaea and the capital Babylon, in the first year of 
Sargon's reign. Sargon at that time had to maintain a 
struggle with him, which ended in the recognition of 
Merodach-Baladan as king of Babylon. This we may 
infer, though the Babylonian king's name is obliterated 
from the plate, from the fact that, in the very year in 
question, viz. 721, we find in the Ptolemaic Canon that 
Mardokempad or Merodach-Baladan ascended the throne 
of Babel. This cannot be an accidental coincidence. More- 
over there is an external confirmation of this hypothesis 
in the discovery of several tablets in Khorsabad i. e. in 
Sargon's palace, dated from the reign of "Marduk-abal- 
iddina, king of Babylon". These tablets, which are pub- 
lished complete in Oppert's Les inscriptions de Dour- 
Sarkayan (Paris 1870) pp. 27. 28, are dated from the 9"', 
10"\ 11"' and 12"' years of this Babylonian king. Accord- 
ingly he must have reigned twelve years, — exactly the 
period which the Ptolemaic Canon and Sargon's Annals 
assign to him i. e. 721 — 710 B. C. The tablets evidently 

* Botta 151 no. 11 line 1 foil., 152 &c. Compare also the passages 
quoted below from the annals (in the remarks on Isaiah XX. 1) 
belonging to the 12'^ and 13tl> years of Sargon's reign. 


found their way to the palace in Khorsabad as spoil taken 
in war after Merodach-Baladan was dethroned, 710 B. C. 
341 The Merodach-Baladan, who was contemporary with 
Sargon, is called in the inscriptions* the son of Jaktn. 
The Merodach-Baladan who sent an embassy to Hezekiah 
was according to the Bible a son of Baladan. Again, 
Sanherib, both on the Taylor - cylinder and on that of 
Bellino and likewise in the inscription of Constantinople**, 
mentions a Merodach-Baladan whom he had conquered 
ina ri§ Sarrliti *in the beginning of his reign" i. e. 
certainly in the first or in the first and second years of his 
reign. This fact agrees (1) with the Ptolemaic canon, 
which assumes an interregnum for the first two years of 
Sanherib's reign (704, 703) i. e. a period of revolution 
and struggle for the crown of Babel; — also (2) with Poly- 
histor-Eusebius, who in his chronicle represents Merodach- 
Baladan as seizing the sovereignty for six months*** after 

* Botta 151, 11 Hue 2; 65, 3. The name is one time written ideo- 
graphically Ja-DU, the other time altogether in phonetic style 
Ja-ki-ni. See Assyr. Bahyl. Keilinsch. Exc. Eigena. No. 20 note p. 134. 
Respecting the signification of the name see ibid. No. 61. 

** See I Rawl. 37, 19—40; ibid. 43, 6—13; Grotefend Bellino-Cylind. 
6—13; Layard, plate 63, 6—13. 

*** See Euseh. chron. armen. ed. Schone I p. 27 : "Postquam reg- 
nasset frater Senicharibi et postquam Akises Babeloniis dominatus 
esset, et nee dum triginta quidem diebus regnum tenuisset, a Marodach 
Baldano occisus est; et Marodach Baldanus per vim (regnum) tenebat 
sex mensibus : eum voro interficiens quidam, cui nomen erat Elibus, 
regnabat. Verum tertio regni ejus anno, Senecheribus rex Assyriorum 
exercitum conflabat adversus Babelonios, praelioque cum iis commisso 
vincebat, et captum eum una cum amicis in terram Assyriorum perduci 
jubebat. Babeloniis (ergo) dominatus, regem eis filium suum Asor- 
danium constituebat; ipse vero recedens, terram Assyi'iorum petebat." 
— It may be remarked in passing that while the statements and 
citations of Berossus and of the inscriptions generally agree, we are 


the death of Sanherib's brother and the overthrow of 
Hagisa who reigned a single month. The question then 
is : Was this Merodach-Baladan, by whom Sanherib was 342 
confronted, identical with the Babylonian king of the same 
name whom Sargon defeated and took prisoner; or, was he 
distinct from the above , perhaps his successor and son ? 
While maintaining the designation of Merodach-Baladan in 
the Bible as "son of Baladan" (the latter I conjectured to 
be an abbreviation from "Merodach-Baldadan"), 1 decided 
in the first edition of this work for the latter alternative. 
Now in my work Keilinsch. u. Gesch. p. 207 I have clearly 
shown that, when rulers are designated as "sons" of this 
or the other personage, as "Achuni, son of Adini", "Jehu, 
son of Omri", also "Nebu-usabsi, son of Silani" (II Eawl. 
67. 15) &c. &c., these rulers are not represented as the 
actual sons of the individuals who are called their fathers, 
but simply as the governors of the territories named after 
the founders of the dynasty: Blt-Adini, Btt-Omri, 
Bit- Silani &c. Hence there is no room for doubt as to 
how we ought really to regard the designation of Merodach- 
Baladan as "son of Jaktn" : — the personage so designated 
was thereby simply represented as belonging to the ruling 
dynasty : his real father may have been a person with an 343 

somewhat surprised to find that with reference to Merodach-Baladan 
there is a considerable discrepancy between the Chaldaean historian 
and the statements on the Assyrian king's monuments. Thus, while 
according to Berossus, Merodach-Baladan was finally disposed-of or 
slain by Elibus-Belibus {"sustulit", "interfecit"), Sanherib, in the most 
distinct manner that it is possible to conceive, states, that several 
years afterwards he had once more to subdue "the same Merodach- 
Baladan, whom he had conquered in his first campaign" (Taylor-cylind. 
III. 49 foil.). How is this strange inconsistency to be explained? On 
this subject see my remarks in the Berichte der Konigl. Sachsischen 
Gesellsch. der Wissensch. 1880, p. 4 note. See "Notes and Addenda". 


altogether different name. Thus the father of Merodaeh- 
Baladan, the "son of Jakin", might very well have had 
some such name as "Baladan"* which the Bible assigns to 
him. And nothing stands in the way of the assumption 
that the Merodach-Baladan who was dethroned by Sargon 
took advantage of the change of ruler at Niniveh to attempt 
once more to gain possession of the throne of Babylon and 
to expel the viceroy, the successor of Sanherib's brother, 
who had been placed there by the new Assyrian ruler. 
The Bible, the inscriptions and the Ptolemaic canon are 
thus in perfect agreement. Accordingly we henceforth 
abandon ** the hypothesis of a Merodach-Baladan II. And 
our position is sustained by the fact that the Merodach- 
Baladan of Sanherib is never called the son of another 
Merodach-Baladan. It is true that it is somewhat remark- 
able that during the reign of four rulers in Assyria, viz. 
Tiglath-Pileser, Salmanassar, Sargon and Sanherib, we 
should have one and the same ruler sitting on the throne 
of Chaldaea (with certain interruptions). But this circum- 
stance taken by itself has no decisive importance. 

The question arises : What was the date of the despatch 

of the embassy to Hezekiah by Merodach-Baladan narrated 

in the Bible? According to the Bible it would appear as 

344 though this event took place at the time of the Assyrian 

invasion (see 2 Kings XX. 1, 1 2, and compare it with 

* About these abbreviated names in Assyrian consult Assyrisch- 
Babyl. Keilinsch. pp. 154 foil. 

** So Lenormant in his valuable essay : Un patriote Babylonien 
du VIII. siecle avant notre ere (Merodach-baladau), contained in his 
work : Les premieres civilisations II (Paris 1874) pp. 202 foil. The 
writer, however, does not enter further into the discussion of the 
chief difficulty, to which he refers on p. 263. 


both verse 6 and XVIII. 2, 13). And this must also be 
regarded as m the main correct. But we are not justified 
(1) in assuming the scheme of Biblical chronology as our 
basis in this particular case, and thus place the event we 
are considering in the year 714 B. C. ; for, as is shown 
by the chronological Addenda at the close of this volume, 
this scheme is traversed by the Assyrian and the Babylonian 
chronology, both of which are certified by the monuments. 
And we also may not (2) forget that the above-mentioned 
scriptural statement stands in a passage that, in its present 
form, comes from the hand of the last writer at the begin- 
ning of the exile (see De-Wette-Schrader, Einleitung ins 
Alte Testament 8'" ed. § 221 f. p. 355). We have there- 
fore full scope for defining more closely the date of the 
embassy. Let us bear in mind then (1) that the Merodach- 
Baladan of Sanherib's time, according to Polyhistor (and 
indirectly according to the Ptolemaic canon too ; see above), 
reigned during this period only six months; (2) that during 
this period he was threatened with an Assyrian war and 
would have occasion to seek the favour and aid of the king 
of Juda (and undoubtedly of other Syro-phoenician rulers 
as well) ; (3) that we can clearly discern from the scriptural 
narrative that Hezekiah's treasure-chambers were still full 
and thus had not yet been emptied by Sanherib's requisition 
for tribute (2 Kings XVIII. 15). From these considerations 
we deem it most probable that Merodach-Baladan despat- 
ched that embassy to Hezekiah during the six months 
above referred-to, i. e. in the year 704 or 703, certainly 
before Sanherib's expedition to Syria, Judaea & Aegypt. 

Having thus formed a clear idea as to the person 345 
referred-to by the Biblical writer in this particular passage, 
we shall not omit to place before the reader the report of 


the Assyrian monarch respecting the revolt of Merodach- 
Baladan. From the three accounts which have come down 
to us we select that which Sanherib furnishes us in his in- 
scription upon the Bellino-cylinder. We choose this one 
because it was composed not long after the events it 
describes*, goes into fullest detail, is the most accurate in 
dates, and is most important for general history. It reads 
thus : Grotefend and Layard line 6 foil. : 6. I-na rls 
sarrti-ti-ja §a Marduk-abal-iddi-na sar raS.t 
Kar-dun-j a-as a-di ummS,ni I'lamti i-na ta-mir-ti 
Kis a§-ta-kan apikta-§u. 7. I-na kabal tam-ha-ri 
§u-a-tu i-zib kar^s-su, 1-dis ip-par-sid-ma a-na 
m§,t G u-zu-um-ma-ni in-na-bit, ki-rib n^r 
a-gam-mi u ap-pa-ra-a-tl f-ru-um-ma na-pis- 
tus i-ti-ir. 8. Narkabati, is su-um-bi, sisi, 
pari, imlrJ, gam-mal-i u Y. ud. ri. sa i-na u-ru- 
uk ta-ha-zi u-mas-si-ru ik-§u-da katS,-ai. 9. 
A-na ikal-§u sa ki-rib B&,b-ilu ha-dis 1-ru-um-ma 
ap-ti-1-ma bit ni-sir-ti-su : hur^su, kaspu, u-nu-ut 
hurasi kaspi, aban a-kar-tu nin-§um-su, Sa- 
§u, Sa-ga, ni-sir-tu ka-bid-tu; 10. assat-su, 
sikriti ikali-§u, avili rabti-ti, avll man-sa-as- 
pa-ni, si-hir-ti um-ma-a-ni ma-la-b a-§u-u NAM 
tab-bi-lu-tu ikali u- §i-sa-am-m a sal-la-tis 
am-nu 11. as-bat-ma. Arki-su a-na matGu-zu- 
um-ma-ni av. mun-tah-hi-si-j a a-na ki-rib nS.r 
a-gam-ml u ap-pa-ra-a-tl u-ma-'-ir-ma V. ti-mi 
i-pa-ru-num-ma ul in-na-mir a-§ar-su. 12. I-na 
346i-niuk Asur btli-ja LX. XX. IX. ir§,-ni dan-nu-ti 

* The inscription on tlie Bellino-cylinder was drawn up as early 
as the fourth year of the king's reign i. e. 702 B. C. ; see above 
Vol. I, p. 30^(?).W<^^ 


bit dtira-ni §a m^t Kal-di u DCCC. XX. Irani 
sahrtiti sa li[-vi-tij-§u-nu al-vl ak-su-ud* as- 
lu-la sal-la-su-un. 13. Avll U'r-bi, avil A-ra-mu 
\\ avll Kal-du, §a ki-rib Arku, ISipur, Ki§, 
Har-sak-kala-raa, Kuti a-di abli ix bll hi-it-ti 
u-M-sa-am-ma sal-la-tis am-nu. 

14. Bil-ibni abal avll ma-muk-tav ina dah-hi 
Su-an-na, sa kima mi-ra-a-ni sa-ah-ri ki-rib 
Ikal-ja ir-bu-u, a-na sarrli-ut mat Akkadi u 
Sumiri a§-ta-kan ili-su-un. 15. I-na ta-ai-ar- 
ti-ja avil Tu-'-mu-na, avll Ri-hi-hu, avll Ja- 
dak-ku, avll U-bu-du, avll Kib-ri-1, avll Ma-li-hu, 
avil Gu-ru-mu, avll U-bu-luv, avll Da-mu-nu, 

16. avll Gam-bu-lu, avll Hi-in-da-ru, avil 
Ru-'-u-a, avil Pu-ku-du, avll Ha-am-ra-a-nU; 
avilHa-ga-ra-nu, avllNa-ba-tu, avllLi-'-t a-a-u, 
avll A-ra-mu la kan-su pat-ha-ri§ ak-§ud-ud*. 

17. II. C. VIII. M. nl§i zik-ru u sinnlS, VII. M. II. 
C. sisi pari XI. M. I. C. XIII. Imiri V. M. II. C. 
XXX. gam-mal (PI.), LX. XX. M. I. C. alap (PI.), 
VIII. C. M. VI. C. stn (PI.) §al-la-tu ka-bid-tii 
as-lu-la a-na ki-rib mat AsSur. 

i.e. "6. In the beginning of my rule (it happened) that 
I inflicted a defeat upon Merodach - Baladan the king of 
Kardunias, along with the troops of Elam before the city 
Kis. 7. In the midst of the battle he abandoned his bag- 
gage and took himself oflf alone. He fled to the land 
Guzumman, concealed himself (properly : entered) in mar- 
shes and reed and thus saved his life. 8. The chariots, 
is sum hi, horses, mules, asses, camels and dromedaries. 

* That is = ak-sud as Dr. Jeuseu has poiutcd out. 


347 which he had left upon the battle-field, my hands obtained 
as booty. 9. His palace in Babylon 1 entered with glee 
and opened his treasure-chamber : gold, silver, objects of 
gold and silver, costly stones of every kind, his property, 
his possessions, rich treasures; 10. his wife, the women of 
his palace, the great ones, the mansaspani, the whole 
of the officials entrusted with the management of the 
palace, as many of them as there were, I carried away, 
destined for slavery (literally "counted as booty"), 11, took 
them captive. Behind him, into the land Guzumman, I 
sent my soldiers, into the midst of the swamps and moras- 
ses. Five days passed by- -not a trace of him was seen. 
12. In the might of Asur my Lord I took 89 strong cities 
and fortresses of Chaldaea, as well as 820 smaller towns 
in their district and carried away their prisoners. 13. The 
Arabians, Aramaeans and Chaldaeans who [were] in Erech, 
Niff"er, Kis, Charsakkalama, Kutha, together with the 
inhabitants of the rebellious city, I carried away [and] 
destined for captivity. 

14. Belibus, the son of a wise man in the neighbourhood 
of the city Suanna, whom one had reared like a little 
puppy in my palace, I appointed for ruling Sumir and 
Akkad over them. 15. On ray return I conquered altogether 
the inhabitants of Tuhmun, Richich, Jadak, Ubud, Kibri, 
Malich, Gurum, Ubul, Damun, 16. Gambul, Chiudar, 
Ruhua , Pekod , Harar^n , Hagaran , Nabat , Lihtahu, the 
Aramaeans, who had not submitted. 17. 208,000 men 
and women, 7200 horses, mules, 11,113 asses, 5230 
camels, 80,100* oxen, 800,600 small cattle, a rich booty, 
I caiTied ofi" to Assyria." 

* So Grotefend ! Oppert iu his Exped. en Mesopot. I, p. 288 gives the 
uumbers 308,000 meu, 70,000 oxen : perhaps simply owing to a misprint. 


Notes cmd Illustrations. Kardunias, name of the kingdom of 343 
Merodach-Baladan, which, as may be seen from line 9, also included 
Babylon. On the extent included under this geographical term see 
my Keilinsch. u. Gesch. p. 534; — ummS,nu, here ideogram, written 
below in line 10 phonetically. On the rest see above on Sanherib's 
Taylor-cylinder. It is also to be observed that in the parallel passage 
Sanherib after the words ummani m&t I'lamti has also risi "auxi- 
liaries", "allies", root HUI from which comes the often-used word 
risiit "help"; — 7. tamhar root maharu "be in front", then "confront 
one another in battle", comp. Arabic j»tXfij; izib, root 3^W; kar&s-su 
stands for kar^s-su according to Assyrisch. Babyl. Keilinsch. 203 note 1. 
Kar^su "baggage" (comp. Hebr. K^13~l) is the phonetic equivalent of 
the ideogram KI. MAS; see Norris Dictionary 1045; idis adv. from 
nri "one"; agammi from agam "swamp", Hebr. DJK; appar^ti 
plur. of appartu "reed"; see Delitzsch Parad. p. 97. The word n^r 
"river" standing before the first of the two words is to be regarded 
as a pure determinative; .irum-ma = irub (Smith's Assurbanipal 5, 
24) -|- ma, root ^^y "enter"; itir, root 112^) "shelter", "protect", 
comp. the corresponding Hebr. root. On the signification of the word 
see Lotz, die Inschriften Tiglath-Pileser's I, glossary. — 8. is sumbi 
designates evidently, as the determinative for wood shows, an object 
made of wood , perhaps a car or something of that sort. The word 
sumbu is identical with the Hebr. 3^, root 33^, "sedan chair", "litter" 
(P. Haupt) ; Y. ud-ri is without doubt a term for some animal of the 
flock (Y). Delitzsch Parad. p. 96 conjectures, probably rightly, that 
by it the two-humped camels are meant; for the other names for 
animals that occur in this passage, see above on Sanherib's Taylor- 
cylinder; uruk, root "1")^ "set the battle in array", signifies here 
"battle-field"; masar "abandon". In this sense we also find the word 
in Smith's Assurb. 210,81 &c.; ikguda katS,ai, see Sanherib's Taylor- 
cylind. II, 82; — 9. hadis adv., root THH "rejoice"; whence we have 
hud, hudut, hidat "joy", see Norris p. 405; irumma, see on line 7; 
apti', root HnO = niDD! nisirtu, see on Tayl.-cyl. of Sanherib, HI. 
36; unut see Vol. I, p. 192 and footnote***; akartu = hebr. ipi ; 
nin-sum-su, see Delitzsch in Smith's Chald. Genesis (1876) p. 296 
note; also comp. Sanh. Tayl. - cylind. Ill, 34 — 36;— 10. For sasu, 
written also s&su (and therefore, as may be conjectured, the follow- 
ing saga) see Delitzsch, Lesestiicke 3^^ edit. p. XVI.— The ideogram 
NIN is explained in II Rawl. 10, 2. 9. 10 by assatu "woman" — not 
to be confounded with the other for bi'ltu "mistress" II Rawl. 7, 19. 
On the other hand we find also hiratu, hirtu placed as the equivalent 
of this assatu, whence it is clear that both words mean practically the 
same thing; sikriti 'palace women'. In the text there stands RAK. UN 



(Plur.) =: "women" ; we have the same ideogram in the parallel passage, 
Taylor cyl. col. III. 38 ; sihirtu, root "]riD > malabaSfl Assyr. Babylon. 
Keilinsch. p. 260; NAM ideogram for absti-act conceptions ; tabbilutu, 
root ^3j; =: ^^3 "rule", "superintendence"; — 1 1. muntahhisu (for 
mumtahhisu according to Assyr. Babyl. Keilinsch. p. 204) partic. 
Ift., root VnD) "warrior", comp. Botta 145, 2, line 4. 10; Smith's 
Assurbanipal 155, 40 &c. ; uma'ir, root "l]~li3 ^'' iNDi P^-> perhaps 
strictly "cause to hasten", then "despatch", frequently in the inscrip- 
349 tions, e. g. Smith's Assurban. 24, 9; 37, 8 &c. (in the latter passage 
in connection with ummS.n "army"); iparunum-ma 3 pers. plur. pres. 
with -ma from "l^V ! — ^2. imuk "depth" HOy , then "strength", 
"power", "support"; comp. Assurb. I. 56 it-ta-kil a-na i-muk 
ra-ma-ni-su "he trusted in his own strength"; also 268, 80 it-ti 
f-mu-ki av. Na-ba-ai-ta-ai "with the military force of the Naba- 
taeans". Likewise comp. Sanherib's Taylor-cyl. col. III. 12. 13; — 13. 
U'rbi, comp. Sanherib Taylor-cyl. III. 31, Vol. I, p. 283, the name 
of a tribe (Oppert). Respecting the names of cities written ideo- 
graphically throughout see notes on Gen. X. 10, 2 Kings XVII. 
24, Vol. I, pp. 77 foil. 271, also Delitzsch, Parad. pp. 220 foil.; 
bi'l hitti "master of revolt" i. e. "one who had made himself guilty 
of revolt"; comp. the Hebr. PJ3 ^_j;3 "provided with wings" Prov. 1. 17, 
and other like combinations; also the Assyr. bi'l lis&ni "master of 
language", "interpreter" may be cited in illustration (Smith's Assur- 
banipal 77. 9). Comp. in general Sanherib's Taylor-cylind. col. III. 2. 6. 
14. Bi'1-ibni, ideographically written with two signs, of which the 
first is the usual ideogram for Bi'l ("lord" and "(God) Bel"), the 
second (KAK, RU') serves to intimate the idea of "making" or "pro- 
ducing" (Assyr. Babyl. Keilinsch. 112, no. 75). Since this idea is 
expressed in Assyrian both by the verb "^"y^ "make", and also by 
the verb pJ3 "produce", we can with equal propriety pronounce the 
name Bi'1-ibni (bani) "Bel produced", or Bi'1-ibus "Bel made". 
That the latter name might have been intended may be gathered 
from the Ptolemaic Canon ; see the end of this volume p. 490 (German 
ed.). This, after the twelve years' interregnum, marks down a Baby- 
lonian king Belibus. The Elibus recorded by Polyhistor quoted by 
Eusebius (see above Vol. II, p. 2) is evidently only a corruption of 
this name; and the existence of a name Belibus has been certified from 
the phonetic mode of writing it, Bi'l-i-bu-us and Bi'l-ibu-u§, not 
only on Assyrian but also on Babylonian documents. On this subject see 
my remarks in the Reports of the Konigliche Sachsische Gesellschaft 
der Wissenschaften 1880, pp. 9 foil. note. Nevertheless the writing of the 
name as Bi'l-ib-ni in the newly found Babylonian chronicle (Pinches) is 
decisive in favour of the pronunciation given in the text; — mamuktav 


abstract noun from the root p)^^, therefore meaning properly "depth" i. e. 
of knowledge; an avil mamuktav (= npOyo) means accordingly 
"man of wisdom" or a "wise man" (Qi^n, NO^Dn Dan. II. 12); 
dahhi, used interchangeably with dihi (Norris p. 229), properly 
"contact", root nm "push at something", "touch something", em- 
ployed adverbially in the sense of "in the neighbourhood", "in the 
district"; comp. Notes and Illustrations Vol. I, pp. 227 foil. ;— Suanna 
we know to be the name of a town from KI, the ideogram for town, 
which follows the word. It is in reality another name for "Babylon"; 
see also Delitzsch Pai'ad. pp.211 foil.; miranu signifies "young dog", 
see II Rawl. 6, 13; sahru "small", see Assyr. Babyl. Keilinsch. p. 27; 
irbfi, root |^3~1, "make great", here = "rear"; astakan Ift. of sakanu 
"place" here "appoint"; — 15. 16. Comp. the identical enumeration in 
Sanherib's Taylor-cylinder I. 42—47. The tribes are exclusively Baby- 
lonian : see the notes on Gen. X. 22; XXV. 13 and comp. Keilinsch. 
u. Gesch. pp. 105 foil.; taiartu, root "nn» see page 37; kangu adj. 350 
"obedient", root 2,'^'2', patharis, from paharu "assemble", adverb, 
formation from a noun with an intruded t; — 17. zikru here phoneti- 
cally written; comp. the note on Gen. 1, 27 (Vol. I, p. 17); .si'ni 1{<JJ is 
written phonetically in the parallel passage on the Taylor-cylinder si-i-ni. 
It will not be out of place if I cite here a passage from 
the Taylor-cylinder; in order to supplement the preceding 
account. This passage also serves to confirm a notice from 
Polyhistor. In ms account of his second campaign he 
describes an expedition against an Eastern frontier-tribe 
and afterwards relates his great campaign against Aegypt. 
He then gives an account of a fourth great expedition, 
once more in a Southerly direction, to Babylonia, where a 
certain Suzub had set himself up as the ruler of Beth-Jakin. 
This potentate was conquered and put to flight. Next he 
turns against Merodach-Baladan, who had evidently come 
forth from his concealment, and whom he likewise defeats, 
and after his overthrow places upon his throne his own 
(Sanherib's) son Asur-nadin-§um*. The corresponding 

* = "Asur gives the name", without question the Asordan of 
Polyhistor (see above) and the Aparcmadius (read Asaranadius) of 
the Ptolemaic canon. 



passage in the cylinder reads thus : — col. Ill, line 49 foil. : 
49. Pa-an ni-ri-ja u-tir-ma 50. a-na mS,t Bit-Ja-kin 
as-sa-bat har-ra-nu. 51. Su-u Mar-duk-abal- 
iddi-na sa i-na a-lak 52. gir-ri-ja mah-ri-i 
apikta-su as-ku-nu-ma 53. u-par-ri-ru 11-lat- 
su, ri-gim kakkt-ja dan-nu-ti 54. u ti-ip taha- 
zi-ja Iz-zi i-dur-ma 55. ili ma-§al m^ti-§u i-na 
ki-ku-su-nu id-ki-ma, ki-rib Ilippi 56. u-sar-kib- 
ma a-na Ir Na-gi-tl-Ra-ak-ki 57. sa ka-bal tiS,m- 
tiv is-su-ri§ ip-pa-ris. Ahl-su zir bit abi-su 
58. §a u-ma-§l-ru a-hi tiam-tiv a-di si-it-ti niSi 
35lm^ti-§u 59. ul-tu mat Bit-Ja-kin ki-rib na,r 
a-gam-ml u ap-pa-ra-ti 60. u- sl-sa-am-ma §al- 
la-ti§ am-nu u-tir-ma lrani-§u ab-bul 61. ag-gur 
u-§i-§ib kar-mi. I'li bil sa-li-mi-§u 62. avil mS.t 
I'lamti na-mur-r a-tuv at-bu-uk. 63. I-na ta-ai- 
ar-ti-ja A§ur-na-din-§um abal ri§-tu-u 64. 
tar-bit bir-ki-ja i-na kusst bl-lu-ti-§u u-§i-sib- 
ma 65. rapa§-tuv m§,t Sumiri u Akkadi u-§ad-gil 
pa-nu-u§-§u i. e. "50. I turned and took my way to 
the land Beth - Jakin. 5 1 . That Merodach - Baladan on 
whom I 52. in my first military expedition inflicted a defeat 
and 53. whose force I had broken in pieces, dreaded the 
onset of my powerful weapons 54. and the shock of my 
mighty battle. 55. The gods, the protection (?) of his land, 
he gathered in their shrines, 56. shipped them on vessels 
and took himself off to the city Nagitl-Rakki *, 57. which 
is in the midst of the sea, like a bird. His brothers who 
belonged to the house of his father, 58. whom he left 
behind on the shore of the sea, together with the remaining 

* According to Delitzsch, Wo lag das Paradies ? p. 324, Nagiti-in- 


inhabitants of his land, 59. I carried away from the land 
Beth-Jakln amid swamps and sedge, 60. made them pri- 
soners. His towns I destroyed, 61. laid waste, transformed 
into fields. In his ally, 62. the Elamite, I inspired terror. 
63. On my return I raised ASurnadinSum, the illustrious 
son , 64. the offspring of my knees, to the throne of his 
[Merodach - Baladan'sJ rule. 65. The broad land Sumlr 
and Akkad I made subject to him." 

Notes and Illustrations. 49. The phrase pan nirija utir, occurs 
in other passages (comp. in this same inscription II, 7). It is derived 352 
from the idea of ploughing, and properly means : — "cause the yoke 
(oxen) to turn (utir) its face to the plougher" i. e. to turn round; — 
50. assabat harrauu, see on Botta 151, 10. 4 (on Is. XX. 1); — 53. 
uparrir Pa. of ^"]Q ; illatu from ^pj "military force", according to 
Lotz 124 a word borrowed from the Akkadian; rigim = Qil; — 54. 
izzu = ]JJ ; itur "dread" (root *1lOy '); ^^- nia§al is obscure; per- 
haps = ^\l)^ "dominion" and then "protection"? Kiku denotes un- 
questionably a receptacle, tent or apparatus in which the images of 
the gods were preserved or transported, hence "shrine", see Norris 
552; idki from dakii "assemble", "present", also in Asarhaddon's 
inscription on Aberdeen's black stone col. III. 2 (I Rawl. 49 ); — 
ilippu, likewise in Aramaic signifies "ship"; ideogram interpreted in 
Assyr. Babyl. Keilinsch. 26 No. 20; — 56. usarkib Shafel of 33-) 
rakSbu; — 57. kabal "midst" ^3p, in this particular case written, as 
it rarely is, phonetically; issfiris = kima issfiri (comp. 'H^OJ^, 

.j^xac) ; ipparis Nif. of tjnO (Hebr tJ/"lO) "spread oneself over a 
country", "flee"; 58. umasir = umas§ir Cylind. of Bellino line 8; 
— 59. comp. Cylinder of Bellino line 7;— 60. abbul, root ^23;~6I. 
aggur, akkur, root ")JJ, "ipj; karmi = □'^3 "hill", "heap" see above 
p. 228, Vol. I; the word is accus. of effect; salim is here employed 
in the sense of "peace", "friendship"; bi'l salimi = n^"l3 h]}^ Gen. 
XIV, 13; 62. namurrat root "mj. For the pronunciation see Norris 
1041; — atbuk from n^j^ "pour or empty out" (Hoerning, Lotz); comp. 
the Hebr. "I^J; — 63. taiartu from t4ru, meaning properly "turn in a 
circle"; comp. "1")"]; then it signifies "return to the starting-point"; 
thus in col. IV. 35 &c. We have the verb t&ru in the sense of 'return' 
e. g. in Assurbanipal's inscription quoted in Oppert's L'Egypte et 
I'Assyrie 1869, p. 59, line 1; — ri'stu from ti''{<'n) y^t not in the sense 
of "first-born" (for which the Assyrian word bukur is employed), but 


rather with the signification "he of the head" i. e. the "commander", 
"prince", "illustrious one"; comp. the synonym asaridu and the 
omission of the suffix of the first person. — The name Asurnadinsum 
was first contracted to A§urnS.din , and this AsurnMin again became 
both the "Asordan" of Polybius by simple abbreviation as well as the 
"Aparanadius" of the Ptolemaic canon in consequence of corruption. 
— 64. tarbitu "sprout" from n3"1) hence properly "increase"; birku 
"knee". On the dual form birk& that appears also in Assyrian, see 
Assyr. Babylon. Keilinsch. p. 226; — 65. rapastuv here written with 
the usual ideogram. On this see Norris I. 99. With the root we 
might compare the Hebrew ^"IQ; — usadgil Shaf. of dagalu "look at" 
(different from takS,lu "trust", see Delitzsch in Lotz 131 foil.) ; in com- 
bination with panu "face" it means : "turn to some one (with respect)", 
wait on him, attend his commands. 

353 The last passage^ where Merodach-Baladan is mentioned, 
occurs in Asarhaddon's cylinder-inscription col. II. 32. The 
entire passage reads thus: 32. ta-rid Nabti-zlr-napi§ti- 
SutiSir abal Marduk- ab al-iddina 33. §a a-na 
§ar mit I'-lam-ti it-tak-lu-ma 34. la u-§i-zi-bu 
nap-sat-su. 35. N a-'-id-Mar-duk ahu-§u 36. a§- 
gu l-bi§ ardu-u-ti-ja 37. ul-tav ki-rib I'-lam- 
ti in-n ab-tam-ma 38. a-na Ninua Ir bi-lu-ti-ja 
39. il-lik-am-ma u-n a-as-§i-ik gipa-ja. 40. M§,t 
ti^m-tiv a-na si-hi-ir-ti-§a 41. ri-du-ut ahi-§u 
u-§ad-gil pa-nu-us-su i. e. *32. (I who) hurled back 
Nabli-zir-napisti-sutlsir *, son of Merodach-Baladan, 33. who 
had placed his trust in the king of Elam : 34. he did not 
save his life. 35. Nahid-Merodach, his brother, 36. in 
order to** do homage to me, 37. had fled from Elam, 

* The name is written Nabu-zir-ZI. SI. DI. On ZI consult Assyr. 
Babyl. Keilinschriften p. 106, no. 8; on SI. DI = ig^ru "itC'j^ see 
Haupt, Akkadische und Sunierische Keilschrifttexte 15, no. 233, and on 
the imp. sutisir see Assyr. Babylon. Keilinsch. p. 269. The name 
signifies "Nebo guide on the right path the Life-sprout". 

** A§su (see Assyrisch-Babylonische Keilinschriften p. 269) is em- 
ployed, as it is in this passage, in Smith's Assurbanipal 161, 90. In the 


38. had come to Niniveli, my capital, 39. and had kissed 
my feet. 40. The maritime country in its full extent, 
41. the dominion (root TTD) of his brother, I made subject 
to him." On the phrase dag^l panusSu see immediately 
above Notes and Illustrations ad fin, 

— 18. 723 "^IpD ^^^'^? in the 'palace of the king of Babel. 

bp^n, Aramaic ^?"'n, Arabic ^^^S> is a word borrowed from 
the Assyrian. It is of Sumiro-Akkadian origin, compounded 
off "house" and gal "great" i. e. "great house" (Oppert). 
In Assyrian its form i-kal-luv is directly vouched-for by 354 
a bilingual inscription ; see Schrader's Hollenfahrt der Istar 
(1874) p. 148. There is no Semitic derivation of the 
word to be found. How easily terms of this sort pass 
from nation to nation is shown by the corresponding Latin 
word palatium } comp. note on Is. VI. 1. 

XXI, 1. Iwelve years old was Manasseh (HK^JP), when 
he became king, and he reigned fifty-five years in Jerusalem. 
This king is also mentioned in the cuneiform inscriptions. 
In fact both Asarhaddon and Asurbanipal refer to him 
among 22 kings of the land Chatti. We first read his 
name in a passage on Asarhaddon's broken clay cylinder 
(III Rawl. 16. c. V), which supplements the following 
passage of the great cylinder-inscription (1 Eawl. 47. V, 
11—13) : 11. ad-ki-f-ma XXII. §arri mat Hat-ti 
12. §a a-hi tiam-tiv u kabal ti^m-tiv ka-li-§u- 
nu 13. u-ma-'-ir-§u-nu-ti-ma i. e. "I gathered 22 
princes of the land Chatti, who [dwelt] by the sea and in 
the midst of it; all of them I summoned." — Parallel to 

previous line (89) stands the preposition ana exactly in the place 
where we read assu in our inscription. 


this we have a list of Asurbanipal , which is found on 
cylinder C (III Rawl. 27) in a mutilated form, but which 
has come down to us complete in a fragment that has 
meanwhile been discovered (numbered Kassam 3). I give 
both the lists, which in their material variations possess 
historical interest and importance. The lists are based 
on copies which I took from the originals, and I here 
place them in parallel columns before the reader*. 

355 Asarhaddon. 

1. Ba-'-lu §ar mS.t Sur-ri. 

2. Mi-na-si-i sar ir Ja-u-di. 

3. Ka-us-gab-ri sar ir U-du- 


4. Mu-sur-i §ar ir Ma-'-ba. 

5. Sil-bil sar ir Ha-zi-ti. 

6. Mi-ti-in-ti §ar ir Is-ka- 


7. I-ka-sain(?)-su Sar ir Am- 


8. Mil-ki-a-§a-pa sar ir Gu- 


9. Ma-ta-an-ba-'-al sar ir 


10. A-bi-ba-al sar ir Sam-si- 


11. Pu-du-ilu §ar ir Bit-Am- 

m a-n a. 

12. Ahi-mil-ki ** sar ir As- 



1. Ba-'-lu sar mS,t Sur-ri. 

2. Mi-in-si-i sar mSt Ja- 


3. Ka-us-gab-ri §ar mSt 


4. Mu-sur-i §ar mS,t Ma-'-ba. 

5. Sil-bil sar m4t Ha-zi-ti. 

6. Mi-ti-in-ti Sar m§,t Is-ka- 


7. I-k a-sam(?)-su sar m^t 


8. Mil-ki-a-sa-pa sar m&t 


9. Ja-ki-in-lu-u sar m§.t Ar- 

u-a-d a. 

10. A-bi-ba-'-al sar m§.t Sa- 


11. Am-mi-na-ad-bi sar m&t 


12. Ahi-mil-ki** §armS.tAs- 


* The original text of the two lists has been published by me, 
based on a fresh collation, in my essay : "Zur Kritik der Inschriften 
Tiglath-Pilesers II &c." (Berlin 1880) Plate III. 

** This is probably more correct than Ahu-mil-ki (in the essay 
Zur Kritik der Insch. des Tigl.-Pil. II ibid.); comp. Smith's Assurban. 
63, 120 = V Rawl. 2, 92 : A-hi-mil-ki = ■nSo^riN- 

Asarhaddon. Asurbanipal. 


13. r-ki-i§-tu-ra sar ir I'-di-'- 


14. P i-1 a-a-g u-r a sar ir Ki-it- 


15. Ki-i-[su] gar ir Si-il-lu-u-a. 

16. I-tu-u-au-da-[ar] sar ir 


17. I-ri-i-su sar ir Si-il- 


18. Da-ma-su §ar ir Ku-ri-i. 

19. Ru-mi-su §ar ir Ta-mi-su. 

20. Da-mu-u-si sar ir Kar-ti- 


21. U-na-sa-gu-su sar ir Li- 

d i-i r. 

22. Pu-su-su sar ir Nu- 

ri-i (a?). 


1. „Baal, kiDg of Tyre. 

2. Manasseh, king of Juda. 

3. Kausgabri*, king of Edom. 

4. Musuri, king of Moab. 

5. Zilbel, king of Gaza **. 

6. Mitinti, king of Ashkelon. 

7. Ikasamsu (?), king of Ekron. 

8. Milkiasap, king of Byblos. 

9. Matanbaal, king of Arados. 
10. Abibal, king of Samsimuruna. 

13. I'-ki-is-tu-ra gar ir I'-di-'- 


14. Pi-la-a-gu-ra-a sar mat 


15. Ki-i-su §ar mat Si-lu-u-a. 

16. I-tu-u-an-da-ar sar mkt 


17. I-ri-su sar mat Si-il-lu. 

18. Da-ma-su sar m^t Ku-ri-i. 

19. Ru-mi-su sar mSt Ta- 


20. Da-mu-u-su sar mat Kar- 


21. U-na-sa-gu-su sar mat Li- 


22. Pu-su-su sar ratt N u-r i-i. 



1. „Baal, king of Tyre. 

2. Manasseh, king of Juda. 

3. Kausgabri *, king of Edom. 

4. Musuri, king of Moab. 

5. Zilbel, king of Gaza**. 

6. Mitinti, king of Ashkelon. 

7. Ikasamsu, king of Ekron. 

8. Milkiasap, king of Byblos. 

9. Jakinlu, king of Arados. 

10. Abibaal, king of Samsimu- 

* Compare with this the names preserved in Josephus and in the 
Greek inscriptions, Koaxo^agoq, Koa^aQccxoqixoo), KoaaSaQOc. Koa- 
^uvoq, rooyccQoc, and lastly Koafiala/og i. e. Kausmalaka (see 
above p. 137 Vol. I) ; comp. Noldeke in Monatsber. d. Berl. Akad. d.Wiss. 
(1880) 761 note; also Keilinsdi. u. Gesch. p. 79. 
** On Zil-Bel see Vol. I, p. 91. 



11. Puduil, king of Beth-Ammon. 

12. Achimelech, king of Ashdod. 

13. Ikistura, king of Idalium. 

14. Pilagura, king of Kitrus*. 

15. Ki[su], king of Sillua**. 

16. Itaanda[r] ***, king of Paphos. 

17. Irisu, king of SiM (?). 

18. Damasu, king of Curium. 

19. Rumisu, king of Tamassus. 

20. Damusi, king of Karticha- 

dast f. 

21. Unasagusu, king of Lidirf f . 

22. Pususu, king of Nun (?). 

11. Amminadab, king of Beth- 


12. Achimelech, king of Ashdod. 

13. Ikistura, king of Idalium. 

14. PilSgura, king of Kitrus*. 

15. Kisu, king of Silfla**. 

16. Ituandar***, king of Paphos. 

17. Irisu, king of Sillu. 

18. Damasu, king of Curium. 

19. Rumisu, king of Tamassus. 

20. Damiisu, king of Karticha- 

dast f. 

21. Unasagusu, king of Lidirf f. 

22. Pususu, king of Nuri'. 

From the preceding inscription we see clearly that Manas- 
seh was tributary to Asarhaddon and that the same thing 
357 was also true of Asarhaddon's successor, Asurbanipal. The 
list certainly appears to a large extent identical with the 
contents of Asarhaddon's list. Hence we might be disposed 
to regard the list of Asurbanipal as simply a boastful 
reproduction of that of Asarhaddon. But in Asurbanipal's 

* Kitrus is XvTQoq, Xvxqol (Ptolemaeus V. 14 (13) § 6). See 
my Zur Kritik der Insch. Tigl.-Pil. II, p. 34. 

** Sillfla, perhaps "Salamis"; Sillfi line 17 = Soli; see Keilinsch. 
u. Gesch. p. 79. 

*** Respecting Itiiandar = 'Ezsj:av6Qoq see Keilinsch. u. Gesch. p. 77. 
"Moritz Schmidt in Jena has read this as the name of a king of 
Paphos in an inscription which runs thus : — ExefavdQO} ret) IIcKpo} 
/9«(7iAf/og (Collection of Cyprian Inscriptions in epichoric style, Jena, 
1876, p. 8, no. 10)". 

t Kartichadasti ntl'in Dip "Newtown", therefore ultimately 
Carthage, Ka()Xrj6i6v. Zur Kritik der Insch. Tigl.-Pil. II, p. 34, comp. 
Meltzer, Geschichte der Karthager I. 430, 450. 

ft Lidir =: AsSgcjv, Asdga, AsSgai. Further details may be seen 
in my above-mentioned essay pp. 34. 36. 


list the Insertion of the names of the kings Jakinlti of 
Arados and Amminadab of Ammon, in place of Matanba'al 
and Puduilu in the list of Asarhaddon, is a proof that we 
have before us a special catalogue, independent in Its kind 
and drawn up with a purpose, and which takes account of 
the changes that had occurred in the interval in the occu- 
pants of the throne*. We cannot avoid the conclusion 
that Manasseh was tributary to the Assyrian Great King 
during the latter part of Asarhaddon's reign, and at all 
events during the earlier part of the reign of Asurbanipal. 
See also the notes on 2 Chron. XXXIII. 11 — 13. 

XXIII. 29. In his time Pharao Necho (HD?), hing of 
Aegypt, advanced against the hing of Assyria, on the river 
Euphrates. An Aegyptian kingNI-ku-u, i. e. Necho, is 
also mentioned in the Assyrian inscriptions, viz. in the 
annals of Asurbanipal (Smith's Assurb. 20, 92 =111 Rawl. 
17, 92; V Rawl. 1, 90). He there appears with the title 
§ar Ir Ml-im-pi u ir Sa-al "king of Memphis and Sals" 
along with a series of other Aegyptian kings, who had 
submitted to the Assyrian. But the king there referred-to 
Is Necho I, who reigned until 664 (658?) B. C, and con- 
sequently he is not the monarch intended by the Hebrew 
historian (Josiah did not ascend the throne till 639 B. C). 358 
The Necho II who reigned 611 — 605 is not mentioned 
either on Babylonian or Assyrian monuments. 

against the hing of Assyria. The reader Is aware that 
It is a disputed point whether we are actually to under- 

* Zur Kritik der Inschriften Tigl.-Pil. II, p. 35. Thus what I 
stated in Keilinsch. u. Gesch. pp. 51 foil, under no. 8 can now he 
asserted much more positively. — [The reader will also notice that 
Asurhanipal's inscription prefers m^t 'land' to the use of ir 'city' in 
Asarhaddon's list — Transl.] 


stand an Assyrian monarch in the narrower sense as meant 
by the passage — in which case it would be the last of the 
rulers of Niniveh ; — or whether the reference is to the king 
of the Babylonian empire which had succeeded to the proud 
position occupied by the empire of Assyria, in other words 
to king Nabopolassar. The answer to this question depends 
In its turn upon the answer to another : When did Niniveh 
fall? According to the account of Abydenus and of Syn- 
cellus it would appear as though the conquest of Niniveh 
preceded or coincided with the ascent of the Babylonian 
throne by Nabopolassar in 626 (5) B. C*. In this case 
the Assyrian king referred-to by the Hebrew historian can 
only be the Babylonian king Nabopolassar. According to 
the other calculation, handed down by Eusebius and Hiero- 
nymus, the fall of Niniveh took place considerably later. 
359 According to Eusebius - Hieronymus, Cyaxares took the 
capital of Ninus in the year Olympiad XLII. 4 = 609/608 ; 
according to the Armenian Chronicon of Eusebius, in the 

* Abydenus in Eusebius' Chronic. Lib. ed. Schoene I. 35 : „Post 
quem [scil. Sardanapallum] Saracus Assyriis imperavit, et (qui) certior 
factus, quod exercitus locustarum instar (numerosus) e mari exiens 
impetum faceret, Busalossorum ducem confestim Babelonem misit. Ille 
autem cousilio rebellionis inito Amuheam Ashdahaki (Astyagis) Medo- 
rum principis filiam Nabukodrossoro suo filio uxorem despondit. Ac 
deinde protinus discedens contendebat aggredi Ninum. id est, urbem 
Ninue. Cum autem de his omnibus certior est factus Saracus Rex, 
concremavit regiam aulam Evoriti [ex : keovtov = semet ipsum AvG.]. 
Nabukodrossorus vero accipiens regni imperium" etc. Comp. Syncellus 
ihid. p. 38 = ed. Bonn. p. 396 (210 B.) : Ohroq (b Na^OTtaXdaaQoq) 
atQatriyhq vnh SuQccxbg rov XaXduiwv l^aailacog araXelq xardc xov 
aixov Sagaxoc flq Nt'vov ^rciaxQurevfi. ov tt/v tcfoSov Ttrorj^elg b 
^aQc.xhq sojvzor aiv xoTq j3aoi?.eioig rvanQtjas, xcd r?/r UQxyjv XaX- 
dakov xul Bu^vXwvoq nuQsXa^iv b avzbq Na^OTtaXdauQoq, b rov 
Na^ovxodovoaioQ naxriQ. 


year Olymp. XLIII. I = 608/7*. On this supposition 
the expedition of Necho to the East, in the year 609, would 
have been actually directed against an Assyrian ruler in 
the narrower acceptation of the term : it would not have 
been till his campaign (his second ?) of the year 606, 
which ended with the battle of Karkemish, that he would 
have come into collision with the newly rising Babylonian 
empire. Assyrian documents throw no fresh light at ail 
on this problem. This is owing to the fact that we are 
still very poorly informed by the native records about the 
concluding episodes of Assyrian history. It may be ad- 
mitted that, according to the discoveries of G. Smith, 
Boscawen and A. H. Sayce, there is a growing probability 
that several rulers succeeded Asurbanipal - Sardanapal 
[668 — 626 (?)**] upon the throne of Niniveh, viz. ASur- 
itil-ili-ukinni, son of Asurbanipal, a certain X-§um-lskun, 
and perhaps also a certain Asurachiddin II (Sarakos). But 
we cannot deduce therefrom more definite conclusions re- 
garding the date of the capture of Niniveh by the Medes 
(and Babylonians). Nevertheless the author would be dis- 
posed to consider the estimate of Eusebius and Hieronymus 
as by far the nearest to the truth, and this for the following 
reasons: If 625, = 1"*' year of Nabopolassar's reign, begeo 
the date of the fall of Niniveh, it follows, since Sarda- 

* See Eusebius, Chron. ed. Schoene II. 90, 91 and comp. Niebuhr, 
Assur und Babel pp. 114 foil. For more precise details see A. von 
Gutschmid, de temporum notis tSrc. Kil. 1868. 

** Respecting tbe identity of Asurbanipal and tbe Sardanapallus 
of Berossus, and also respecting his assumed 42-years reign, see the 
author's essay in "Berichte der Sachsischen Gesellschaft der Wissensch." 
(philolog.-histor. CI.) pp. 8 foil. 31; Keilinsch. u. Gesch. pp. 541 foil.; 
comp. p. 369 footnote*. 


napalus-Asurbanipal may be supposed to have sat on the 
throne till 626 (inclusive), that the decisive struggle must 
have been limited to a duration of hardly one year. This 
taken by itself is scarcely probable, when we consider that 
Sardanapalus was able to maintain himself in possession of 
Babylon till the day of his death. Moreover, it is hardly 
compatible with this hypothesis, that at least two rulers 
sat on the throne of Niniveh after Asurbanipal, We have 
monuments of both these kings, and both were still in a 
position to erect buildings of greater or less size *. Again, 
Herodotus I. 103, 106 speaks of a twice repeated siege 
of Niniveh by Cyaxares, and of a Scythian domination 
lasting 28 years. Both these statements are far from 
favourable to the above theory, as writers have long 
noticed. Besides this, in the oracles** of Jeremiah, belong- 
ing to the fourth year of Jojakira = 606 B. C. (assu- 
ming 609 as the first year of the Jewish king), we find 
mention of the races from Aegypt, in the West, to Media 
and Elam, in the East; also of the sovereigns of the Nile- 
country as well as the kings of Media, Elam and Babel, 
including also the rulers of Philistia and the sheiks of 
Arabia; but not a syllable is said about Assur. Yse cannot 
therefore place the date of the capture of Niniveh later 
than the year 606. If Assyria still existed as an empire 
in the fourth year of Jojakim's reign, it could not have been 

* On Agur-itil-ili-ukinni see the inscription of the king I Rawl. 
8, no. 3, as well as that of his daughter III Eawl. 16, no. 2. Respect- 
ing X-sum-iskun, see Geo. Smith, Assyrian Discoveries p. 383 and also 
the portion of this king's inscription puhlished hy me in the original 
text in the Reports of the Koniglich-Sachsische Gesellschaft der 
Wissenschaften 1880, p. 38 under no. K. 1662; compare likewise ibid. 
pp. 33 foil. 

** Jerem. XXV. 19—26. 


passed over in silence. The date of Niniveh's overthrow 
must therefore be placed in the interval between 609, on 
the one side, and 606, on the other. If the assumption of 361 
many scholars be correct, that Necho (see above) made 
his first forward movement against the Euphrates in a 
second campaign (Ebers) , there would be still greater 
reason for placing the downfall of Niniveh as late as about 
the year 606 B. C. Thus the year 607 as that of the 
capture of Niniveh (Max Duncker) may be held to have 
the greatest probability in its favour. At all events — to 
return to the point from which this discussion started — 
there is no reason to take exception to the accuracy of the 
statement in the Book of Kings, that Necho advanced 
against the king of "Assyria". It is manifest that the 
position of Karkemish on the Middle Euphrates points 
mainly to a purposed campaign against Niniveh and Assyria, 
and not against Babylon. Compare also note on Is. X. 9. 
XXIV. 1. In Ids (Zedekialis) days Nehucadnezzar 
(laWlDID^), king of Babel, marched down. In the cunei- 
form records the Babylonian conqueror is called (see East 
India House Inscr. I. 1, Borsip. 1. 1 &c.) Nabli-kudurri- 
usur written Na-bi-uv-ku-du-ur-ri-u-su-ur, in which 
form we at once recognize the prototype of the form 
li^JKniDIDjl, occurring in Jeremiah XLIX. 28 (comp. Ezra II. 
1 (K'thib)), as well as of the name Na^ovxodgoOOQOc, in the 
pages of Strabo, Alex. Polyhistor, Megasthenes and Aby- 
denus*. The name is compounded of the name of deity 362 

* Precise details may be found in Jahrbiicher fiir Protestautische 
Theologie VII (1881), p. 619. We can therefore vouch for the follow- 
ing changes in the pronunciation of this king's name : (1) Native 
Babylonian pronunciation Nabfi-kudurri-usur; (2) Graeco- Baby- 
lonian pronunciation Na^ovxoSQuaoQoq ; also Strabo (ed. Bekker) has 


Nabti (which in the Assyrian column of the syllabary 
II Rawl. 7, 41 g. h, corresponds to the written form 
Nabiuv) and the subst. kudur "crown" (comp. xidaQiq), 
as well as the Iraperat. usur from nasS,ru "protect". 
Thus the name signifies "Nebo, protect the crown"; see 
Assyr. Babyl. Keilinsch. p. 124*. 

We possess a series of inscriptions on bricks and clay 
cylinders belonging to this king; also an inscribed cameo 

Na^oxoSgoaoQoq ; (3) Hebraeo - Babylonian "njiXllDISJ > probably 
originally Nebfi-khodr-'esor i. e. liii!S")1D1D3- Then the form 
came to have an erroneous duplication of the ^ viz. Nebfi-khodr- 
ess6r; afterwards it became still further corrupted to "li^XDlDIDJ 
both as spoken and written ; (4) Hebrew-Masoretic orthography and 
pronunciation "l5J(N)3n3')33 i- e. Nebfikhadnessar, whence the Ger- 
man "Nebukadnezar" and the more accurate English spelling 
Nebuchadnezzar. The Romanists following the Nabuchodonosor &c. 
of the Vulgate give the name in the form which that version presents. 

* Paul Haupt, Der Keilinschriftliche Sintfluthbericht (1881) p. 4 
would pronounce the name Nabu-kudurri-usur "Nebo, protect my 
crown". It ought, however, to be observed that while kudurri might 
be an abbreviation for kudurri = kudurrija, yet in the ideographic 
mode of writing the middle element never appears with the suffix. 
Comp. the name Nabu-abal-usur, and see above Vol. I, p. 232 foil, 
on the name Tiglath-Pileser. Recently Delitzsch (see Miirdter, Babylon.- 
Assyrische Geschichte pp. 210, 270) would be disposed to understand 
the middle part of the name viz. k u d u r r u as meaning a cap of 
woven reeds such as the workman was accustomed to wear when 
engaged in work. Thus he would take the name as signifying "Nebo, 
protect my work". Comp. V Rawl. 10, 93. Obsei've, on the other 
hand, that the word already occurs even in the early Elamite royal 
names "Kudur-Nahundi", "Kudur-Mabuk" &c. [But, in the recent 
Calwer Bibellexicon just completed, Fried. Delitzsch furnishes some 
new etymologies of Assyrian and Babylonian proper names. Thus 
Nebukadnezzar (Nabu-kudQri-uzur) is rendered "Nebo, protect my 
dominion". Comp. also E. A. Budge, Nebuchadnezzar, King of Babylon, 
Loud. (1885) p. 3 "Nebo, defend the landmark!" See "Hebraica" for 
Jan. 1885, p. 183— Transl.] 


with the royal portrait *. By far the larger number of 
these inscriptions — some of which are of considerable extent 
— are exclusively occupied, when they are not of a 
religious character, with the royal buildings at Babel and 
Borsippa. This is a general characteristic of Babylonian, 363 
as opposed to Assyrian, inscriptions — a feature that in the 
interests of historical knowledge is greatly to be deplored. 
We learn, however, from these records at all events the 
ordinary title of the king as well as the name of his father. 
We become acquainted with both from the legends on 
bricks. One legend of six lines I have copied in the Bibel- 
lexlkon, as well as inRiehm's Handworterbuch des Biblischen 
Alterthums, from a brick preserved in the Zurich Museum. 
The inscription runs thus : "1. Nabti-ku-dur-ri-usur 
2. §ar Ba-bi-lu 3. za-uin I'. SAG. GA. TU (saggil) 
4. u r. ZI. DA, 5. abal Nabti-ab al-u"sur 6. sar 
Ba-bi-lu a-na-ku i. e. 1. Nebukadnezzar 2. king of 
Babylon, 3. restorer of the temple of exaltation 4. and of 
the temple of well-being (?) , 5. son of Nabopolassar, 
6. king of Babylon, I". 

Notes and Illustrations. 1. The name of the king is here written 
in its first portion with the ordinary ideogram for the god Nebo; in 
its second portion it is written phonetically ; while in its third portion 
(usur) it is once more written ideographically with the sign SI8 which is 
explained in a syllabary by nas&ru. See also Assyr. Babyl. Keilinsch. 
pp. 124 foil. ; — 2. "Babylon" is both here and in line 6. written phone- 
tically throughout; — 3. zanin partic. of zan§.nu often used in 
the sense of "restore", "improve". Respecting the two temple- 
names see above pp. 122 foil. With respect to the name I'. ZI. DA, 

* A representation of this portrait may be found in Schenkel's 
Bibellexicon Vol. Ill, p. 511. Riehm, Handworterbuch des biblischen 
Alterthums 1067 a. On the question of the genuineness and origin of 
this cameo see Monatsberichte der Akademie der Wissenschaften, Berlin, 
pp. 293 — 298 (where a photographic reproduction is given) ; J. Menant 
in Rev. Arch^ol. Par. 1885; A. Furtwangler in Sammlung zu Ehren 
Leemanns', Leid. 1885 flg. 



I would observe in explanation that ZI. DA signifies in the first 
place imnu "right" (with idu "the right hand"; comp. Hebr. 
ppi) ; see Assyr. Babyl. Keil. p. 194. From this again' is derived the 
meaning ki'nu "firm", "trustworthy". We can therefore hover to a 
certain extent between the renderings "House of the right", "House of 
well-being" or "of permanence"; — 5. The name Nabu-abal-usur 
means "Nebo, protect the son" Assyr. Babyl. Keil. p. 126; — 6. anakii 
= i^JX- The final u is long (Haupt). 

Of historical inscriptions in the narrower sense of the 
term, resembling the Assyrian, there has come down to 
us hitherto only the fragment of a cylinder-inscription which 
I published in the Aegyptische Zeitschrift 1879 p. 45 foil, 
i. e. the portion of the inscription that is to a certain 
364 extent intelligible. Compare ibid. A. Wiedemann 1878, 
pp. 87 — 89. The passage runs thus : 13. . . . Sanat 
XXXVII KAN Nabti-kudurri-usur sar mat.... 
14. . . . [mat] Mi-sir a-na l-bi§ tahazi al-[lik] .... 
1. . . . [A-ma]-a(?)-su sar Mi-sir* upahhir-ma i. e. 
13. ... "37"' year of Nebucadnezzar, king of the land 
[Babel] .... 14. ... (to) Aegypt to fight a battle I 
[marched] .... 1. . . . [Ama]sis (?), the king of Aegypt 
assembled and . . , ." After this we read of military incidents, 
of soldiers and horses being slaughtered or transported 
kirib m§,t Misir "into the midst of the land Aegypt" ; 
but we obtain no more definite intelligence about these 
proceedings. By the date (37*'' year of Nebucadnezzar's 
reign) we are brought to the year 568 B. C, which agrees 
well with the completion of the Aegyptian king's name into 
Amasu = Amasis proposed by Pinches and Wiedemann. 

I would also remark that quite recently an inscription 
of Nebucadnezzar, engraved in archaistic cuneiform on a 
precipitous rock, has been discovered on the Northern 

* The word mat, which we should expect to stand before Misir, is 
omitted through an error either of thexiopyist or of the ancient tablet-writer. 


bank of Nahr-el-kelb (Dog's river), near Beirut. It has 
not yet been possible to gain any definite information about 
the contents of the inscription from the casts that have 
hitherto been made. See A. H. Sayce in "Proceedings 
of the Society of Biblical Archaeology" Nov. 1. 1881, 
pp. 9 foil. 

XXV. 8. n^l-"^^; Nebuzaradan. The Babylonian 
form of the name was Nabti-ztr-iddina i. e. "Nebo 
bestowed posterity". It is compounded of the name of 
the deity Nab 1i, the substantive zir = i/'lT "seed"* and 
the Kal Imperf. of nadanu = Hebrew ]nj "give". We read 
the name in the Assyrian original among the list of proper 
names II Rawl. 64, col. II, 13. See further in my Assyr.- 365 
Babyl. Keilinsch. p. 126 No. 7. 

2 7. And it came to pass in the 37^^' year after the 
deportation of Jehoiachin .... then arose EvU-Merodach 
(Tllip'TW) , ki7ig of Babel, in the year when he became 
king. The name is easily explained. Its original Baby- 
lonian form was Avil-Marduk i. e. "Man of Merodach", 
a name that is compounded of a vilu "man" and Marduk 
"Merodach". We find an exactly similar name in Assyr.- 
Babyl. Keilinsch. p. 157 No. 69, where Sab-sar (IK'-N^a) 
is explained as "man of the king" (II Rawl. 63. col. 1, 7 
as well as Sab-Adar "man of Adar" (II Rawl. 63. 
II, 22). 

Tablets dated from the years of the reign of this king, viz. 
from the year of his accession (562 B. C), his first year 
(561) and his second (560), have within a recent period 
been added to the British Museum. They belong to the group 

* On the pronunciation zi-i-ru instead of ^~i| or ^11, comp. 

Haupt, Sumei-ische Familiengesetze p. 33 note 6. 



of so-called I'gibi-tablets. The diflferent modes of writing 
the name which have been handed down are Avil-Mar- 
duk and A-vl-lu-Marduk, See Boscawen in Transs. of 
the Soc. of Bibl. Archaeol. VI, 1. 1878. 


V. 26. Then the God of Israel aroused the spirit of 
Pul, king of Assyria, and the spirit of Tiglath-Pilneser 
(piOt>B~T\ih7\) etc. Ofcourse IDJ^D stands by mistake for 
IDN^O, in just the same way as r\i^T\ arose from the 
original form n'?Jn merely by a transposition of letters. 
This mode of writing the king's name is opposed by the 
Books of Kings and by the inscriptions alike, and is due 
either to the Chronicler or to a copyist. See also the 
comments on 2 Kings XV, 19. 20 and compare the 
critical discussion of this passage in Keilinsch. u. Gesch. 
pp. 435 foil. 

N"iri Hard, a corrupt reading. See Schrader, Art. Hara 
in Riehm's Handworterb. des Biblischen Alterthums, and 
Keilinsch. u. Geschichtsforschung p. 430. Compare the 
notes on 2 Kings XVII, 6. XVIII, 11. 


IX. 16. Three hundred [shekels] of gold he put on 
one shield. In the parallel passage in the Books of Kings 
(1 Kings X, 17) there stands "three minas". It would 
appear from this that the Chronicler reckoned the mina 
at 100 shekels. That was the valuation of the later, Greek 
period. The Hebrews of the earlier time valued the mina 
(as money) at 50 shekels. According to Hitzig, in his 
commentary on Ezek. XLV. 12, we should read DI^D in 


place of niND *. The whole difficulty would then dis- 
appear. Smend adopts this solution. See the note on 
Gen. XXIII. 16, Vol. I p. 127 foil. ^^^^ ^^ 

XYB-^. nlOTpi^ Semiramis. We find this name in 
the form Sammuramat (written Sa-am-mu-ra-mat), 
as a woman's name , upon the monuments viz. on the 
statues of Nebo found at Nimrlid (I Rawl. 35 no. 2 
line 9). It there appears as the name of Rammannir^r's 
"woman of the palace" (Ramm^nnirar reigned 812 — 783). 
Delitzsch in Miirdter's Geschichte Babyloniens und Assy- 
riens p. 278 thinks that Sammuramat may be explained 
as meaning **lover of scents"**. It is not surprising that 
the Hebrews, when they adopted this to them unintelligible 
name , endeavoured to adapt it to their own mode of 
pronunciation. Compare the Hebrew jlSl as the equivalent 
of the Assyrio - Aramaic Ramm^nu 'Psf/fiav] as well 
as jlSTS^ for Tab-Ramm4n (Ta[i£Qe(/d). See above 
Vol. I pp. 196, 197. 

XXXIII. 11. Then Jahve brought ujyon them the mili- 
tary commanders of the king of Assyria who took Manasseh 
captive with hooks and bound him with chains and carried 
him away to Babel. 12. And when he was in distress he 

supplicated Jahve his God 13. ... and He gave 

ear to his entreaty and heard his prayer, and caused him 
to return to Jerusalem into his kingdom. The reader is 
aware that this passage has been the subject of much 367 
discussion. Objections were raised by critics to a state- 

* [Comp. the converse illustration of the very same confusion of 
X and J in the case of "IDJ^C ^^"^ 1Dfc<^D '° ^ Chron. V. 26. See 
above the note on the passage — Translator.] 

** rSmat "lover", root Qni = Dm > sammu "scent", comp. 


ment which had no place in the Books of Kings, and it 
was thought that the passage should be severed from the 
narrative, as being altogether unhistorical. It was argued 
in the first place, that we have no other mention in the 
historical books of a supremacy wielded by the Assyrians 
at that time (700 — 650) in Western Asia, such as this 
account presupposes; and in the second place, that we 
here read that Manasseh was transported to Babel, and 
not to Niniveh, as we should have expected if the king 
who carried him away into captivity was an Assyrian. 
Both objections lose their force in the presence of the in- 
scriptions. As to the first, we know that even Asai'haddon, 
towards the end of his reign, had reduced to subjection the 
whole of Syria and Aegypt. In both the lists of the 
twenty-two tributary kings of the Chatti-country (i. e., in 
the present case, Phoenicia, Philistia and the (Cyprian) 
island-states), which have been handed down to us by Asar- 
haddon and (as a parallel list) by Asurbanipal , we find 
no less a personage mentioned than this Manasseh himself : 
Mlnasi (Minsi) §ar mat (Ir) Jaudi; see note on 
2 Kings XXI. 1. Now it is not probable that the event 
we are considering happened as early as in the reign of 
Asarhaddon. Not a word is said by Asarhaddon, in the 
inscription containing the above list, about any insurrection 
of the Palestinian states (it was the Phoenician Sidon that 
had to be forcibly reduced to obedience). And we have 
certainly not the slightest hint of Manasseh's opposition 
to Asarhaddon, when the latter conducted his great con- 
quering expedition against Aegypt towards the close of 
his reign. On the other hand we know from Asurbanipal, 
368 his successor, that mUt MARTU (= mat Aharri) "the 
Western country", meaning Phoenicia and Palestine, was 


about the middle of his reign (about 648 — 7 B. C. and pre- 
viously) involved, along with Elam, the land Guti (i) and 
Mlluhhi-Kush, in the revolt of his rebellious brother Samas- 
sura-uktn i. e. Sammughes-Saosduchin *. See Smith's Assur- 
banipal 154, 32 to 155, 38; comp. V Rawl. 3, lOO foil. 
We may assume with perfect confidence that Manasseh 
was included among these Palestino-Phoenician rebels. At 
least he may have drawn upon himself the suspicion of 
having an understanding with Asurbanipal's rebellious 
brother. In order to clear himself of this suspicion or to 
furnish the Great King with guarantees of his faithfulness 
and submission , he was conveyed away to Babel. But 
to Babel? — This leads us to the consideration of the 
second objection. There can be no question that the 
proper residence of the Assyrian kings, and of Asurbanipal 
among the rest , was Niniveh , and , as far as Asurbanipal 
was concerned , Niniveh was the exclusive residence as 
long as his brother, the above-named Sammughes-Saos- 
duchin, was viceroy of Babel, i. e., according to the 
Ptolemaic Canon, till the year 648 — 7 B, C. But nothing 
stands in the way of the assumption that the Great King, 
after he had assumed the rank of king of Babylon, resided 
in that city for a while and there received embassies as 
well as princes in vindication of themselves. In one per- 
tinent instance we are able to establish from the monu- 
ments that this actually occurred. The Cyprian ambas- 
sadors of "the seven kings of the district Jah of the land 

* On this identification see Keilinschriften und Geschichtsforschung 
pp. 540 foil.; and on the reading Samas-sum-ukin, according to a 
syllabary recently discovered by Eassam and copied by Delitzsch, see 
Berichte der Sachsischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften 1880, p. 2, 
note 3. Also see Assyr. Babylon. Keilinsch. p. 166. 


Jatnan", after the conquest of Babylon and after Sargon 
369 had placed the crown of Babel upon his head, offered to 
the Great King in Babylon presents as tokens of homage *. 
At all events we have under the above circumstances no 
reason to draw the inference from the mention of Babel; as 
the place to which Manasseh was taken, that the whole 
episode narrated by the Chronicler is unhistorical. Let 
us now turn to the account given by Asurbanipal of the 
part played by the nations and princes of Western Asia 
in this insurrection of Sammughes. His words are (Smith's 

* Khorsab. 149 a-na ki-rib BSb-ilu a-di mah-ri-ja u-bi- 
lu-num-ma "to the midst of Babylon before me they brought"; 
comp. the Berlin stele of Sargon col. II (IV), 28 foil, as well as the 
annals Botta 91, 11. According to the canon of Ptolemaeus this hap- 
pened in the year 648 B. C, the last of Saosduchin (647 is the first 
year of Kineladan). On the identity of Kineladan (Ptolemaic canon), 
Sardanapallus (Berossus) and Asurbanipal (Inscriptions), see Keilinsch. 
u. Gesch. pp. 517 foil. 540 foil. The essential grounds for these 
identifications are (1) The Sardanapallus of Berossus was brother of 
Sammughes-Saosduchin, just as the Asurbanipal of the inscriptions 
was brother of Sama§-gum-ukin. (2) The "brother and successor of 
Sammughes" was a ruler of the Babylonians, just as Asurbanipal follow- 
ed Samas-sum-ukin as "king of Babylon". Accordingly a Chaldaean 
clay tablet belonging to Asurbanipal (Smith's Assurb. 324) is simply 
dated according to the "years" of this monarch as "king of Babylon". 
(3) The 21 -|- 21 = 42 years of Sammughes and Sardanapallus in 
Berossus correspond to the 20 -f- 22 = 42 years of Saosduchin and 
Kineladan in the Canon of Ptolemaeus. And lastly (4) the beginning 
of the reign of the Asurbanipal of the inscriptions (668 — 667) coin- 
cides with that of Saosduchin-Sammughes, i. e. Samas-sum-ukin , in 
the Ptolemaic canon, while Abydenus, who only reports the succession 
of Assyrian rulers, conformably represents Sardanapallus as succeeding 
Axerdis-Asarhaddon. For the proof that Abydenus handed down the 
series of Assyrian rulers, and Berossus that of the Babylonian poten- 
tates, see my Keilinsch. u. Gesch. pp. 540 foil. Compare also Berichte 
der Sachsischen Gesellsch. der Wissenschaften 1880 (philol. histor. 
Classe), pp. 2. 14. 13, as well as the author's article : Kineladan and 
Asurbanipal, in Zeitschrift fiir Keilschriftforschung I, 222 foil. 


Assurbanipal 154*) : 27. U §u-u Samas -§um-ukin 
28. ahu la ki-i-nu sa la is-su-rii a-di-ja 29. nist 
m^t Akkadi mat Kal-du A-ru-mu (Var. 
A-ra-mu) vnti tiam-tiv ul-tav Ir A-ka-ba a-di ir370 
Bab-sa-li-mf-ti 31. ardu (Var. PI.) da-gll pa-ni- 
ja us-pal-kit i-na kata-ja 1. e. "27. And that 
Samraughes 28. my unfaithful brother, who did not main- 
tain obedience to me, 29. seduced the inhabitants of 
Akkad, Chaldaeaj Arumu, of the maritime country 30. from 
Akaba to Bab-salimlt, 31. subjects devoted to me, to revolt 
against me". And again in Smith's Assurb. p. 154. 34 foil, 
we read (III Rawl. 20, 38—42, V Eawl. 3, 103—106) : 
34. u §arrt m. Gu-ti (Var. Gu-ti-i), 35. m§,t 
Aharri (Var. Aharri-i), m^t Ml-luh-hi-i, 36. §a 
ina ki-bit Asur u Bilit is-tak-ka-na katS,-ai 
37. nab-har-su-nu it-ti-ja u-san-kir-ma 38. it- 
ti-§u i§-ku-nu pi-i-§u-un (Var. nu) i. e. "34. And 
the kings of the land Gutt, 35. of the West country**, 
of the land Miluhhi (Kush ^ Aethiopia), 36. which at 
the bidding of Asur and Beltis my hands had brought 
(under subjection) : 37. all of them he (Sammughes) 
seduced to revolt from me; 38. with him they made com- 
mon cause" (literally "they made with him their mouth"). 
By the king of Miluhhf-Kush we must evidently understand 
the king of Aethiopia-Aegypt, i. e. Psammetich, as meant. 
Compare also Keilinsch. u. Gesch. p. 287 foil. note***. 

* Comp. Ill Rawl. 20, 31 foil.; V Rawl. 3, 96—100. 
** See the comments on Gen. X. 6, Vol. I, p. 73. 
*** Despite the objections of Oppert (Journal Asiatique 1872. Extr. 
No. 1, pp. 11. 13) and of Haupt (Sumerische Familiengesetze I, p. 74) 
I still adhere to the equivalence of Pi(Tu)-sa-mil-ki and Psamme- 


371 On all these grounds I do not hesitate to connect with 
this attempted insurrection of Sama§-sum-ukin the trea- 
sonable act of Manasseh which, though not openly pro- 
claimed, was resolutely planned. Accordingly I would 
place it about the year 648 B. C, and his transportation 
in the following year, 647. But what are we to say of 
his being deported "in iron chains and with hooks"? Does 
not that in itself sound altogether fabulous? And is it 
conceivable that a prince so dishonoured could once more 
be tolerated on the throne, or that a prince who was so 
seriously implicated could have obtained complete pardon? 
About this also we gain light from Asurbanipal's inscrip- 
tion. The Great King reports to us respecting Necho I 
precisely what we read in the Bible about Manasseh. We 
read in Smith's Assurbanipal 43, 45 : Sar-lu-dd-ri 
Ni-ik-ku-u is-bat-u-num-ma ina bi-ri-ti* parzilli 
i§-ka-ti parzilli u-tam-mi-hu katS, u sipS. i. e. 
''They seized Sarludari (and) Necho, bound with iron 

tich. See Smith's Assurb. 66. 28 (V Rawl. 2. 114). To take the 
corresponding syllables or words in an appellative sense (Oppert) is in 
point of language impossible; while the fact that the sign for the 
syllable pi likewise possessed the phonetic value tu (Haupt) only 
explains the more readily in my opinion the possibility of an Assyrian 
not comprehending an Aegyptian name and endeavouring to adapt it 
to his own mode of speech. Compare also my remarks in Keilinsch. 
u. Gesch. p. 43 and also observe that the potentate referred-to is 
expressly called, on the cylinder of Asurbanipal recently discovered 
by Rassam, sar mS.t Mu-sur or, in other words, "king of Aegypt". 
Thus he cannot have been one of the various Aegyptian departmental 
or petty princes. 

* Oppert ingeniously proposes to read kas-ri-ti, root lU^p; yet, 
so far as I am aware, this reading has not yet been confirmed by 
variants. The signification in this and other passages is established 
by the context. 


bonds and iron chains hands and feet" *. — And sub- 
sequently, after hearing of his deportation to Niniveh, we 
are told how the Great King 53. ri-i-mu ar-si-§u 
"favour (DHI = Dn"l) has bestowed upon him" and per- 
mitted him to return to Aegypt with his generals (60. 
§u-u t-sak-i-j a §akntiti a-n a [mat Mu-sur it]-ti-§u 
a§-pur "my officers, the viceroys, 1 sent with him to 372 
Aegypt" **). But what might happen to an Aegyptian 
potentate , could certainly be inflicted also on a Judaean 
prince. The result of our investigation we sum up as 
follows : — that there is no reason to cast any suspicion on 
the statement of the Chronicler (so far, ofcourse, as facts 
are reported), and that what he relates can be satis- 
factorily accounted-for from the circumstances that existed 
in the year 647 B. C. 


1. 1 . and in the first year of Koresh (t£^']3), Mng of 
Persia. The native pronunciation of the name of Cyrus 
is K'ur'us Behistun-inscription I, 28. 39 etc. In the 
Babylonian inscriptions the name is written Ku-ra-as, 
Ku-ras i. e. Kura§, see the inscription of Cyrus at 
Murgh§,b, Assyr.-Babylon. Keilinsch. 339 ; Cyrus-cylinder 
(V Rawl. 35) line 20 ; Annals of NabunS-hid Obv. col. II, 

* isk4ti probably from p]l)^^ \JiM*s:. properly an instrument 
whereby a man is kept in forcible constraint; utammih Pael from 
tam§,hu, of obscure derivation — perhaps connected with ^l^H ('')• 

** Saknuti "viceroys", plur. of saknu, sakan, is written with 
the ordinary ideogram NAM whose phonetic equivalent is supplied by 
the variant in Smith's History of Assurbanipal 35, 13. The title has 
passed into the Hebrew in the form IJC (iJD) ! comp. the note below on 
Is. XLl. 25 and above on 1 Kings X. 15 footnote* Vol. I p. 175 foil. 


\ — 30 Rev. 12 foil.* — Persia U^B is called in the native 
dialect Par 9 a. See Behistun-inscription I, 5. 14. 41 etc. 
Its Babylonian equivalent is (mat) Parsu written Par-su, 
Par-su-u, Pa-ar-su (Behistun loc. cit. Naksh-i-Rustam 
9 etc.); also Par-sa (Xerxes D 13). 

2. '^All the kingdoms of the earth Jahve the God of 
Heaven has given me" etc. Though the words placed in 
the mouth of the Persian king are spoken e.r sensu 
Judaeorum, yet they may be justified historically from 
the fact; that they completely accord with the policy of 
toleration that characterized the reign of the founder of 
the Persian monarchy. We learn from the recently dis- 
373 covered annals of NabtinS,hid that Cyrus left the worship 
of the Babylonian deities inviolate; indeed^ he caused the 
divinities whom the last Babylonian king had removed 
from their former shrines to be restored to their places 
(Rev. col. I, 21 foil. comp. with Rev. I, 9 foil.). On 
cylinder line 33 we read "And the gods of Sumlr and 
Akkad, which Nabtin^hid to the sorrow of the lord of the 
gods had carried off to Suannaki-Babylon , I caused to 
take up their abode (again) in peace in their sanctuaries, 
an abode of joy of heart for the whole of the gods whom 
I brought back to their towns" **. In the same cylinder 

* The modes of writing the name hitherto certified by the in- 
scriptions are : — Ku-ra-a§, Ku-ur-ra-su, Ku-ur-ra-as, Kur- 
ra-a§(ds); Kur-ras, Ku-ras and once even Ku-ur-su the last 
of which represents the native Persian pronunciation most accurately. 
Comp. Boscawen in Trans, of the Soc. of Bibl. Archaeol. VI. 1 (1878). 
** The Babylonian text runs thus : 33. u ili mat Su-mi-ri u 
Ak-kadi-KI sa Nabii-nS,'id a-na ug-ga-tiv bi'l ili u-si-ri-bi 
a-na ki-rib Su-an-na-KI i-na ki-bi-ti Marduk bi'li rabi 
i-na sa-li-im-tiv 34. i-na mas(?)-ta-ki-su-nu u-si'-si-ib su- 
ba-at tu-ub lib-bi kul-la-ta ili sa u-si-ri-bi a-na ki-ir-bi 


inscription Cyrus recognizes Merodach in his character of 
supreme god of the Babylonians, represents the deity as 
announcing his (i. e. Cyrus') march to Babel, and taking the 
road to Babylon, while he leads Cyrus at his side as friend 
and comrade (lines 14. 15). Cyrus also informs us that 
he has daily offered prayers to Bel and Nebo that they 
would intercede on his behalf, especially with Merodach*. 
IV. 2. after the days of Asarhaddon, the king of 
Assyria, who brought us hither. As tO the name Asar- 
haddon see the notes on 2 Kings XIX. 37 (above Vol. 11,374 
p. 1 7 foil.). The cuneiform inscriptions contain no express 
mention of the settlement of Eastern races in Samaria, to 
which this Biblical passage alludes. From the records of 
Asarhaddon we only learn that he transferred Eastern 
populations into the land Chatti generally i. e. Syria, 
inclusive of Phoenicia and Palestine. This latter statement 
cannot admit of doubt. We read on Asarhaddon's cylinder, 
after his account of the defeat of Abdimilkut of Sidon, 
I Rawl. 45, col. I, lines 24 foil. : 24. ni§t-su raps^ti, 
§a ni-ba la i-sa-a 25. alpi u si-l-ni imiri 26. 
a-bu-ka a-na ki-rib m^tAssur. 27. U-pa-hir-ma 

ma-ha-zi-su-un 35. u-mi sa(?)-am ma-liar Bi'l u Nabu sa 
a-ra-ku umi-ja li-ta-mu-u lit-tib-ka-ru a-ma-a-ta du-un- 
ki-ja u a-na Marduk bi'li-ja li-ik-bu-u sa Ku-ra-as sarru 
pa-li-hi-ka u K a-am-bu-zi-ja abal-su . . . etc.— 33. With uggatu 
comp. the Hebr. JJp;, njlD ;— 34. mas(?)taku is obscure; kullat 
clearly stands for the form we elsewhere meet with kalu (or uabhar); 
— 35. ami sam etc. =: "daily setting up before Bel and Nebo (scil. the 
prayer) that they would command length of my days (root HDX* i^ 
glossary iQt^, = nDH) f^'o^" which we have am§,t "command"), bless 
my exalted command and announce to Merodach, my lord : "Cyrus, 
the king (is) thy adorer, and Cambyses his son . . . ." (hei-e the text 
breaks off). 

* See note p. 60. 


Sarrt* m^tHat-tl 28. u a-hi ti^m-tiv ka-li-§u-nu 

29. [I-na pani-ja **] §a-num-ma Ir*** 

u-sl-bl§-raa; 30. Ir [A§u r-] ah-iddi-na at-ta-bi 
ni-bit-su. 31. Nist hu-bu-ut kas-ti-ja sa §adi-i 
32. u ti§,m-tiv si-it §am-si 33. i-na lib-bi u-§l- 
si-ib; 34. avil §u-ut-sak-ja, avll sak-ua Ili-§u-nu 
a§-kun i. e. *24. His (Abdimilkut's) numerous depen- 
dants, which are not to be numbered, 25. cattle and 
flocks, asses 26. I carried awaj to Assyria 2 7. I gathered 
together all the kings of the land Chatti 28. and of the 
sea-coast 29. [before me . . .]. Another town I caused to 
be built : 30. «[Asar]haddon's town" I called it. 31. The 
inhabitants of the mountains carried away by my bow 
32. and those of the Eastern sea 33. I settled in that 
spot ; 34. my officer, the viceroy, I placed over them." 

375 Notes and Illustrations, nisi raps at i, comp. Delitzsch in Lotz 

p. 110 note; nibS, root nabu ^ {<33 properly "name", then "make 
mention", "number"; isS =: isu Hebr. \^i see Assyr.-Babyl. Keil- 
insch. S. 305; — 26. abfika root n^^ properly "lead astray" then 

"carry off into exile"; — 27. upahir Pael, root; — 28. ahi = 
O c. - 
-^^ see Glossary; — 29. On sanumma, sanamma "another" see 

the trilingual inscriptions and comp. Assyr.-Babylon. Keilinsch. Glos- 
sary, and respecting the contents of the passage comp. the very 
similar one Khorsabad 155; — 30. attabi 1 pers. Imperf. Ifteal, root 
nabfl = {<23 j nibitu subst. from the same root = DNDJi — 
31. hubut occurs frequently in the inscriptions of Asurbauipal, 
combined with the verb (Iftanaal) ihtanabbat (Smith's Assurbanipal 

* There is no reason to alter the text (nisi instead of sarri) as 
Oppert proposes. 

** Is corrupt. The words supplied are those of Budge, History of 
Esarhaddon, London 1880, p. 36. 

*** So I can still clearly make out on the photograph that lies 
before me. 


79, 9. 81, 9. 211, 89. 258, 113. 114). According to these passages it 
has some such siguificatiou as "deportation" "spoil"*. 

5. The corresponding Persian forms of the kings here 
mentioned are K'ur'us = Cyrus (see above note on 
Ezra I. 1); Darajavus = Darius ; KhSajarsa = 
Ahasveros ** = Xerxes; ArtakhSatrS, = Artahasta 
= Artaxerxes, see Behistun insc. 1, 28. 31) ; Beh. 1, 1. 4; 
— inscr. designated as D, 6. 11 etc. — Sus. 1. 4 etc. Re- 
specting the succession of the kings, see my remarks 
in the essay "on the duration of the building of the 
second temple" in Theologische Studien und Kritiken 1867, 
pp. 475 foil. 

9. Among the nations here referred-to, we have not 
only Babel and Elam (see Vol. I, pp. 96, 112 foil.) but 
also Arak and Susan certainly mentioned in the inscrip- 
tions. Arali is the Arku, Arak and also Uruk of the 

* I need scarcely say that in accordance with the ahove docu- 
mentary data I abandon the doubts I formerly raised in Studien und 
Kritiken 1867, p. 497 foil, respecting a second colonization of Samaria 
distinct from the former one carried out under Sargon-Salmanassar. 

** lI^TII^nN) Aramaic NK'n"'LJ'n according to Euting quoted by 
Hiibschmann in Zeitsch. der deutsch. morgenland. Gesellsch. XXXIV. 
Beilage p. 8. But the citation of Hiibschmann is inaccurate, as I have 
convinced myself from personal inspection of the monument, an 
Aegypto-Aramaic stele (numbered 7707 = 248) in the Royal Museum 
at Berlin. The name is written I^'IN^KTI) i- ^- ivithout a final X) but 
with an }< following the i in the middle of the word. See also Lepsius 
in the Aegyptische Zeitschrift 1877, pp. 127—132. 

The Babylonian pronunciation of the name Darius is Darajavus, 
a name that is actually written in fifteen different ways. The chief 
types are : Da-(a-)ri-j a-(a-) vus, D a-(a-)ri-'-vus and Da-ri-'-us. 
— The Babylonian form of the name for Xerxes was according to the 
inscriptions of the Achaemenidae : — Hisi'arsu, written Hi-si-'-ar- 
§u (sa, si).— The pronunciation of the name Artaxerxes was Arta'- 
hatsu, written Ar-t a-'-ha-at-su ; also Artaksatsu, written 
Ar-tak-sat-su. See M^nant, Syllab. Assyr. I, pp. 90 foil., Assyr, 
Babylon. Keilinsch. pp. 363 foil. 


cuneiform, the present Warka (see note on Gen. X. 10, 
Vol. I, p. 76 foil.). Susan is the Su§an (written Su- 
sa-an) of Asurbanipal's inscriptions 111, 94. With 
376 N'lr^tZ^lut' may be compared the adjectival form Su§inak* 
appearing on the Elamite inscriptions (Fr. Lenormant). 
Comp. Fr. Delitzsch Parad. p. 32 7. With the N^'^"l we 
might perhaps, with G. Rawlinson, compare the Aaol of 
Herodotus (I, 125). All the other identifications attempted 
by Lenormant and others are uncertain. Likewise the 
combination of N"'D~IDN ** with the "Persians" (elsewhere 
^DID) must for phonetic reasons be given up. Besides 

* Respecting Susinak comp. the Addenda in this volume on 
Gen. X. 22 (p. 96 Vol. I). 

** We might be disposed to regard with favour the combination 
of the race-name N^DIDX with the Assyr. (m&t) Parsua = Ad- 
herbeidsh§,n (Delitzsch in Libri Dan. etc. p. IX); the prosthetic ji{ 
would not constitute a difficulty ; see Keilinsch. u. Geschichtsforschung 
p. 173. But it is surprising to find no mention in Asurbanipal's 
inscriptions of the land Parsua as one that was conquered and subjugated 
by him. After the time of Sargon and Sanherib (in whose records "land 
Parsuas" probably = 1. Parsua) we find no further reference at all in the 
inscriptions to this region; Keil. u. Gesch. ibid. With respect to the 
names X'^DHDION ^^<^ (^> ^) N^DDIDN Delitzsch refers to the Median 
cities mentioned in Asarhaddon's cylind. IV. 19 foil. Pa-ar-takka 
(Pa-ar-ta-ak-ka) and Partukka (Pa-ar-tuk-ka). In Asurbanipal's 
records, however, there is no mention of these also. — The same writer 
connects the race-name {^^m with the city (ir) Du-'-u-a (III Rawl. 
48, No. I, 9), and we might accept this combination if we knew any- 
thing of the position of the town mentioned in the Assyrian contract- 
tablet. Moreover the town mentioned in the tablet seems to have been 
situated within the imperial dominion, while, on the other hand, the 
position of K^HT ^^ ^^^ Biblical passage, between the Susians on the one 
side and the Elamites on the other (comp. the Addenda in this volume 
to Gen. X. 22), would scarcely lead us immediately to infer that it 
was a population belonging to the Assyrian imperial region. There- 
fore we must leave this combination also an open question. 


no Assyrian king ever forced his way up to the land 

10. "IBJPN Osnappar has not been pointed out as the 
name of a general either on the inscriptions of Asarhaddon 
or of any other Assyrian king, nor can it be understood 
at all as an Assyrian name. From the epithet "the great 
and mighty" one would suppose it to be the name of a 
king; and since we find that Asurbanipal (668 — (?) 626) 
was the only Assyrian monarch who penetrated into the 
heart of Elam and in particular gained possession of Susa, 
we are disposed to consider that the most probable theory 
is that of Gelzer, that the name "IDJDN is a corruption of 
the name '?DJbn)DN = ^D-J3-1CN. See H. Gelzer in 
Zeitschr. fiir die Aegypt. Sprache 1875, p. 78 foil. (His 
view is not prejudiced by the inaccuracy of his rendering 
of the phrase Hi kisir sarrlitija ur add i, which does 
not mean "extended over the whole of my kingdom" (?) 
but "(which) I added to my royal portion"). The depor- 
tation of the inhabitants of Elam to Assyria and the 
Assyrian dominions is placed beyond all doubt by the 
phrase sa aslula ultu kirib mat I'lamti "whom I 
carried away from the land Elam", or by the phrase 
alka ana mat ASsur "I transferred to the land As- 
syria" etc. See Geo. Smith, Hist, of Assurbanipal 236, 
32 foil. 233, 123; 234, 3. Delitzsch agrees with this 
view respecting Osnappar; Parad. p. 329. 

13. H'HjP^ also nip "tribute" is unquestionably the 377 
Assyrian m and at, also mad (d) at "tribute" properly gift, 
root ]"!J =: Hebr. ]ni See Paul Haupt, die sumerischen 
Familiengesetze, Leipzig 1879, p. 16 note 4. 

i*?? "impost" word of unknown derivation. Perhaps 
we might compare the Assyr. bilat, biltuv "gift", root 



7DN. Just as we have here i73 and Hljp mentioned 
together, so we have in Assyrian b i 1 1 u and mandattu; 
see Asarhaddon-Cylind. I Rawl. 46. Ill, 58 (biltuv u 
man-da-at-tu V bi-lu-ti-ja, "impost and tribute of 
my rule"). 

V. 2. ^^S"!] Zeruhbabel. The meaning has long ago 
been correctly explained as = 732 i^^"!|. Nevertheless we 
can best account for the curious elision of the aspirate by 
referring to the Babylonian mode of pronunciation, in 
which the elision or suppression of the V occurred in 
words such as Uktn-ztr = Xiv^rjQog ; Nabli-zyr- 
iddin = HO''^? etc. 

13. ^In the first year of Koresh, king of Babel." This 
designation of the Persian monarch as "king of Babel" 
is remarkable and moreover meets us in the writings of 
the same period (comp. Neh. XIII. 6)*. But its peculiarity 
becomes altogether intelligible in the light of authentic 
and contemporary Babylonian documents, in which Persian 
kings sometimes style themselves "kings of Babel" or are 
called by this title. Thus Cyrus (K u r a §) designates 
himself on the clay cylinder of Babylon (V Rawl. 35 
line 20) as ". ... Sarru rabti §arru dan-nu §ar 
Babilu Sar m^t Su-mi-ri u Ak-ka-di-i §ar kib- 
ra-a-ti ir-bi-it-tiv" i. e. ". . . . great king, mighty 
king, king of Babylon, king of Sumir and Akkad, king 
378 of the four regions". On the I'gibi-tablets as well as on 
Babylonian contract-tablets the dates are given during the 
Persian period from the ruler reigning at the time, who 

* Compare the remarks in my essay "The duration of the 
building of the second temple" in Theolog. Studien und Kritiken 
1867, p. 475. 


is designated as Sar B^bllu "king of Babylon", sometimes 
with the additional epithet §ar m^t^ti "king of coun- 
tries" or "Emperor"*. Evidently the title "king of Babel" 
had somewhat the same meaning to the inhabitants of 
Western Asia after the time of Nebucadnezzar as the 
epithet "Roman Emperor" had for the nations of the 
Middle Ages. It was not until the Persian empire broke 
up, and during the period of Greek domination, that the 
title "king of Persia" became current even in Western 
Asia ; see Theolog. Studien u. Kritiken ibid. 

VI. 2. t^npHN Ekbatana. The native pronunciation, 
according to the inscriptions of the Achaemenidae, was 
Hangmatana; compare the New-Persian ^^^A*^. To this 
corresponds the Babylonian pronunciation preserved on the 
monuments (ir) A-ga-ma-t a-nu, Behistun line 60; also 
(m^t) A-gam-ta-nu, Nablin^hid's Annals Obv. II, 3. 4. 
The capture of Ekbatana by Cyrus after the defeat of 
the army of Astyages (Is-tu-vi-gu) falls, according to 
Nabiinahid's Annals Obv. II, 2 foil., in the 6"' year of 
Nabunit i. e. 550 B. C. 

11. and being raised up let him be struck on (upon?) 
it (the piece of timber erected). This passage is understood 
to refer to crucifixion i. e. the fixing of a living body by 
nails to a piece of wood. But this punishment is unknown 
in Oriental countries (the passage in Diodorus Siculus 2, 1 
ofcourse proves nothing) and is specifically Roman. Also 
among the Persians we never meet with it. The reference 
in Xenophon Anabasis III, 1. 17 is not a case in point. 

* See my remarks in the Zeitschrift fiir die agyptische Spr. u. 
Alterth. 1879, pp. 39—45 ("on the eleventh year of Cambyses"), also 
ihid. 1880, pp. 99 — 103 (Addendum to the previous essay). 



Should we not then regard the punishment referred-to in 
this Biblical passage * as that of "impaling" i, e. the 
379 spiking of a living body upon a pointed stake ? Executions of 
this kind are frequently portrayed on the reliefs, at any rate 
of the Assyrians. We might compare with the expression 
used in scripture the oft-recurring Assyrian phrase ina 
zakipi azkup; also the Aramaic ^pT ^^^1, as well as 
\^^-oy crux **. 


I. 1. And it came to pass in the month Kislev (1???); 
comp. chap. II. 1 and it came to pass in the month Nisan 
(]D^J). The reader is aware that these and the other 
corresponding names of months first came into use among 
the Hebrews after the time of the exile, and it has there- 
fore been often assumed that they are of Persian origin. 
But it has been established beyond all doubt that their 
source is Babylono-Assyrian. In the first place, they were 
already employed by the prophet Zechariah I, 7. VII, 1. 
Secondly, we find them in continuous texts of the iuscrip- 

* The passages Esth. V, 14. VII, 10 are not necessarily of the 
same character. 

** It is evident from the Behistun-inscription of Darius lines 63, 83 
(diku u baltu dead and living) that the phrase ina zakipi askun 
(aStakan) can also express the fixing of living beings upon a stake. 
Respecting the mode of the execution these words do not allow us to 
form any definite conclusion. The choice, however, of the preposition 
ina in place of ana points in the main to a form of execution like 
that which is indicated by the Assyrian ina zakipi azkup, which is, 
without doubt, the method of impaling. From the Persian word 
uzma in the Behistun inscription, corresponding to the Babylonian 
zakipu, it is impossible to gain any mere precise idea about the 
manner in which the death-penalty was inflicted, since the meaning 
and etymology of the Persian word are themselves doubtful. 


tions where we have their corresponding ideograms. 
Lastly, they are exhibited in the tables of months dis- 
covered at Niniveh, which record the phonetic equivalents 
of the above ideograms. Of these tables we possess 
several; see Norris Diet. p. 50, P. Haupt Akkadische u. 
Sumerische Keilschrifttexte 44. 64. The first of these 
remarkable lists (Norris I, 50) consists of three columns, 
of which the first column exhibits the ideograms for the 
respective months , which ordinarily appear in the 
inscriptions ; the second gives their names in the old 
Babylonian non-Semitic, Sumiro-Akkadian language; and 
lastly the third contains the Babylono-Assyrian terras that 
correspond to them. We give a list of these last names 
with the respective Hebrew equivalents by their side* : 

Ni-sa-an-nu "jqi;] ^^^ 

Ai-ru (Var. Ai-ri) "^sf^ 

T ■ 

Si-va-nu (Var. Si-man-nu) niQ 

Du-u-zu (Var. Du-'-u-zu) I'lSp 

A-bu (Var. A-bi) 3{,{ 

U-lu-lu %^^ 

Ta§-ri-tav (Var. Tag-ri-tuv) ^*lJ£fn 

A-ra-ah sam-na (Var. A-ra-ah sa-am-nu) PK^mO 

Ki-si-li-vu (Var. Ki-is-li-vu) 1^D3 

Ti-bi-tuv (Var. Ti-bi-i-tav) HDIO 

Sa-ba-tu I03l^« ** 

* All the names quoted below are to be found in the Bible, 
excepting Ab, Tammuz, Tishri and Marcheswan. 

** Observe how in these names, with the solitary exception of 
Arab samna, the organic sound § corresponds to ^ and s to Q, 
contrary to the rule that otherwise prevails with respect to the 
adoption of foreign words. See further on this subject Berl. akade- 
mische Monatsber. 1877, pp. 82 foil. With regard to pji^nHO instead 
•^f lOtiTIlN) comp. the form ]')i3pi arising from Du-u-zu, Du-'-u-zu 

Ad-da-ru (Var. A-da-ri) ^HX 


Ar-hu ma-ak-ru* sa Addaru *inN1 

T T : 

Especial interest belongs to the Assyrian names in this 
list for "Marcheswan" and "Weadar" since they give us 
a glimpse into the origin of these terms. In the Assyrian 
name Arah-samnu the meaning lies on the surface; it 
signifies "the eighth month" and is compounded of the 
usual word for "month" arah**, i. e. the'Hebr. TW , and 
the ordinal numeral samnu (comp. the Aethiopic form 
1^^^ ; from the cardinal tiC^"^"^ = njiDtf' etc.). 
The reader observes that Marcheswan is eighth in the 
order of months. With regard to the Assyrian designation 
381 of Weadar, it is more definite than the corresponding and 
shorter form in Hebrew, whatever be the meaning of the 
word, which we are uncertain whether to read as makru 
or mahru ***. 

Susa (l^lti^), capital of Susiana, appears, as I have 
already remarked, also in the cuneiform inscriptions in the 

(perhaps with Paul Haupt we should pronounce it Du-im-u-zu) on 
the one hand, and Warka ^ y^ (with initial labial) arising out of 
^r\^ Arku, Uruk (see above Vol. I, p. 77) on the other. 

* So Norris and Delitzsch. Pinches reads mah-ru; Haupt is 

** In the case of the last month this word has a final u = arhu. 
*** A combination of this makru with a word n"1pl3 signifying 
"meeting" is, in point of meaning alone, scarcely admissible. In the 
first edition of this work I assumed a metathesis, makru standing for 
marku, root n-){i{ "be behind" (comp. the Assyr. arki, arkanu); at 
the same time I pointed out the transposition of consonants in such 
cases as Hebr. nli^^DO arising out of nll^D^O- Hence Ve-Adar was, 
in my opinion, denominated "the following month" (comp. Chald. 
riNinS ^HN)- This must, however, still remain a matter of un- 

T T : - T T 

certainty. In one copy the word is omitted. 


form Su-Ha-an as the capital of m§,t I'lamti i, e. Elam. 
See Smith's Assurbanipal 111, 94 (III Rawl. pi. 19. 
line 94). Comp. also the note on Gen. X. 22 (Vol. I, 
p. 96). 

II. 8. Dl"^9 jtaQaSsLGoq "pleasure-garden". Delitzsch, 
Parad. p. 95 foil., has propounded the conjecture that this 
word also may be of Babylono-Assyrian origin. The word, 
however, does not occur in Greek literature until the 
time of Xenophon (Cjropaed. I, 4. 11 &c.) i. e. until 
the Persian epoch, and, moreover, is specially employed 
to express the Persian "parks"; comp. Diodor. Sic. 16, 41. 
Hence it is certainly not through an accident that the 
word is only to be found in the later as well as lates* 
Hebrew literature *, at all events in the times subsequent 
to the exile (Neh. II, 8. Eccles. II, 5), and, moreover, in 
the passage which can be fixed chronologically with the 
greatest precision (Neh. ibid.) is employed to designate the 
"royal" garden of the Persian. Moreover we know (see 
the above-cited passages in the book of Nehemiah and 382 
Diodorus) that the Persian kings laid out royal parks of 
this kind in Palestine and caused them to be properly 
administered. In this way the Palestinian inhabitants 
might have become acquainted with the name for the thing 
which then passed outside the area of the Persian dominion. 
We have no evidence that the Assyrians formed parks like 
these in Palestine, and the supposition is hardly probable. 
Nor can we well believe that the word was brought to 
Palestine by an Israelite engaged in commercial pursuits 
at Niniveh. Hitherto neither a Semito-Assyrian nor an 
Akkado - Sumirian etymology for the name has been 

* I put on one side Song of Sol. IV. 13 which is a special case. 


forthcoming; moreover it has been ascertained that other 
names were employed for "garden" and "wood" in As- 
syrian. Hence, despite all objections, the theory of a 
Perso-Indogermanic origin of the word D1"]Q and its con- 
nection with the Zend pairidaeza appears to me still to 
possess the greatest probability. 

10. I0p5?p unquestionably a name of Assyrio - Baby- 
lonian origin. It corresponds to the Assyrian Sin-ballit 
i. e. "Sin bestowed life". The form ballit is abbreviated 
from u ball it (3 pers. Imperf. Pael). This is worthy of 
notice on account of the Hebrew punctuation with non- 
dagheshed 2, and also because of the Greek reproduction 
of the name ^ava^aXXdr , ^ava^alltrrjq. We have in 
Assyrian another analogous name: Nabli-bal-lit-an-ni 

"Nebo bestowed on me life" (II Rawl. 64 col. I, 30). See 

Assyrisch-Babylon. Keilinsch. p. 131. 


I. 1. In the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, Hezekiah 
kings of Jucla. Respecting the total duration of time 
represented by these reigns, see my comments on 2 Kings 
XV, 17 in Vol. I, pp. 215 foil. 
383 VI. 1. sitting on a high and exalted throne. Exactly 
the same phrase is used of Sanherib "(Sanherib) set him- 
self on an exalted throne" (see above Vol. I, p. 280). 
N53 has no derivation in the Semitic languages, and in these 
is a foreign word like the Graeco - Latin t h r o n u s in 
German and English. It is the ancient Babylonian, non- 
Semitic (is) gu-za (P. Haupt), which came into the 
Babylono- Assyrian in the form kussti. The Akkadian z 
passes into the Semitic s, as in the Assyrian absti from 


the Akkadian abzu; see above Vol. I, p. 5, The He- 
brews on their migration from Chaldaea brought with them 
the form ND3 approximating most closely to that above- 
mentioned. The Aramaeans resolved the reduplication and 
introduced a liquid^ and so gave the word the more eupho- 
nious form NP"]3; N^P']I13, and from this again the word was 

adopted by the Arabs with the pronunciation ^c**'^ • Ii^ 

the same class of migratory words we have likewise T'D^H 
(see the comment on 2 Kings XX. 18) and perhaps also 
'yVj Assyr. sarru, Surairo-Akkadian sfr (so the word 
should be read). See above Vol. I, p. 23 footnote ** and 
also comp. Haupt's Der Keilinschriftliche Sintfluthbericht 
p. 25 foil. 

2. D^P'^K'. Neither the name of the Seraphs nor the repre- 
sentation of creatures endowed in like manner with six wings, 
i. e. three pairs of wings, has hitherto been pointed out on 
the Assyrian monuments. On the other hand we often find 
genii provided with two upper and two lower wings, which 
to a certain extend afford an analogy. See the engraving 
under No. 3 which accompanies my essay "On an ancient 
Babylonian royal cylinder" (Berlin. Monatsber. 1879, pp. 
288 foil.); compare also the winged forms from the North- 
West palace , engraved in Riehm's Handworterbuch des 
biblischen Altertums 230a; 1088 b. Moreover there is 
a passage in the Descent of Istar to Hades, which may be 
cited in this connexion Obv. line 10 : lab-§u-ma kima 
issuri su-bat kap-pi "clad are they (the spirits or in- 384 
habitants of the lower world) like birds in a garment of 
wings", see below my comments on Job X. 21. 

4. D'^Bpn. The word for "threshold" f]P, occurring in 
Hebrew and Aramaic, is also found in Assyrian. In the 


latter it is pronounced with the vowel i, namely in the 
form sippu (e. g. Descent of Istar obv. 18), thus remind- 
ing us of the Aramaic ^BD, Isjc as well as the Hebr, ''50 
D"'DP. Moreover, the Sjriac word l^usoaie] "lintel" is to be 
found also in Assyrian (P. Haupt), having the same signi- 
fication viz. askuppatuv (not azkuppatuv 'stake'!). 
See Descent of Istar Rev. 2 7. 

VII. 1. Rezin; the king of Aram, and Pekah , the 
son Sj-c; see notes on 2 Kings XV, I. 29. 30. 3 7. 

6. And let us appoint as king in its midst the son of 
labeel (^N?^). See Keilinsch. u. Gesch. pp. 407 foil. 
The name of this Tabeel has not yet been pointed out in 
the inscriptions. 

X. 9. 1J<D Kalno. The inscriptions give us no light 
on the situation of this town. Respecting the Babylonian 
nj75 which has been combined with this ")J?3, see notes on 
Gen. X. 10 (p. 78 Vol. I). 

l^'''i^^"1^ Karkemtsh, a well-known city on the Euphrates, 
is frequently recorded in the inscriptions in the form (ir, 
m^t) Gar-ga-mis, comp. Asurn. Ill, 57. 65, Salman- 
assar's Obelisk 85 &c. ; also as (ir) Kar-ga-mis* (Tigl. 
Pileser 1 col. V, 49; III Rawl. 5 No. 2 line 22). This 
place is not to be identified, as I supposed in the former 
edition of this work, with the Circesium of the classical 
385 writers, standing at the confluence of the Chabor and the 
Euphrates; nor is it Mabbogh-Hierapolis, West of the 
Euphrates (G. Rawlinson ; Maspero) ; and it can scarcely 

* As to the modes in which the name was written or pronounced 
viz. Gargamis, Kargamis on the one hand, and the Hebrew 
tt^^t53"13) Aegypt. Karkamisa on the other, see my observations in 
Zeitschrift fiir Aegypt. Sprache uud Alterthum, 1879, p. 48. 


be the same as KaPat Nadshm or 'starcastle' (Noldeke), 
situated on the Western bank of the Euphrates. But it 
is probably Jerabis-Europos (EvQcojroc), lying further 
to the North of this spot, where numerous ruins have lately 
been laid bare, partly covered with Hlttite hieroglyphs. It 
is a town which, according to Ed. Pococke, is shaped like 
a square in its ruins and stretches "half a mile in length 
and a quarter of a mile in breadth" along the banks of 
the Euphrates (G. Smith, A. H. Sayce). See the refe- 
rences in Keilinsch. u. Geschichtsforschung pp. 221 — 5 
and compare G. Hoffmann, Ausziige (1880) p. 162 foil. 
F. Delitzsch, Paradies (1881) pp. 265 foil. It was one, if not 
the chief, city of the 'Land Chatti'. Its independence was 
destroyed by Sargon (722 — 705 B. C), who took Pisiri 
(Pisiris), king of the land Chatti, prisoner, carried off the 
spoil of the city to Niniveh, and imposed on the land "the 
yoke of Assur" (Botta 40, 20; 72, 7 foil. &c. NimrM- 
inscription, Layard 33, 10. 22). The subjugation of the 
Hittite empire and its incorporation into the Assyrian terri- 
tory took place, according to the annals, in the year 717 
B. C (Botta 72. 7 foil.). For further particulars see 
Keilinsch. u. Geschichtsf. ibid., also pp. 233 foil, and 
compare below the note on Is. XX. 1. Kespecting 
Hamdth, Arpad and Damaskus , see notes on 2 Kings 
XVIIL 34 (XIX. 13). 

14. And my hand reached towards the wealth of nations 
as towards a bird's nest (]|5). The simile of the bird's 
nest is employed by the Assyrians in a somewhat different 
manner. We read in Asurn^sirh. I. 50 : Ki-ma ki-in-ni 
u-di-ni HU (issur) i-na ki-rib sadi-i dan-na-su-nu 
i§-ku-nu i. e. "like the nest of the Udini-bird they had 
set their fortress in the midst of the mountains". Compare 


386 a similar passage in Sanherib's Taylor- cylinder col. III. 68 : 
kima kin-ni naSri "like an eagle's nest". 

28. He comes to Aiath, passes hy Migron, in Mikmas 
he leaves his baggage. They traverse the pass, at Geha 
they take up their night- quarter ; Rama trembles, Gibea of 
Saul Jlees &c. The reader is aware that it has often been 
supposed that we have here a vaticinium post eventum and 
that the prophet is describing the actual advance of 
the Assyrians against Jerusalem. If any further refutation 
of this hypothesis were needed, it would be furnished by the 
Assyrian monuments as completely as could be wished. 
From these last we perceive (see the notes on 2 Kings 
XVIII. 14 foil. 17 foil.) that Sanherib did not advance 
against Juda, as this Biblical passage would lead us to 
suppose, from the North, on the road by Nazareth-Jezreel- 
Shechem-Bethel and then by Ai, Mikmas, Geba, Rama, 
Gibea, Anathoth and Nob ; but we rather infer that he first 
marched close along the coast over Akko and Joppa from 
Sidon, and then turned Eastwards, and, while advancing 
with the main body of his army to Lakish through Bene- 
Berak, Beth-Dagon, Ekron and Ashdod, he somewhere near 
Lydda-Diospolis detached a corps to operate towards the 
East, or rather South-East, against Juda. This division 
"captured all the fortified towns of Juda" (2 Kings XVill. 
13) and forced its way past Bethhoron against Jerusalem 
itself. Sanherib despatched another corps to support it, 
from Lakish through Eleutheropolis, under the command 
of his 'tartan' (2 Kings XVIII. 1 7). 

If then Isaiah expected the Assyrian to invade Juda on 
the road from the North, this could only have been at a 
time when it was still possible that Sanherib might take 
this route, and when he had not definitely chosen the other 


road which passed by the sea-coast^ in other words when 
he had not yet advanced beyond Akko. This agrees with 387 
the contents of the oracle. For, while it exhibits an in- 
tense dread of the fate awaiting Juda and Jerusalem, it 
nevertheless presupposes that the Assyrian was still at some 
distance. It is quite otherwise in chap. XXII, where we 
must assume that the Assyrian was in immediate proximity 
to the capital. 

XI. 6. 1t3J *leopard" is called in Assyrian nim-ru 
(I Rawl. 28, 22). Comp. Arabic p. 

11. "from Aegypt (Dn^D) , Pathros (DlinD) and 
Aethiopia (It'lD)". Compare with this the brick-inscriptions 
of Asarhaddon, in which this king^styles himself §ar §arrt 
m§,t Mu-sur m4t Pa-tu-[ru?j-si vaki Ku-si "king 
of the kings of Aegypt, Pat(ro)s and Aethiopia". For further 
information consult Keiliusch. u. Gesch. pp. 283 foil, and 
the earlier work by Oppert, T Egypte et V Assyrie p. 41. 

12 from Elam, fronn Shinar and from Hamdth. 

Though we have no express mention of any deportation 
of Israelites to Elam or to Shinar or Hamath in the time 
of Tiglath-Pileser and Sargon, yet we have no sufficient 
reason for throwing any doubt on the correctness of this 
statement, since it is a sufficiently likely supposition that 
the Israelites, like the subjects of other nationalities, were 
transported to the above mentioned cities and countries. 
We learn from Khorsab. 138 foil, that Sargon transplanted 
the Hittite inhabitants of Kummuch to territories 
belonging to Elam. Already in the first year of the king's 
reign the inhabitants of Western countries were being 
transported to Shinar - Babylonia (comp. above Vol. I, 
p. 268 foil.). At all events Sargon distinctly states iu 


Khorsab. 49. 56, that he settled Armenian inhabitants 
in Hamath. 
388 XIII. 1 7. Medians, see note on Gen. X. 2 (p. 62, Vol. I). 
19. Chaldaeans, see note on Gen. XI. 28 (pp. 114 foil. 
Vol. I). 

XIV. 8. ]i33? n_'lN-a''^'1ng Cypresses . . . cedars of 
Lebanon. The Assyrians too mention both these species 
of tree in conjunction as belonging to Lebanon (see 
on 1 Kings V. 13, Vol. I, p. 172 foil.). In this 
case we assume that the variety of Pine survan, sur- 
vinu, which is also to be met with in Aramaic 13112^, 
ij.A£)jaA< really meant the cypress. This is, however, by 
no means certain. At all events we also find the name 
of a tree bur^su employed by the Assyrians, corre- 
sponding to the Hebrew 1^*11? ; see Keilinsch. u. Gesch. 
pp. 194. 532. Salmanassar in his monolith II, 9 mentions 
in conjunction (just as in the above passage) is irin and 
is bur4§u as felled by him on the range of the Amanus. 
The name for the cedar Irin evidently corresponds to the 
Hebrew ]')ii. The latter, however, is in Hebrew the name 
also for a variety of fir and does not denote the 'cedar', 
while conversely the name 1"!)N employed in that language 
does not occur in Assyrian *. Comp. also the notes on 
Is. XLIV. 14. 

* I would also observe that in the list of Asiatic mountains and 
ranges, and the products which specially belong to them, II Rawl. 51, 
No. 1 (comp. Delitzsch, Paradies p. 101), it is the Amanus (sad 
Ha-ma-nu line 3) which is called sad i-ri-ni i. e. "cedar-mountain", 
while in line 5 the Lebanon (sad Lab-na-nu, not Lib-na-nu!) is 
characterized as sad is sur-man (see above). On the other hand in 
line 10 an unknown mountain Ha-na is called sad burSsi (SIM 
[or RIK] LI, Keilinsch. u. Gesch. p. 532) i. e. Cypress-range. On this 
subject compare my essay on "Ladanum and Palm" in the Berlin. 
Monatsber. 1881, p. 413 foil. 


12. "intt'"|3 7Tn bright star, son of the daion. Similarly 
the planet Venus' is called In Assyrian m u s t i 1 1 1 t'pnn^i'O 
"the shining star" (in a syllabary III Rawl. 5 7, 60; see 
Oppert). Regarding the other name of the planet 389 
Dil-bat i. e. A^Xicfar see the note on Judg. II. 13 in 
Vol. I, p. 167. 

13. li^'iO llj '^mount of assembly". I regard it as 
convincingly shown from Lenormant's intimations, refer- 
red-to in Delitzsch Parad. pp. 117 foil., that there existed 
likewise among the Assyrians or Babylonians an analogous 
conception of a world-mountain, which was also the dwelling 
of the gods. The most important passage is in Sargon's 
Khors^b^d- inscription, where he speaks of the temples 
founded and erected by him at Diir-Sarrukin. The 
passage runs thus : 155. la. Sin, Samas, Nabft, 156. 
Adar u hi-ra-ti-§u-nu ra-ba-a-ti sa i-na ki-rib 
r. HAR. SAG. GAL. KUR. KUR. RA mat A-ra-al-li 
ki-nis '-al-du Is-ri-ti nam-ra-a-ti 15 7. zuk-ki 
nak-lu-ti ina ki-rib iv Dtir-Sarrukin ta-bi§ 
ir-mu-u i. e. "I'a (Aos), Sin, Samas, Nebo, Adar, and 
their exalted consorts, who amid the house Charsaggalkur- 
kurra (i. e. the house of the mountain-summit of lands) of the 
Aralli mountain * in eternity are born, founded gleaming 

* Delitzsch takes sadii Aralli (so he transcribes the cuneiform) 
as in apposition to Echarsaggalkurkurra and regards Aralli as the 
special name for the mountain of the gods. The introduction of such 
a designation would, however, be disturbing in this passage, and, 
besides thisj it is sufficiently ascertained, from the passage cited below 
II Rawl. 24 b, 7/8, that there was a land Aralli. Charsaggalkurkurra i. e. 
"the summit of lands" lay in the land Aralli, at or above it i. e. at 
the entrance to the lower world. It is no argument against this view 
to say that we find sad Aral u (A-ra-lu) in a list of mountains and 
mountain-ranges, appeai-ing as one of them, in which hurasu 'gold' 


390 sanctuaries , artistically wrought cells *, in the city Dtir- 
Sarrukin". We also learn from this passage that the 
abode of the gods lies upon the summit of a mountain, 
which is itself situated in the Arallu district i. e. at the 
spot where lies the entrance to the lower world. It is 
not stated on the monuments that this mountain exists in 
the North (pDV V^T'^ Is. XIV. 13). We may, however, 
conjecture that the Babylonians regarded it as Northern in 
position, from the circumstance that they describe the land 
Aralu as a land of darkness. Compare also the passage 
from Job XXXVII. 22, quoted by Delitzsch, «from the 
North comes gold", and likewise Bottcher in Dillmann, Job 
p. 332. See also Ezek. XXVIIL 14, 16. 

15. t'iN?^ Slieol. This name for the Lower world 
has not yet been discovered on the monuments. Delitzsch's 
Su-al "mighty city" is only to be regarded as a conjecture. 
The Assyrian name of the "land where one sees not" is 

is to be found (II Rawl. 51 No. 1 line 11a. b; comp. Delitzsch, Parad. 
pp. 101 — 2). The range Aralu is simply the mountain-range named 
after the country whose loftiest peak is Charsaggalkurkurra. — Respec- 
ting arallu, aralu "lower world", the a-sar la a-ma-ri "the place 
without seeing" i. e. "the place of darkness" (IV Rawl. 24 b 7/8), see 
Oppert, I'immortalite de I'dme chez les Chalddens p. 4; Lenormant, 
Chaldaean Magic pp. 151 — 2; Fried. Delitzsch, Parad. p. 118. Compare 
also V Rawl. 16. 42 e. f. in which I'-kur-bat i. e. "house of the laud 
of death" = aralu (a-ra-li) is interpreted by mitu (mi-i-tuv) = njj 
i. e. the dead (collect, sing). The Assyrian for 'death' is mutu, for 
'dying' mi tutu.— P. de Lagarde compares with this the cuneiform 
Aralu, the Armenian AQakt'Q, a name for supernatural, mythical 
beings. See Nachrichten von der Getting. Gesellsch. der Wissen- 
schaften 1882 No. 7 (March. 31) pp. 164 foil. — On the archaeological 
bearings compare also Clermont Ganneau, L'Enfer Assyrien (Revue 
Arch^ologique Dec. 1879). 

* Zukku synonym of parakku according to II Rawlinson 35, 
14a. b (33, 64 a. b; 28, 41a). Del. 


m^t Aralu (see note on verse 13). Moreover, according 
to Delitzsch Parad. p. 120, it is called gi(g)-unu "abode 
of darkness", semitized into gigunii (IV Rawl. 27, 25/26a 
and comp. ibid. 24 7/8 a). 

XVIII, 1 foil. Respecting the time, when this oracle 
was composed, see the notes on chap. XX. 1. 

XIX. 1 foil. As I have already indicated, in my new 
edition of De Wette's Introduction to the Old Testament, 
§ 256 note d *, the composition of this oracle, which 
critics on insufficient grounds have declared to be not 
Isaiah's, falls in the early period of Sargon's reign, or, to 
be more precise, in the time when the "sultan" (Siltannu) 
Seveh was defeated by Sargon and compelled to flee (see 391 
notes on XX. 1), and, in consequence of this disaster 
anarchy threatened to break out or had already broken 
out. This was in the year 720 B. C. The "hard master" 
with which Isaiah threatens the Aegyptians is none other 
than Sargon himself (verse 4). Another indication that 
the passage was composed in the reign of Sargon is to be 
found in the position of this chapter between chapters 
XVIII and XX. See also the remarks on chap. XX. 1. 

11. The princes of Zoan (^V^)- This city, lying on 
the Eastern arm of the Nile, is likewise referred-to in 
the Assyrian inscriptions. Thus Asurbanipal mentions a 
certain Pu-tu-bi§-ti gar ir Sa-'-nu "Petubastes, 

* "From the Khorsabad-inscription of Sargon (Botta and Flandin, 
Monument de Ninive pi. 145 lines 13 — 15; comp. also Journ. Asiat. 
1863 I p. 9) we learn that besides the 'sultan' Seveh of Aegypt there 
existed likewise a 'Pharaoh'. This leads us to conclude that the 
kingdoms were divided." 



king of Tanis" * ; Smith's Assurbanipal 21, 98; 
V Rawl. 1, 96. 

13. The rulers of Noph (^J). This Aegyptian city is 
also called in the Old Testament (Hosea IX. 6) ^b i. e. 
Memphis, and appears in the cuneiform inscriptions in 
the form Ir Mi-im-pi; see Smith's Assurbanipal 20, 89. 
92 &c. ; also in the less accurate form ir Mi-im-pi 
III Rawl. 29 notice line 21. 
392 XX. 1. In the year when the Tartan came to Ashdod 
(see note on 2 Kings XVIII. 17), namely when Sargon 
(liillQ) ** king of Assyria despatched him, and he fought 
against Ashdod and took it ... . This is the only passage 
in the Old Testament where mention is made of this 
powerful Assyrian ruler, the builder of Northern Niniveh 
or Dtir-Sarruktn (see Vol. I, p. 85), the conqueror of 
Samaria and father of Sanherib. His name was pro- 
nounced in Assyrian Sarruktn, and is understood by the 
Assyrians themselves either as Sarru-kinu "Firm (is) 

* Besides this Sa-'-nu-Zoan we find in the same list another 
place written in a difi'erent way (i r) S i - ' - n u. The latter was 
ruled by a particular king having the specifically Assyrian name 
Sarluddri (Smith's Assurb. 21, 93 = V Eawl. I. line 91). These two 
places are distinct from one another. The fact that in Rassam's 
Cylind. I, 131 we find ir Si-'-nu, whereas in Cyl. B. col. II, 1 (Smith's 
Assurb. p. 32) we have the variant Sa-'-nu (Delitzsch), is scarcely a 
proof that the two spots were identical, but simply confirms what we 
know from other cases to be true, that the latter cylinder was less 
carefully inscribed than the former. The scribe had combined the 
two names, which resembled each other in sound. Observe too, that 
in both passages (V Rawl. I, 30. 31 and I, 131) the town Si'nu is 
mentioned in conjunction with Sais ; only the second time it is sepa- 
rated by the intervening ir Pi(Bi)-in-di-di "Mendes". 

** Also with Raphe in the gimel = 'Jij'ip J on this consult B. Stade, 
de Isaiae vaticiniis Aethiopicis, Lips. 1873 p. 38 ann. and Franz 


the king"*, or else as Sar-ukin i. e. *He (God) ordered 
the king"; see Assyrisch-Babyl. Keilinsch. pp. 161, 163. 
The form in which the name is written on the clay tablets, 
Sar-u-kin arku-u = Sarukin arkti (III Rawl. 2, 
3. 4. 11. 14; in ibid. 13. 18. 24. 34 we have the ortho- 
graphy Sar(ru)-Gl. NA arkli), leads to the conclusion, 
that the latter signification was that which was assigned 
to the name by the Assyrians. The addition arkU "the 
other", "second" places the bearer of this designation in con- 
trast with an older king of the same name, the celebrated 
Babylonian monarch Sargon I. Also the orthography 
Sa-ru-ki-na (with D), which exists side by side with the 
above modes of writing the name , is worthy of notice on 
account of the sibilant. See Assyrisch-Babyl. Keilinsch. 
p. 160**. 

Though Sargon never calls himself the son of his prede- 393 
cessor — nor, in fact, the son of any one at all***, — yet 

Delitzsch ibid, on the one hand, and G. HoflFmann, Ausziige aus syr. 
Akten (1880) p. 183 on the other; comp. also Vol. I p. 85 footnote**. 
For the transition of Assyr. 3 into a J, corap. JJQ from Assyr. §akan; 
n?JFl from the Assyr. tuklat. 

* Respecting the signification of the adjective ki'nu "firm", 
"steadfast", on the one hand, and "faithful" on the other, see Assyr. 
Babyl. Keilinsch. p. 161. 

** The question arises, whether, on the ground of this phonetic 
reproduction of the name, it would not be more correct to transcribe 
throughout by Sar-ukin. On this point consult also my academic 
essay : 'The Sargon-stele of the Berlin Museum' (Abhandlung VI of 
the year 1881) Berlin 1882, pp. 28 foil. 

*** Sargon's inscription we transcribe as follows : I'kal Sarrukin, 
SA-an Bi'l, NU. AB Asur, sarru dannu, sar ki§sati, sar mat 
Assur. This is rendered by Oppert (Exped. en Mdsopot. II, p. 328) : 
"Palace of Sargon, who is the (former) Bel-patis-assur, the mighty 
king, the king of nations, the king of the land Assur". But the 



we cannot doubt that he was of some royal descent, presu- 
mably along a collateral line. Thus not only does he 
boast of his 350 royal predecessors (Botta 37, 41), but his 
grandson Asarhaddou expressly styles himself grandson of 
Sargon and great grandson i. e. descendant (lib lib) of 
Brlb^ni, son of Adasi, king of Assyria, the ancient con- 
queror (Smith in Lepsius' Zeitschrift, 1869, p. 93). 
'We have no knowledge, however, from other sources, 
respecting the personality of this Bilbani or of his father 
Adasi. He seems to have been a very ancient monarch 
whose name does not appear in the list of the historical 
kings *. 

correct rendering, as the above writer has himself long acknowledged, 
should be : — "Palace of Sargon, the representative of Bel, the high- 
priest of Asur, the mighty king, the king of the host of nations, the 
king of the land Assur". SA is the ideogram for §akS,nu "to place" 
from which comes §aknu, const, state iakan, "representative", 
"vicegerent" (Hebr. pQ); see Assyr. Babylon. Keilinsch. p. 109 No. 38 
and comp. above Vol. I, p. 176 footnote; an is phonetic complement. 
NU-AB is ideogram for ni-sak-ku (II Rawl. 32, 7, e. f.), a word of 
unknown origin; its meaning is satisfactorily determined from the 
ideogram (NU := zikaru "male servant", "attendant"; see II Rawl. 
7, 1 c. d. and AB = bitu "house", "temple" see Syllab. 188). 
Delitzsch was already on the right track Assyr. Lesestiicke 2 ed. 
No. 47 [in 3rd ed. No. 48— Tr]. Moreover from the omission of the 
perpendicular wedge, i. e. of the personal determinative, we can see 
that Bi 1 does not commence a proper name. Compare also the opening 
lines of the Nimr&d-inscription, Layard 33, 1 (see notes on Is. XLI. 25, 
Jerem. LI. 23). 

* Oppert's view, propounded in Studien und Kritiken 1871, p. 710 
foil., that Sargon came to the throne when an old man 70 years of 
age, and was grandson of Asur-dan-il and had been placed on the 
throne as successor by the last king before Pul, Asurnirar, finds no 
support in the inscriptions, which, in my opinion, show no evidence 
of a break in the series of rulers occasioned by the intrusion of Pul. 
Moreover the extraordinary energy displayed by Sargon, from the 
beginning to the end of his reign, makes such a supposition extremely 
improbable. In fact it has meantime been abandoned by its author. 


Sargon's life-time belongs to tbose periods of Assyrian 394 
history about which we are best informed *. The monarch 
himself took care by means of the inscriptions, which he 
had recorded by way of adornment (chiefly to his great 
palace at DUr-Sarru ktn i. e. Northern Niniveh, the 
present KhorsS.bM), that his exploits should not be lost to 
the recollection of posterity, and a propitious destiny has 
preserved to us these slabs in such a condition, that though 
we may wish that they had been more complete in some 
places, yet they suffice to give us a conception of the life 
and deeds of this powerful ruler. These inscriptions, accom- 
panied ofcourse by numerous parallels, fill the whole of 
the third and fourth folio volumes of Botta's magnificent 
work. Some additions have been communicated by Oppert, 
from the MSS. of Victor Place, in his work ^Les in- 
scriptions de Dour-Sarkayan', Paris 1870. The chief in- 
scriptions are the following : 

1. Sargon's annals, which have unfortunately come 
down to us only in fragments , and some of these badly 
mutilated. They may be found in Botta and Flandin's 
Monument de Ninive IV. pi. 70—92 (Hall II) ; 104—120 
(Hall V); 158—162 (Hall XIV). Besides these we have 
a few scattered remains of inscriptions on columns. A com- 
plete version of the fragments of these Annals has been 395 
attempted by Oppert in Les inscriptions de Dour-Sarkayan, 
Paris 1870, pp. 29 — 35. This has been revised in 
Records of the Past VII, 21 — 56. I would also refer the 
reader to my observations in Studien und Kritiken 1872, 

* On this subject compare the articles 'Sargon' in Schenkel's Bihel- 
lexicon (1875) and Riehm's Handworterbuch des biblischen Alterthums 
H. XV (1881), pp. 1370 foil. 


H. IV. pp. 735 foil. These annals cover the first fifteen 
years of the king's reign B. C. 722/1 — 707/6. 

2. The great, summarizing triumphal inscription at 
Khorsabad; Botta 93— 104 (Hall IV) ; 121 — 132 (Hall 
VII) and chiefly the slabs in the Hall No. X : pi. 144 — 
154. There belong also to this list the slabs of Hall 
No. VIII, which have come down in a very fragmentary 
state. The inscription has been edited, translated and 
commented upon by Oppert and M^nant in the Journ. 
Asiatique 1863 foil. S^r. VI, 1 foil. A revised translation 
has been given by Oppert in 'Records of the Past' IX, 
3 — 20. This inscription also extends over the events of 
the first fifteen years of the monarch's reign. 

3. The bull-inscriptions of Khorsab§,d ; Botta 22 — 62; 
Oppert, Dour-Sark. pp. 3 foil. 

4. The inscriptions on the pavement at the palace-gates 
(pav^ des portes) ; Botta pi. 1 — 21. 

5. The inscriptions on the reverse-side of the slabs; Botta 
161 — 179; see M^nant, les inscriptions des revers des 
plaques, Paris 1865 fol. 

6. The votive-tablets which refer to the founding of 
Dlir-Sarrukin, edited and translated by Oppert, Dour-Sark. 
p. 23 foil. 

7. The inscription on the clay cylinder I Rawl. 36 ; 
Oppert ibid. p. II foil. This has come down to us in 
several copies. Compare meanwhile D. G. Lyon, 'The 
cylinder- inscription of Sargon 11', Leipzig 1882. 

8. A second still unpublished cylinder-inscription ; G. 
Smith, Discoveries pp. 288 foil. 

9. The slab-inscription of Nimrtid, Layard 33. 34, the 
oldest of all Sargon's inscriptions, and the only one which 


has been preserved to us from the time previous to the 396 
capture of Babylon (710)*. 

10. The triumphal inscription on the Sargon-stele dis- 
covered on the site of the ancient Citium. It is now 
preserved in the Berlin Museum 111 Rawl. pi. 11. The 
text has been transcribed and translated by G. Smith in 
the Aegyptische Zeitschrift 1871, pp. 68 — 72. I have 
bestowed a detailed treatment upon this inscription in my 
academic essay "The Sargon-stele of the Berlin Museum" 
(Dissertation VI of the philos. histor. Class) of the year 
1881 (Berlin 1882), with two plates photo - lithographed. 
As regards its composition, this is the oldest of all the 
inscriptions drawn up after the fall of Babylon. 

11. A series of smaller inscriptions on bricks e. g. 
I Rawl. 6. No. 7 &c. ** 

The most important statements contained in these in- 
scriptions, in their bearing upon Biblical history, are the 
accounts of the capture of Samaria (see note on 2 Kings 
XVII. 6) and of Sargons enterprises in Western Asia against 
Tyre (see note on Josh. XIX. 29, Vol. I, p. 157 foil.), 
the Philistine cities of Gaza and Ashd6d, and also against 
Aegypt. The report of the latter campaign, which was 
likewise directed against Gaza, runs thus in the inscription 
of Khors^bM (Botta 145, 2, 1 — 3) : Ha-nu-nu §ar Ir 

* For more definite information as to chronology see my disser- 
tation referred-to under No. 10 p. 8 note 1. 

** To these must be added the brick inscriptions which are dated 
according to the years of Sargon's reign. About these the reader 
might consult G. Smith in Lepsius' Aegyptische Zeitschrift 1869, 
pp. 94 foil, and Oppert in Studien und Kritiken 1871, pp. 707 foil. 
These are published in III Rawl. 2, No. I— XVI. See also the "Chrono- 
logical Addenda". 


Ha-zi-ti it-ti Sab-'-i §il-tan-nu m^t Mu-su-ri 
ina ir Ra-pi-hi a-na l-bl§ kabli u tah§,zi a-na 
gab-ja it-bu-ni; 2. apikta-§u-nu am-ha-as. Sab-'-i 
397ri-gim kakki-ja l-rim-ma i n-n a-b 1 t-m a la in-na-mir 
a-§ar-§u. Ha-nu-nu §ar Ir Ha-zi-ti ina ka-ti as-bat. 
3. Ma-da-at-tu §a Pi-ir-'-u §ar m^t Mu-su-ri, Sa- 
am-si, §ar-rat m§,t A-ri-bi, It-'-am-a-ra mS,t 
Sa-ba-'-ai hur^su i§-bi KUR. RA, sist gam-mal 
am-huri. e. 1. *Hanno, king of Gaza, marched with 
Seveh, sultan of Aegypt, against me at the city Raphia, 
to join battle and combat with me. 2. I put them to 
flight. Seveh was afraid of the onset of my weapons ; he 
fled , and there was not a trace of him seen *. Hanno, 
king of Gaza, I took prisoner with my hand. 3. I receiv- 
ed the tribute of Pharaoh, king of Aegypt, of Samsieh, 
queen of Arabia, of It'amar, the Sabaean, gold, herbs of 
the East (incense), horses and camels." 

Notes and Illustrations. Haziti, Gaza see Vol. I, p. 91, Gen. X. 19; 
Sab'i Seveh 2 Kings XVII. 4, Vol. I, p. 261 foil.; siltannu ]^Stt'> see 
Vol. I, pp. 261, 262 footnote * ; Raphia is the well known city, 22 Eomau 

* The flight of Seveh is described with greater detail in the 

"annals". We read in Botta pi. 71, lines 1 — 3 : 1. Sab-' 

su a-na ki-[it-]ri-gu it-[ta-kal-]ma a-na i-bis kab-li 2. [u]ta-ha-zi 
a-na gab-ja it-ba-a. I-na zi-kir [A-]sur bi'l-ja apikta-su-nu 
am-has-ma. 3. [Sa]b-' (sic!) itti-i av. ri'u sa si-na-su kil(?)ta 
i-da(?)-nu-u§-§u ip-par-sid-ma Hi i. e. "Seveh — trusted in his troops 
(kitri Norris 537) and advanced against me, to join battle [and] 

2. combat with me. With invocation of Asur, my Lord, I smote them. 

3. Seveh fled away alone with a herdsman, who (guarded?) his sheep, 
and escaped {'fj^^, root ri^I^)"- — Oi the latter phrase compare the 
similar passage in an inscription of Tiglath-Pileser II (III Rawl. 9, 37) ; 
i-di-nu-u§-§u ip-par-§id-ma i-li with the same signification. I'dinu, 
root nplNj "aloneness", idinussu "in his aloneness" i. e. "alone", 
Assyr. Babyl. Keilinsch. pp. 288, 301. Comp. also Tiglath-Pileser II 
in Layard 66, 18 : i-d i-n u-u §-§ u (so read) u-mas-[§ir] Pa-ka-ha &c. ; 
see Pognon, luscr. de Bavian p. 49 note. 


miles South West of Gaza, on the frontier of Asia and Aegypt, where 
the battle took place between Ptolemy Philopator and Antiochus III; 
— 2. rigim 'storm', 'onset', comp. Hebr. DJ"1 ; iriv we understand 
with Oppert to be the imperf of aru = Hebr. {<"ii "fear"; in nab it 
Imperf. Nif. of a b S, t u to flee (Haupt ; frequently in the inscriptions) ; 398 
innamir Nif. Imperf. of amSru (comp. the Aethiop. [^]/\^^^) 
"see" (Haupt); kati stands for katija; see Assyr.-Babyl. Keil. p. 246 
note 2. — 3. Respecting Pir'u = PIX/ID ^®® t^oIq on Exod. I. 11, Vol. I, 
p. 140; Samsi = H^^Oti^ (oi tbe change in the sibilants see Assyr.- 
Babyl. Keilinsch. p. 196); gammal is to be taken as plural, though 
the plural sign is not attached. This sign is forgotten, just as in the 
case of narkabati "carriages", Botta 70, 2. 

The report of the capture of Ashdod, to which the 
present passage in Isaiah refers, runs in the KhorsS,bad- 
inscription as follows* : Botta 149. 6. 6. A-zu-ri sar 
ir As-du-di a-na la na-§l-l bil-ti 7. lib-§u ik-bu-ud- 
ma a-na §arr§,-ni li-vi-ti-§u 8. zi-ra-a-ti mat ASSur 
i§-pur. A§-su hul-tuv 1-bu-su 9. ili nisi li-vi-ti-§u 
bi-lut-su u-nak-kir. 10. A-hi-mi-ti a-hu ta-lim-Su 
ana §arrti-ti fli-§u-nu a§-kun-ma 11. Av. Ha-at-tl 
da-bi-ib za-rar-ti bl-lut-su i-zi-ru-ma Ja-ma-ni la 
bn kussi 12. sa ki-ma §a-a-§u-[nu]-ma pa-lah bi- 
lu-ti la i-du-u u-rab-bu-u ili-gu-un. 150, 1. I-na su- 
[h u-u t 1 i b]-b i-j a g i-b i S u m m a n i-j a 2 . u 1 u-p a h-h i r- 
ma ul ak-su-ra ka-ra-§i 3. it-ti av, ku-ra-di-ja sa 
a-§ar [saj-al-mi 4. idS.-ai la ip-par-ku-u a-na ir As- 
du-di 5. al-lik-ma u §u-u Ja-ma-ni a-lak gir-ri-ja 
6. ru-ki§ i§-ml-ma a-na i-tl-1 m^t Mu-su-ri 7. §a 
[pa] -at mat M[l]-luh-ha in-na-bit la in-na-mir 

8. a-§ar-§u. I'r As-du-du, Ir Gi-im-tu As-du-di-im-mu 

9. al-vl ak-sud; ili-§u assata-§u abli-su banati-su 

10. GAR. SU GAR. GA ni-sir-ti lkal-§u it-ti ni§t 

* The words supplied are according to the parallels. See Oppert. 


mS,ti-su 12. a-na §al-la-tl am-nu. rr§,ni §u-a-tu-nu 
a-na i's-Su-ti 13. as-[bat]; ni§i matati ki-sid-ti ka- 
ti-ja 151, 10. Z. 1. §a ki-rib . . . [ni-pi]-Ih san-si 
lib-bi u-[§l-§ib-nia. . . it]-tl niSt m§,tAs§ur am- 
nu-Su-nu-ti-ma i-§u-tu ab-§a-ni. Sar m. Ml-luh-[ha] 

2. §a i-na ki-rib iz-zu a-sar la '-a-ri u-ru-uh 

[§a ul-tu timji ru-ku-ti a-di-i (?) AN. SIS. 

399 (URU) KI. abliti-§u a-na sarri-ni abtiti-ja 3. rak- 
bu-§u-un la [is-pu-]ru a-na sa-'-al sul-mi-su-un, da- 

na-an .... §a [. .. Marduk a-na pul]-hl 

mi-lam-ml §arr6-ti-ja i k-t u-m u-§ u-m a i t-t a-p i-i k-s u 
ha-at-tav. 4. I-na si-is-si . . . [bi-ri-tav] parzilli 
id-di-§um-ma a-na ki-rib mat ASsur har-ra-ni 
ru-[u-ki] u-§a-as-bi-tu a-di mah-ri-ja [il-lik-am-ma] 
i. e. 6. "Azuri, king of Ashdod, not to paj tribute, 7. his 
heart was obstinate and sent to the princes of his neigh- 
bourhood demands 8. to revolt from Assyria. Accordingly 
I wreaked vengeance 9. and changed his government over 
the inhabitants of his district. 10. Achimit, his own brother*, 
I appointed to be governor over them. 1 1. The Hittites, 
who thought of revolt, despised his rule, raised Jaman, 
who had no claim to the throne 12. and who, like the 

* Respecting talimu = Targ. Talm. XO'^f)) ^'ChV) (^ren. XLIX. 5) 
see Fried. Delitzsch in G. Smith's Chald. Genesis (Germ. Ed.) 1876, 
p. 272 note 1. The word also occurs in Asurbanipal's announcement 
of the installation of his brother Sama§-sum-ukin (Saosduchin) as 
king of Babel; in fact, it is employed with reference to the latter in 
his relation to Asurbanipal. See III Rawl. 16 No. 5 line 39 [where the 
passage runs : — Samas-sum-ukin ahu ta-lim-ja a-na sarru-u-tu 
Babilu (DIN. TIR. Kl) ap-ki-id "Sama§-sum-ukin, my own brother, 
I appointed to rule over Babylon". Fried. Delitzsch, in the Glossary to 
Assyr. Lesestiicke S""*! ed., cites the corresponding fem. talimtu 'own 
sister'. — Transl.] 


former, refused recognition of authority, over them. 
150, 1. In the rage of my heart my whole army 2. I 
gathered not, did not even collect my baggage, 3. with 
my chief warriors, who did not retreat from the victorious 
track of my arms, 5. I advanced to Ashdod. The above 
Jaman, as he of the approach of my expedition 6. heard 
from far, fled to a district (?) of Aegypt, 7. which is 
situated on the frontier of Miluhha; not a trace of him was 
seen. 8. Ashdod, Gimt-Ashdudim, 1 besieged, I captured; 
his gods, his wife, his sons, his daughters, 10. the treasures, 
possessions, valuables of his palace, together with the inhabi- 
tants of his land 12. I destined for capture. Those towns I 
restored again. 13. The inhabitants of the countries which 
my hands had seized, 151. 10, 1. which amid .... in 
the East, 1 settled there; I treated them like unto the 
Assyrians ; they tendered obedience. The king of Miluhha, 400 

2. who in a strong, a waste (?) region, on a path , 

whose fathers since distant times, (since?) the aM (?) of 
the moon, to my royal predecessors 3. had not sent their 
envoys, to beg for themselves peace : the might ... of 
Merodach [overpowered him ?], the dread of my royal 
majesty overcame him, fear seized him. 4. Into bonds 
.... iron chains he cast him (Jaman) ; caused him to take 
his distant way to Assyria and appeared before me." 

Notes amd Illustrations. 149. 6. NaSi', na§& Infin. Kal, root 
tJtj;^;— 7. See note on Exod. IX. 7, Vol. I, p. 141; livftu "neigh- 
bourhood"; see Sanherib Taylor-cylind. Ill, 14; — 8. zirftt "(summons to) 
revolt", root ^!)] 'turn aside'; aSsu, see Assyr. Babyl. Keil. p. 296, 
No. 7;— 10. "Achimit", see note on Josh. XI. 22, Vol. I, p. 150; talimsu, 
see footnote in preceding page and glossary; — 11. bi'l kussi "master 
of the throne" i. e. "one who has a claim to the throne", comp. bi-il 
li§^ni "master of language" i. e. skilled in language, "interpreter"* 

[* The reader will not fail to compare the corresponding Hebrew 
use of '^j^a, Ewald § 287 f.— Transl.] 


Smith's Assurban. 77, 9; pal&hu Infin. "reverence", "recognition": idfi 
3 plur. imperf. Kal of ^"^^ = j»^^; urabbu 3 pers. imperf. Pael 
"raise" from rabu. 150. 1. guhut (properly 'destruction' nnii' ^^^ 
then (?)) "anger"; gibi§ "mass", root ^^3 j ; umman "army", root 
1Q^, extended formation from Q^; — 8. "Gimtu Asdudim", perhaps 
"Gath of the Ashdodites" ? See note on Josh. XIII. 3 (Vol. I, p. 154); 
— 9. Comp. Sanherib Taylor-cylind. col. II. 60*. — 10. Comp. Sanherib 
Tayl.-cylind. col. II. 56, I Rawl. 35, 20;— 12. see Sanherib Tayl.-cyl. 
III. 20. — 13. For ash at 'I took in hand', 'restored' there often stands 
abni "I built" as in Standard-inscript. 15 and other passages; nipih 
'rising of the sun' like Hebr. XJi"li2, see Lotz, Die Inschriften Tigl.- 
Pilesers I p. 84 and comp. note on Ps. XIX. 7; — 151, 1. iSfitu ab§§,ni 
see note on Sanherib Tayl.-cyl. II. 64; — 2. la'ari {^= la 'ari) occurs 
again in this inscription. Perhaps "without guide", Infin. R. HTN = Tl'V 
(Lyon)? — adi is obscure; or should we read a-di I, and take the latter 
as an ideogram ? On this subject consult on the one side Oppert in 
Records of the Past VII, 22, and on the other, Delitzsch Parad. pp. 
291 foil. Compare also my essay "The Sargon-stele of the BrHisnMuseum" 
(Acad, of Sciences 1881) Berlin 1882 p. 34. AN. SIS. KI is the ideo- 
gram for the moon-god Sin-Nannar. He is thereby designated as "God 
of Ur" (SIS. KI := Uru-KI), Ur being the chief seat of his worship 
in Chaldaea. For this phrase compare in general the parallel passages 
Khorsab. 145 foil. Berlin. Sargon-stele col. II (IV), 32 foil. ;— 3. Comp. 
Sanherib Tayl.-cylind. Ill, 30. 41 ; — iktum stands for the more usual 
word is hup; compare the Aramaic QD^ ,*.aj "conceal", "cover", 
401 "altogether overpower"; ittapik Ift. of "iQH > hattuv "terror" ^Jt; 
— 4. sis viij is obscure. Probably a special kind of chain or bond 
is meant, but in the mutilated condition of the text it is scarcely 
possible to determine the signification with any approach to certainty ; 
— biritu (kasritu?) parzilli iddisu, see my remarks on the 
Taylor-cyl. of Sanherib II. 71 (Vol. I, p. 289); harranu "way", on 
the reading comp. East India House Insc. I, 21, where we find the 
first syllable written ha-ra (=: ha-ra-nav), see Norris 445. Moreover 
the same ideogram, accompanied by the determinative expressive of 
'town', designates the Mesopotamian city Harran, and without this 
determinative serves to convey the meaning 'way'. It is quite certain 
that harranu signifies 'way', not simply from the present passage nor 
from the context of other inscriptions, such as Smith's Assurban. 17, 

[* For these citations of the Taylor-cylinder the reader should 
refer to Vol. I, pp. 281 foil, text and 'Notes & Illustrations'— Tr.] 


69 &c., but from the syllabary IT Rawl. 38, 24—26, where the word 
in question is interpreted by urhu i. e. nii< > ^"^ ^'^^ V daragu 
i. e. •n-iri, and lastly by mitiku i. e. ppyp "march" from np^ (see 
above). With the whole phrase comp. Sanherib, Taylor-cyl. Ill, 50 
Norris 451. The completion of the text ru-[u-ki] is adopted from 
Bruston ; u-§a-as-bi-tu , in this reading we follow the parallels 
and Botta 160, 1, u-si-bi-la-a§-su. We have here supplied the form 
illikamma (illik with the conjunct, m a) according to Smith's 
Assurban. 140, 5. 

From the above account* we clearly see that the revolt 
of Ashdod was connected with a corresponding movement 
of Aegypt and Aethiopia against Sargon, and likewise that 
the enterprise of the Assyrian monarch, directed against 
Ashdod, was connected with still another against the great 
Western power on the Nile. After the fall of Ashdod, 
Aegypt evidently despaired of a successful issue to her 402 
undertaking and endeavoured to secure herself from the 
further consequences of failure by a timely retreat and the 
surrender of Jaman, king of Ashdod, who had revolted 
and fled to Kfish (Mlluhha). 

* We have a parallel to this record in the cylinder, still un- 
published, discovered by George Smith; see G. Smith, Assyr. Discoveries 
p. 289 foil. In this cylinder it is noticeable that the exploit against 
Ashdod is dated from the ninth, instead of from the eleventh, year of 
the king's reign. This discrepancy George Smith attempted to explain 
by assuming a two years interregnum, but the truth is probably that 
the writer of the cylinder-inscription reckoned the years of the king's 
reign not from the first actual and complete year of reigning i. e. 721 
B. C, but from the year of the royal eponym i. e. 719. We have a 
somewhat analogous instance in the dividing lines that are placed in 
the eponym-lists, especially in the case of Tiglath-Pileser II (in Canons 
II and III for the year 743) and in the case of Sargon himself for 
the year 719. — Thus the discrepancy is only an apparent one : in 
reality both the writer of the annals (see below p. 96 ) as well as 
the composer of the cylinder -inscription placed the event we are 
speaking of in the year 711. 


The question arises, what date are we to assign to this 
campaign of Sargon against Ashdod ? We might feel temp- 
ted to believe that this enterprise was identical with that 
against Seveh, which ended in the battle of Raphia and 
the rout of the Aegyptians (see above on Is. XX, 1, p. 81). 
But if this were so, the complete separation of the two 
accounts, regarding the capture of Ashdod and respecting 
the defeat of Seveh, would be incomprehensible. Next, we 
might imagine that the enterprise against Ashdod is to be 
connected with the despatch of tribute hj Pharaoh and 
Samsieh, queen of the Arabs, notices of which may be 
read in the opening lines of the Khors&bad- inscription 
(see above p. 88 in this volume). But the inscription 
keeps this despatch of tribute and the petition of the 
Aethiopian king for peace perfectly distinct from one 
another. The one is narrated in Botta 145, 2 line 3 ; 
the other in Botta 151, 10 line 3. Therefore what 
is intended must be the expedition against Ashdod which 
the annals place in Sargon's 11*"^ year. Since we shall 
have frequently to refer to the chronological dates of the 
annals, it would perhaps be opportune if I were to subjoin 
here a chronological survey of Sargon's enterprises based 
upon these records. 

Sargon's Annals. 

722. Beginning of the reign'*'. Conquest of Samaria. 
Botta pi. 70, 1 — 4. 

* This "beginning of rule" (ri's Sarrfiti, surrat sarruti) is in 
other cases expressly distinguished in the inscriptions from the first 
year of the king's reign. Comp. for example the obelisk of Salman- 
assar 22, Tigl.-Pileser I col. I, 22, Sanherib Bellino-eyl. line 6. The 


721. First year. Defeat of Humbanigas of Elam *, 403 
Subjugation of the Babylonian tribe Tu'mun 
Botta 70. line 4 foil. Conquest of Merodach- 
Baladan of Babylon ibid, lines 8. 9. Transpor- 
tation of Babylonian inhabitants to the land 
Chatti ibid, lines 9. 10. 

720. Second year. Defeat of Jahubi'di of Hamath in 
the battle of Karkar, Botta 70, 10 foil. Defeat 
of Seveh of Aegypt in the battle at Raphia. 
Capture of Hanno of Gaza. Botta pi. 71, 
lines 1 — 5. 

719. Third year. Defeat of Mitatti of Zikirtu. Botta 
pi. 71, lines 6 foil. 

718. Fourth year. Subjugation of Kiakku of Sinuchta. 
Botta 72, lines 3 — 6; 158, 6—12. 

717. Fifth year. Expedition against Pisiri of Gar- 
gamis. Botta pi. 72, lines 7 foil.; 158, 13 foil. 

716. Sixth year. Rebellion of Ursa and other Arme- 
nian princes. Bagadatti flayed alive. Defeat of 
Ullusun and the town of Izirti burnt. Botta 72, 
13; 73, 1 foil.; — 158, 5 foil. 

715. Seventh year. Fresh disturbances raised by Ursa, 
a king of Armenia. Transportation of Daiukku. 
Botta 74, 10 foil.; Botta 119, 10, Expedition 
to Media. Deportation of subjugated races to 

reason was that the event, which was referred-to, fell in the remainder 
of the year of the preceding monarch, i. e. in the year in which the 
new king ascended the throne. The latter reckoned as his "first" year 
that which was inaugurated by himself as king. For further discussion 
see Keilinsch. u. Gesch. pp. 314 foil. 

* See Keilinsch. u. Gesch. p. 315 footnote. 


404 Samaria. Tribute of Pharaoh of Aegypt, Sam- 

sieh of Arabia and the Sabaean It'amar*. Botta 
75, 3—7. 

714. Eighth year. Second war against Ursa of Ar- 
menia. Campaign against Urzana of Musasir. 
Capture of this town. Botta 75, 10 foil. 76. 77. 
120, 1 — 7. 

713. Ninth year. Campaign against Amitassi of 
Karalla and some other Eastern potentates and 
territories. Botta 120, 8 foil. 80. 81, 1 — 8. 

712. Tenth year. War against Tarchunazi of Mllid- 
Melitene and conquest of Til-Garimmi. Botta 
81, 9 foil. 82. 83, 1 — 12. 

711. Eleventh year. Intervention in favour of Tar- 
chular of Gamgum. War against Azuri of 
Ashdod and conquest of that town. The king 
of Aethiopia sues for peace. Botta 65, 1. 83, 
13. 84. 155, 1—12. 

710. Twelfth year. War with Merodach-Baladan. His 
dethronement. Botta 65, 1 foil. 66. 85. 86. 
87. 88, I— 11 (with the parallels from Hall V). 

709. Thirteenth year. Continuation of the war with 
Merodach-Baladan. Botta 112, 3 (from below). 
111. 110. 109. 108 ;— 89. 90.91, 1.2**; 
Tribute of the Cyprian kings. Botta 91, 3 — 10. 

* i. e. "lOXi^n^- Comp. above Vol. I, p. 132. See further in 
Keilinsch. u. Geschichtsf. p. 40. 

** From this year, i. e. 709 B. C, the eponymate of Mannu-ki- 
A§ur-li', Sargon dates his first year as king of Babylon (see Smith in 
Lepsius' Zeitschrift 1869, pp. 95. 96). This exactly agrees with the 
Ptolemaic Canon, which reckons the year 709 as the first of Arkeanos 
or Sargon; Assyr.-Babyl. Keilinsch. p. 164. See the dates of the clay 
tablets furnished in the "Chronological Addenda". 


708. Fourteenth year*. Subjugation of the rebel- 405 
lious Muttallu of Kummuch - Kommagene **. 
Botta 107. 
707. Fifteenth year (?). Expedition against the land 
rilip. In this and the preceding years (see 
Botta 83, 12 In the account respecting the 
10*'^ year) took place the building of Dtir- 
Sarruktn i. e. Khors^bad ***. Botta 107, 13 foil. 
. 106. 105. 118. No. 1. 
We see from the above survey that the great campaign 
against Aegypt did not Immediately succeed the capture 
of Samaria. Between these two events intervened enter- 
prises against minor Chaldaean races and against the ruler 
of Beth-Jakin, Merodach-Baladan ; also the defeat of 
JahubI'di of Hamath and of the king of the Elamites, 
Humbanigas. Evidently Sargon , even after the fall of 
Israel's capital, did not yet feel himself sufficiently strong 
to undertake so difficult an enterprise as a war against 
Aegypt, especially when disturbances had arisen in the 
Eastern part of his kingdom, which first required to be 
subdued. But as soon as he had succeeded in reestab- 

* The division of this from the following year cannot be precisely 
determined on the basis of the Annals alone, because the passages which 
settle the chronology are at this point badly mutilated. From a fragment, 
however, in the Canon of Rulers II Rawl. 69 below, right hand, line 2 
a-na ir Ku-muh-hi 'against Commagene', we can see that the campaign 
against Commagene falls in the fourteenth year of Sargon's reign. 

** On the identification of the Kummuch of the inscriptions with 
the Commagene of the classical writers see the complete evidence in 
Keilinsch. u. Gesch. pp. 127—155, 181—213. 

*** Compare likewise II Rawl. 69, line 7, archonship of Mutakkil- 
A§ur : Arab Airu Gm VI. ir Diir-Sarrukin ak-[ru] "on the ^^^ 
of the month Ijjar I [najmed (root J<"lp) the city Dfir-Sarrukin". 



lishing order, he marches forth to the decisive struggle 
406 with the Western power, which ended in his favour at 
the battle of Raphia. Nevertheless the Great King con- 
tented himself with a payment of tribute and with a formal 
recognition, as we presume, of the Assyrian supremacy. 
There was no subjugation, in the proper sense of the word, 
of the Nile-region in the days of Sargon, such as came to 
pass later, in the reigns of Asarhaddon and Asurbanipal. 
But Aegypt, or rather Aegypt-Aethiopia *, found it hard 
to endure even this loss of its previous influential position. 
Accordingly secret negotiations were carried on with the 
Western-Asian states, expecially Ashdod, with a view to 
bring about an universal insurrection of the Western- 
Asiatic (i. e. Phoenico-Philistian) princes and races, and 
thereby to shake or even shatter the power of Assyria in 
the West. In the eleventh year of Sargon's reign i. e. 
711 B. C. the insurrection broke forth through the action 
of king Azur of Ashdod. But it turned out disastrously ; 
Ashdod itself fell into the hands of the conqueror. Un- 
doubtedly assistance from Aethiopia was expected; but, 
as formerly, when Samaria fell, so now; it never came. 
Indeed the Aethiopian monarch made haste to conclude 
peace with the Assyrian even at the price of surrendering 
the king of Ashdod, who had taken refuge at his court, and 
to whom the king of Aegypt had doubtless promised his 
protection. After this the supremacy of Assyria over 
Aegypt was in fact definitely assured. 

Isaiah accompanies the varied phases in the development 
of these events with his prophetic discourses. The oracle 
chap. XVIII, which breathes an air of joyous expectation 

* It was the Aethiopian dynasty which then dominated Aegypt. 


and exalts Aethiopla, dates from a time preceding the 
outbreak of the rebellion, at all events before the fall of 
Ashdod. Chapter XX has reference to the period of the 
siege, perhaps even subsequent to the fall of Ashdod. In 407 
verses 3 foil, the humiliation of Aethiopia-Aegypt is an- 
nounced with a distinctness which we can best understand 
by supposing the attempted plan of breaking the power 
of Assyria to have already failed. Perhaps the oracle im- 
mediately preceded the formal request of Aethiopia for 
peace, to which the inscription refers. 

Sargon reigned altogether 1 7 years. Whether he fell 
through the dagger of a malcontent , an inhabitant of the 
town Kullum (see the Addenda : Lists of Governors No. C. 
line 1 1 ), cannot be determined with certainty on account 
of the lacunae in the text at this passage. On the 12*'' of 
the month Ab (about July), in the year 705, his son San- 
herib ascended the throne, to fall at length, after reigning 
24 years, himself in his turn a victim to assassination at 
the hands of his own sons (2 Kings XIX. 37). 

XXI. 2. Elam — Medes', see notes on Gen. X. 2, 
Vol. I, p. 62 and on Gen. X. 22, p. 96. 

13. Arabia. See remarks on Jer. XXV. 24. 

XXII. 1 foil. It is well known that this oracle is 
usually assigned to the time of Hezekiah and specially 
referred to the troubles that arose during Sanherib's siege 
of Jerusalem (comp. De Wette - Schrader , Einleitung ins 
A. T. § 259). Against this opinion Nowack, in Studien 
u. Kritiken 1881, p. 310, has propounded the view that 
the oracle was composed in the reign of Sargon and refers 
to the time when this king had besieged Ashdod and had 
subsequently captured it (Is. XX. 1), an event which ac- 
cording to his annals fell in the year 711 B. C. This 



year Nowack makes to synchronize with the third (or 
fourth) of Hezekiah's reign. But, in the first place, 
there is not the faintest allusion to this event in the oracle 
we are now examining; in chap. XX. 1 the case is alto- 
gether different. In the second place, neither the annals 
408 nor the triumphal inscriptions say anything whatever about 
a conquest of Juda. Certainly nothing is said of a dis- 
graceful defeat sustained on this occasion by the Jews. 
There is only one passage in the records of Sargon 
that makes any reference to Juda as a country subjugated 
by him. This occurs in the NimrHd-inscription (Layard 
33, 8) which comes from the palace of Asurnasirabal , in 
which Sargon resided during the earlier portion of his 
reign. See the passage above in Vol. I, p. 178. This 
inscription, however, mentions as one of the Great King's 
exploits the subjugation of the land Karalla which, accord- 
ing to the annals, coincides with the 6"' year of the king's 
reign (716 B. C). Not yet have we in this document 
any reference to the taking of Ashdod. It is evident that 
the conquest of Juda, alluded-to in the NimrHd-inscription, 
cannot refer to an event occurring at the time when 
Ashdod was taken. And, when we come to the account 
of the capture of Ashdod itself, we have no mention of 
any enterprise of Sargon against Juda nor is it to be 
found In any of his later inscriptions, not even in Geo. 
Smith's cylinder (see above p. 93 footnote) where (1. 32 fi".) 
we are only told, that Juda and other lands were *spea- 
king treason". Also in the passage of the sacred record, 
in which reference is made to the siege and capture of 
Ashdod (Is. XX. 1), there is not the smallest hint of an 
expedition of Sargon against Juda - Jerusalem. Accor- 
dingly the date advocated by Nowack for the oracle of 


Isaiah now under discussion is not .to be commended from 
the standpoint of Assyriology. 

XXIII. 1 foil. We have already in another work ex- 
plained that no adequate reason exists for denying that 
Isaiah was the author of this oracle (de Wette-Schrader, 
Einleitung ins A. T. 8*'' ed. § 25 7). Indeed, as we have 
shown, a satisfactory interpretation of the prophecy may be 
given by supposing it to have been composed at the time 
when Salmanassar besieged Tyre, following Menander 
quoted in Joseph. Arch. IX, 14. 2. The passage on 409 
Sargon's clay cylinder : "(Sargon), courageous to the con- 
flict, who, in the midst of the sea, drew forth the lonians 
like sand an i§ fishes and delivered the land Kui, as well 
as the city Tyre, from their oppression" (see Vol. I, p. 157), 
refers to the time subsequent to the fall of the city. When 
the chapter has been thus chronologically determined, we can 
understand among other details the special remark in verse 5 
respecting the impression which the news of the fall of 
Tyre will make in Aegypt. For Aegypt (see note on 
XX. 1), that was engaged in war with Assyria, it was 
ofcourse of the highest importance, that so powerful and 
so dominant a stronghold as Tyre should maintain itself 
against the attacks of Assyria. Hence the news of its fall 
must have had a very depressing effect. 

13. But is not this entire explanation completely upset 
by the 1 S**" verse, where we find the Chaldaeans mentioned 
as a people newly established by Assyria? Certainly, if 
the storming of Tyre by the Chaldaeans is actually announ- 
ced in this passage, as tradition has assumed. But in the 
days of Isaiah there was no conceivable motive for such an 
act of hostility, and hence it would be difficult to reconcile 
our interpretation of the passage with such an assumption. 


But what then do the words mean : "the nation of the 
Chaldaeans, that was nought : Assur founded it afresh"? 
It has been supposed that the Prophet meant : — the Chal- 
daeans were a people, which had not existed at the place, 
which they at that time were occupying. But in that case 
it is just the chief words in the sentence ("at the place") 
which have been supplied in the interpretation. But the 
Prophet could not have expressed his ideas in so clumsy a 
manner. Besides, this whole hypothesis, that the Chaldaeans 
were transplanted from the North (Armenia etc.) by the 
Assyrians in the days of Isaiah to the South, i. e. Babylon, 
completely breaks down from the simple fact, which has 
410 been already pointed out in the note on Gen. XI. 28, that 
the Chaldaeans were certainly settled in Babylon as far 
back as the second millennium before Christ, and that, 
moreover, there were no Chaldaeans other than those in 
Babylonia and that in Armenia there had never been any 
settlement of Chaldaean population *. Thus the ordinary 
interpretation falls to the ground both in point of matter 
and of form. As Ewald has already conjectured , we 
should read D"'J|fJ? rather than DntfD^ in accordance with 
verse 1 1. The passage may then be rendered as follows : 
'^See, the land of the Kanaanites : this people has become 
nought ; Assur has appointed them to be inhabitants of 
steppes, has erected its watch towers, has desolated the 
palaces of the land and made it into a heap of ruins." 
Isaiah has a prophetic foresight of the desolation, which 
will be brought upon the land of the Kanaanites, and to 
some extent has already been brought, by the Assyrians. 

* On this compare my dissertation "The descent of the Chaldees 
and the early settlements of the Semites" — Zeitschrift der deutschen 
morgenland. Gesellschaft XXVII (1873), pp. 397 foil. 


The people has already become politically a non-entity and 
will become so in other respects besides. The same doom 
awaits them, that befel Samaria. In accordance with the 
practice of the Assyrians, they — the luxurious Kanaan ! — 
will be transported into another country — a region of 
steppes — where life can scarcely obtain a respite. Already 
have the Assyrians commenced devastating the land, — the 
decisive attack is being hourly expected. — It is only in 
this way that light can be thrown on this passage and the 
entire narrative becomes harmonious and coherent. 

XXX. 4. DJn. Ghdnes (HeracleopoLis) , without doubt 
the Assyrian Hi-ni-in-si, Smith's Assurbanipal 21, 97; 
V Rawl, 1, 95. A key to this identification is given by 
the Aegyptian HS,-chnen-su ; see Maspero-Pietschmann, 
'History of Oriental nations', Leipzig 1877, p. 23. 

XXXVIII. 10. lo the gates of the Lower World. See 411 
the comment on Job X. 21. 

XLI. 25. D^JJp usually (as in Jer. LI. 23; Ezek. 
XXIII. 6 etc.) means "viceroys", but is here employed in 
the general signification of "potentates". It is without 
doubt the same as the Assyrian Sakntit (written sa-ak- 
nu-ti), plural from the sing. §akan, saknu = |Jp (]^Q) 
■viceroy". The root Sakanu (p^), ultimately connected 
with ]1D, is the ordinary word for "place", "appoint". 
Sakan thus means one who is "appointed", "commis- 
sioned", then the "representative", "viceroy". We meet 
with the singular § a k n u in the opening words of Sargon's 
inscription on the clay cylinder I Rawl. 36 line 1 on 
which we read : Sarrukln, sa-ak-nu Bfl, nisakku 
na-'-id ASur, ni-sit ini A-nuv u Da-kan i. e. "Sar- 
gon, viceroy of Bel, august priest of Asur — apple of the 
eye to Anu and Dagon" (also compare Vol. I, p. 147 footnote 
and p. XXXI). 


With regard to the transition of k (§akan) into g (pD), 
compare ]'iJ'ip in Is. XX. 1 with the Assyr. Sarruktn*. 

XLIV. 14. p.^ Pine. The tree in question was so 
identified by Hieronymus and rabbinical writers. In 
modern times, however, without any sufficient reason the 
]nfc* was taken to be the "ash". But the Assyrian puts 
the matter beyond doubt, since the word irin, employed 
in the combination is irini §ad LabnS,ni ''cedars of 
Lebanon", was the ordinary designation for a variety of 
pine, while for 'cedar' the Hebrews ofcourse used quite 
another word (l^^f). The Assyrian word is usually written 
with an ideogram, which is expressly interpreted in a 
syllabary by f-ri-ni i. e. p^?. See V Rawl. 26 No. 2. 
412 Rev. 15. The same result is obtained by a comparison of 
two parallel passages in the inscription of Nebukadnezzar 
edited by Grotefend, col. Ill, 36 (i-ri-nuv), and in the 
Nebukadnezzar-inscription of the East India Comp. VI, 8. 
VIII, 3 (ideogram). Besides 1-ri-ni we also find the 
abbreviated form Ir-ni, Layard 39, 22. Compare the notes 
on 1 Kings V. 13, Is. XIV. 8. 

XL VI. 1. Bel sinks, Neho falls down. Respecting 
"Bel" see my note on Judg. II. 11 (Vol. I, pp. 162 foil.). 
— Nebo iD5 is written in Assyrian N a - b u - u , which has 
lately been regarded as the Semitized form of the Sumlro- 
Akkadian (?) Na-bi-uv. We clearly perceive that the two 
names were identical from a syllabary which represents 
them as equivalent terms (II Rawl. 7, 36. 41 g. h.). But 
must we on this account cease to combine the name, as 

* We have just a reverse instance in the case of Gargarais = 
Karkeraish Jt^^JO^I^. On the latter see my remarks in the Aegyp- 
tische Zeitsch. XVII, 1879, p. 48 note 3. 


hitherto, with the Hebr. ^''DJ ? A satisfactory explanation 
of the word from the Sumirian has not been given, at all 
events up to the present time; and we are justified in 

connecting the name with the Semitic root ND3 l>j, at least 
to this extent, that the Semitic Assyrians endeavoured to 
adapt the proper name, which had come to them from 
the Sumirians and Akkadians, into their own speech, by 
favouring its pronunciation as a derivative of the above 
mentioned Semitic root. 

Although this deity was known to the Assyrians, and 
was worshipped by them, in early times *, yet the land, 
which was properly the home of his cultus, was not As- 
syria, but Babylonia : at Borsippa In particular he had 
a great temple. In the days of the later Chaldaean 
Empire he was, along with Merodach, in so exclusive a4i3 
sense the chief deity par excellence of the Babylonians, 
that their kings named themselves after Nebo in every 
instance (e. g. Nabopolassar, Nebukadnezzar, Nabonid), 
except in one case when the monarch named himself after 
Merodach (Evil-Merodach), in another after Nergal (Neri- 
glissor) and in another after Bel (Belshazzar). In the 
Borsippa-inscription Nebukadnezzar styles himself naram 
Nabti "favourite of Nebo", col. I, 3, while he describes 
the deity as pS,kid kisSat §ami u irsitiv *him who 
rules over the hosts of heaven and earth" (col. I, 1 3), and 
lastly as ablav kinuv "faithful son" (col. II, 66), that 
is to say, of Merodach. Comp. East India House Insc. 

* Even the grandfather of Tiglath-Pileser I (the latter reigned 
about 1100 B. C.) had a name which was compounded of Nebo, 
namely Mutakkil-Nabfl [or should we transcribe by Nusku?] = 
"Nebo gives confidence" I Rawl. 15, col. VII, line 45 ; comp. Assyr. 
Babyl. Keilinsch. 146 No. 42. 


1, 30 toll. : sa Marduk, btlu rabti, ilu ba-ni-ja 

31. I-ib-§i-tu-§u na-ak-1 a-a-ti 32. l-li-i§ (at-ta 
na-a-du!) 33. §a Nabti a-bi-il-§u ki-i-nuv 34. 
na-ra-am §ar-ru-tl-ja i. e. "30. (I) whose divine 
progenitor is Merodach, the great Lord, 31. whose works 

32. (are) very wonderful (yea, exalted art thou!), 33. whose 
faithful son is Nebo, the beloved of my realm". Other 
epithets applied to the deity are as follows : bilu aSaridu 
dominus princeps "supreme lord" ; rikis kalama "ruler 
of the world"; il mudti yilO bii "god of knowledge" 
or of "science"; il tili'u "god of the oath" (?) ; ilu 
muStabarrti salimi "god, establisher of friendship" 
(partic. Istaf. of NHD), II Rawl. 60, 28 — 45. He is 
specially designated as god of the art of writing, and as 
such is called b^nti Sitri dubsarrliti* "creator of 
the writing of the inscribed clay tablets" (line 34) ; also 
dub-sar gim-ri "writer of all" I Rawl. 36, 49. 

Notes and Illustrations, nakl&t fern. plur. of an adject, naklu 
"artistic", "wondrous" (the masc. plur. nakluti occurs in Khor.sab. 157 
in a description of structures, and the adverb nakli§ occurs in the same 
inscription 134 in connection with the verb, abni I built), root ^3^ 
"make something artistically", "to erect"; Oppert has already recog- 
nized its connection with the Hebr.-Aramaic ^3J ; — 32. ili§ abverb 
414 from ili i^_j; "high"; nS'du from nah^du nn3' "-^-P > — ^^- kinu, 
see Assyr.-Babylon. Keil. 161; abil "son" is simply a collateral form 
of abal, habal as is immediately evident from the parallel passage in 
the Borsippa inscription II, 16 : ab-lav ki-i-nuv. — 34. The signification 
of nar&mu, root Qm = Om) ^^7 ^^ gathered from Smith's Assur- 
banipal 302, 10 foil. (= V Rawl. 10, 26 foil.), in which the mother 
of the gods, Bi'lit = "Beltis", is termed hi-ir-tu na-ram-ti Asur 
"beloved consort of Asur". 

[* The reader should compare the note on Exod. V. 6, Vol. I, 
p. 141 and on Jer. LI. 27 in the present Vol. in illustration of these 
forms — Trausl.] 


LXIII. 15. "jHINOni Itt'lp ^nm of thy sacred and 
majestic palace, comp. note on 1 Kings VIII. 1 3. 


VII. 18. CDtt^n HD'^D queen of heaven. Comp. chap. 
XLIV, 1 7 foil. Athar-Astarte is meant who is repeatedly 
mentioned under the form A-tar-sa-ma-(ai)-in i. e. 
"Athar of heaven" as the goddess of a North- Arabian tribe 
of Kedarenes (Smith's Assurban. 270, 96; 271, 104; 283, 
92; 295 b— comp. Vol. I, p. 134). Comp. the author's 

dissertation in "Sitzungsberichte" of the Academy of Berlin 

May 20. 1886. ^(^ ^^ 

XXV. 24. D^i; ^d'?P"'?3 HN^ and all the kings of Arabia. 
It has long been recognized that Arabia in the Old Testa- 
ment is merely the name for North-Arabia or of a North- 
Arabian tribe or group of tribes. This agrees with 
the Assyrian usage. On the monuments the term mat 
A-ri-bu(bi) (also Ar-a-bu) denotes a North-Arabian 
people , in conjunction with whom we find repeatedly 
mentioned the K i d r a i l^p and the N a b a i t a i "Naba- 
taeans" (the Cedrei and Nahataei of Pliny) ; see Keilinsch. 
u. Geschichtsf. pp. 100 — 105. In the reign of Tiglath- 
Pileser II we find reference to Za-bi-bi-i and to Sa-am-si 
as queens of mat Aribu (see Vol. I, pp. 246 foil.). The 
latter appears again in the reign of Sargon in the form 
Sa-am-si-1 Khorsab. 27. Comp. Vol. I, p. 134. 

25. nni "'5'?a-^3 DN) and all the kings of Zimri. Follow- 
ing the hints of Sir Henry Rawlinson and Prof. Sayce, 
Delitzsch (Parad. p. 237) holds that we can recover this name 
Zimri in the (mat) Nam-ri of the inscriptions (Salmanas-415 
sar II and subsequently), a name which might also be pro- 
nounced (mat) Sim-ri, (see Syllab. 624) a district which we 


must place South- West of Media, South of Turnat-Torna- 
dotus in North-East Babylonia, somewhere in the present 
region of Jereztir; see Keilinsch. u. Gesch. p. 169 footnote 

I 70 footn. But, as I have already pointed out, ibid. p. 1 70, 
the sign standing for nam or §im has never yet been shown 
to possess the phonetic syllabic power zim; nor have we 
met with an orthography consisting in a resolved first 
syllable Zi-im-ri. Moreover the name is often written Na- 
mar in the inscr. of Nebukadnezzar I (about 1 130 B. C). 

26. "?|?^??^ '^^pi and the king of Sheshach. From the 
context as well as from the parallel passage chap. LI, 41 
it can scarcely be a matter for doubt that we must under- 
stand by this title the king of Babylon. According to the 
principle of the Athbash* alphabet, ""Oi^'^? in Jerem. LI, 1 
is equivalent n''W'2. In the same way it was thought 
that ']L5'I2^ was to be taken as equivalent to ^32. On the 
other hand it has recently been pointed out by Lauth in 
the Proceedings of the Soc. of Biblical Archaeol. 1881, 
Jan. 11. pp. 47 — 8 and also by Delitzsch, Parad. pp. 
214 foil., that in an ancient Babylonian regal register 11 
(10) kings of Si§-kti-KI are enumerated on the reverse 
of the tablet opposite to, or in other words, subsequent to 

I I other kings of D i n - 1 i r - KI , i. e. of Babylon (see 
Pinches ibid. 1880, Dec. 7. p. 21). Delitzsch is of 
opinion that the reproduction of the name D''*12^D by ^Op~37 
is simply due to an imitation of the misunderstood and 
wrongly interpreted 1^^^. The passage Jer. LI, 41, where 

[* The secret alphabet called Athbash (tJ^^'pN) '"'^.s so named 
because the first eleven characters of the Hebrew alphabet ({< to 3) 
were taken as respectively equivalent to the last eleven characters in 
reverse order (i. e. j^ to ^) — Translator.] 


the parallelism in the first member of the verse (= '^^) 
would lead us to expect a proper name different from the 
word "^^S which corresponds to it in the second portion of 
the verse, is at all events favourable to this view. We 
must bear in mind, however, that in the later Babylonian 4i6 
literature (dating from the time of Nebukadnezzar), with 
which we are now specially concerned, this name for Babel, 
or, as Fried. Delitzsch supposes, for a quarter or division of 
the city (Delitzsch suggests Borsippa) , has not hitherto 
been found in the inscriptions, while the reading of the 
name, which appears to be an ideogram, is by no means 
definitely settled. Comp. also chap. LI, 1. 

XXXIX. 3. Then came all the army-commanders of 
the king of Babel .... ; Nergalsarezer , Samgar-Neho, 
Sar-sekim, the chief of the eunuchs, Nergalsarezer, the chief 
of the Magians. Of these names only the first, Nergal- 
sarezer (I^JNIK'* ^T^X), has been preserved to us in the 
original cuneiform documents, where it occurs as the name 
of the well-known Babylonian king Neriglissor. Its original 
Babylonian form is Nirgal-§ar-usur "Nergal, protect 
the king", I Rawl. 67, col. I, 1. See further Assyr.- 
Babylon. Keilinsch. p. 128, No. 12. 

The second name Samgar-Nebo has not yet been met 
with in the inscriptions. Its Babylonian type is, however, 
perfectly evident. Its form, as originally pronounced, would 
be Sumgir-Nabti "Be gracious, Nebo!" Sumgir is 
the Imperat. Shaf. (Borsip. II, 2 7) of m ag^ru, a verb 
which frequently occurs in the inscriptions in the signifi- 
cation "be favourably disposed" (East India House Insc. 
VIII, 60; Khorsab. 3 etc.). The Shafel has the meaning 
"show oneself gracious", like the Hebrew D"'10\1 "show 
oneself kind" Micah II. 7 etc. In the passage from the 


Borsippa-inscription which has been referred-to, the prayer 
l-ib-§i-tu-u-a su-um-gi-ri "show thyself gracious 
to ray undertaking" is addressed by Nebukadnezzar to 
417 Sarsekim (D^Dp")^) in its first part is quite clear ("IK' = 
"king"). But the second portion of the name is obscure. 
Is the reading quite correct? 

jp'D"] Chief magian. So according to the traditional 
rendering; comp. verse 13. If we strictly adhere to it, 
the alternative lies before us, either to regard the word as 
of Babylonian origin and to refer Magism accordingly to 
Babylon-Chaldaea for its ultimate source; or, to assume 
an Iranian origin for Magism and then to consider the 
name as a Semitic- Aryan compound, that is to say as a 
translation of an original word maghupaii. In favour of 
the latter hypothesis the facts may be observed that in 
Herodotus I, 101 the Magians Mayoi are mentioned along 
with other races as a special Median tribe; also that the 
great Behistun inscription of the Persian Darius makes 
repeated reference to a "Magian" (Gaum^ta) ; next, that 
the word maghupati = '^Mobed" is evidently Aryan in 
form; lastly that it cannot be altogether denied that it is 
possible that an Aryan Magism may have insinuated itself 
into Babylonia even before the Persian era, — indeed it 
may have been subsequent to Nebukadnezzar's accession, 
who married Amyitis, the daughter of a Median king. 
See Schoene's Eusebius I, 30 ; comp, A. Von Gutschmid, 
Neue Beitrage zur Geschichte des alten Orients, Leipzig 
1876, pp. 113 foil. 

On the other hand the following considerations are 
worthy of notice: — (1) It is scarcely an accident that the 
name maghu (which is in Aryan a word of uncertain 


derivation) is only found in Western Persia which is situa- 
ted towards Babylonia^ while the other name, having the 
same meaning, atharvan, which is likewise of uncertain 
derivation , is only to be met with in Eastern Persia. 
(2) That Babylonian civilization may certainly be pointed 
out as early as in the 9"' century B, C. in the frontier- 
regions of Medo-Babylonia , in other words in the district 
lying near the source of the DijS,lS,. See fuller information 
in Keilinsch. u. Geschichtsf. p. 169 footnote ** 170 foot- 
note *. Moreover Herodotus' statement (I, 98) respecting 
the ""seven" encircling walls of the Median capital Agbatana, 4i8 
constructed out of "variegated" (glazed) tiles, points deci- 
sively to the influences of Babylonian civilization. Compare 
the tower of Borsippa with its (seven ?) stages characteri- 
zed by different colours ! (3) That the cuneiform script, 
which is for important reasons designated as * Median" 
(II style of cuneiform), is ultimately of Babylonian origin; 
— that it may have entered Media directly from Babylonia, 
or by a round-about way through Elam ; (4 ) that Magism, 
as we may infer , was first imported into Persia from 
Media. Darius Hystaspis was a Persian ; on the other 
hand, Gaumata was a Magian, the latter depending mainly 
on Media and the Medes ; Beh. I, 59. (5) That there 
evidently existed, along with the Aryan element * in the 
population of Media, an element that was woy;- Aryan, 
whose language has come down to us probably in the 
second or so-called Median style of cuneiform. This non- 
Aryan element , however , was distinctly subject to Baby- 

* This Aryan element is clearly proved to have existed as early 
as the beginning of the seventh century B. C. by the Aryan proper 
names of Median rulers inscribed on Asarhaddon's cylinder. 


Ionian injiuence, which is an indication that the cuneiform 
script, which these non- Aryans employed; was borrowed in 
some way from the Babylonians. (6) The specific ele- 
ments in Magism, if we regard them as consisting in astro- 
logy and the Interpretation of dreams, are precisely what 
is stated respecting the Babylonian "Chaldaeans". Comp. 
419 Daniel II, 4. 5; also in Diodorus, as the reader is aware, 
the name "Chaldaean" stands for Babylonian priest. Now, 
if it were the Medes who established their dominion over 
Babylonia, an importation of "Median" Magism among the 
Babylonians would be to a certain extent conceivable. 
But it was not the Medes but the Persians, who, as we 
learn from their inscriptions, adhered tenaciously to their 
native faith in Auramazda and were certainly at political 
variance with Median magism, — it was the Persians, who 
subjugated Babylon. On the other hand, if the Medo- 
Aryan Magism had been already, in the days of Nebu- 
kadnezzar, officially recognized as a species of state-religion 
(A. von Gutschmid), we should then have expected to find 
some trace of this either in the inscriptions of Nebukad- 
nezzar or of his successors. But this is just what we do 
not find. Even in the inscriptions of the latest Babylonian 
kings, we simply meet with the specific Babylonian cults. 

(7) On the other hand, what is peculiar to Magism (see 
above) may be already pointed out in the works of the an- 
cient and civilized non-Semitic people, the Sumirians and 
Akkadians, in their hymns and formulas of conjuration. 

(8) Again, the far-reaching influence of Babylonia and the 
Chaldaeans upon the East even in times of vast antiquity 
may be shown on other grounds. Indeed the Man a i. e. 
the Babylonian mina (Hebrew HJp) occurs as a measure of 


gold even in the RIgveda * (so A. Weber, Th. Noldeke). 
In fact this influence of the West upon the East must 
have been brought-about upon the lines of their intercourse 420 
by sea. W^ho would therefore deny that a similar influence 
of Babylonian civilization, operating on the East by land, 
and, moreover, on the frontier country in the immediate 
neighbourhood of Babylonia, might thus be exerted on 
Media, seeing that it is quite certain that Babylonian 
monuments were erected even as far as the fluvial region 
of the Dij§,la ? Again, we possess further evidence of the 
intimate acquaintance of the Babylonians with these regions 
in the phrase which often recurs in Tiglath - Pileser's in- 
scriptions in reference to the localities in Media §a (ir) 
dannHtu sa abal Ba,bilu ikabbuslini i. e. *(the 
city) which they call the stronghold of the sons of Ba- 
bylon". Comp. my remarks under (5). — Lastly (9) we 
ought not attach too much importance to the statement of 
Herodotus that the Magians were a ^ tribe" of Medes 
(Herod. I, 101), since the former, according to Herodotus' 
own representation, were a class rather than a tribe, that 
is to say the Median priestly order **. No one would be 
disposed to contest the possibility that the name "Magian", 
as well as the thing i. e. the office, was introduced into 

* See A. von Gutschmid, Neue Beitrage zur Geschichte des alten 
Orients p. 132 : "The Kalijuga of 432,000 years corresponds to the 
period of 432,000 years which Berossos reckons from the first king till 
the great flood. The flood-legend among the Indians occupies so iso- 
lated a position that it might be regarded as borrowed from the 
Semites. A. Weber has discovered that the duration of the longest 
day in Gjotisha, which does not apply to India, but agrees to a 
minute with its ascertained duration in Babylonia, has all the appear- 
ance of having been directly imported from Babylon." 

** Comp. M. von Niebuhr Gesch. Assurs und Babels p. 154. 



Media from Babylonia. And if this name be identical 
with the imga, imga of the inscriptions, it may cer- 
tainly be looked upon as Babylonian. This word im-ga 
or 1- im-ga often occurs in the Babylonian inscriptions in 
the sense of "respectable", "exalted" (interchanged with 
42igit-ma-lu "perfect"). See for example Nebuk. Borsip.I, 4; 
Nebuk. Bab. I, 11 etc. and compare the combination 
rubti imga "the highly exalted" which is an epithet 
bestowed on the father of the Babylonian king Nabunlt, 
namely Nabti-bal§.t-su-ik-bi*, who himself did not 
bear the royal title; see I Rawl. 68 No. 2 line 3; No. 3 
line 6 (comp. No. 4 line 3 rubli gitmalu). If the word 
is Semitic, a derivation suggests itself from the root pl^H, 
in the softened Babylonian form iOP **, with some such 
meaning as "one who is deep whether in power and 
reputation or in insight". If the word is of Sumlro-Akka- 
dian origin, we must refer it to the root IM, which is 
interpreted in the syllabaries by i m ti k u , root p^P, 
"fullness of power", ramanu, root DH, "exaltation", as well 
as by puluhtu, root nbo "fear", "reverence" (Haupt, 
Akkad. u. Sumer. Keilschrifttexte 28, 617 — 9). In the 
latter case rab-mag would be a similar hybrid compound 
to rab-sak "chief officer" = Hebr. Hp.K^?'] ***. See note 

* "Nebo announced his life". 

** [A good illustration of the same Babylonian tendency to adopt 
the weaker g in place of k may be found in the Babylonian Diglat 
for ^p'^ipi) and in Gutu for Kutii; see Vol. I, pp. 33, 123.— Transl.] 
*** According to Fried. Delitzsch "The Hebrew language viewed 
in the light of Assyrian research", London 1883, p. 14, the Assyr. 
mahu is a synonym of a§ipu "sorcerer"; comp. Smith's Assurb. p. 128, 
25 "The Sumerian form of the word is magha, which has passed into 
Babylonian in the form 'the right reverend', a name respect- 
fully applied to the Magi by the credulity of the people". 


on 2 Kings XVIII. 1 7 (Vol. II, p. 3 foil.) ; also consult 
Talbot In Journ. of Royal Asiatic Soc. , new series IV, 
1869 p. 4 No. 148. 

13. Nebuzaradan, see on 2 Kings XXV. 8 (Vol. II, 
p. 51). 

Nebusliazban |31K^1D^, The name has been preserved 
in its original Assyrian pronunciation in the list of proper 
names II Rawl. 64 col. I, 32, where it appears in the 
form Nabti-sl-zib-an-ni i. e. "Nebo delivers me" (^T?^ 
Aramaic "rescue"); Assyr. - Babyl. Keilinsch. p. 131 
No. 18. 

XL VI. 2. Pharao Necho , see note on 2 Kings 
XXIII. 29. Vol. II, p. 43. 

— Karkemtsh (W'^1?^'^2) , see note on Is. X. 9. Vol. II, 
p. 74 foil. 

— Nebukadnezzar, king of Babel. In any case the 
battle at Karkemish (606 or 605 B. C.) took place before 
the accession of the above-named monarch and while his 422 
father Nabopolassar was still living (Josephus-Berossus). 
Hence the title 'king of Babel' which is bestowed on the 
conqueror at this early date is certainly inaccurate. Com- 
pare notes on 2 Kings XXIII. 29 (Vol. II, p. 44 foil.) 
and also my article 'Nebukadnezar' in Riehm's Hand- 
wort, des bibl. Alterthums as well as notes on Daniel V. 1. 

L. 2. *?? Bel See notes on Judg. II. 11. Vol. I, 
p. 162 foil. 

■^lip Merodach, also "Tll^np (Is. XXXIX. 1 ; XLVI. 1 
(p. 106); comp. 2 Kings XX. 12), chiefly worshipped in 
Babylonia, to a less extent in Assyria *, a deity held in high 

* He is not referred - to by AsurnSsirabal , nor does Tiglath- 
Pileser 1 mention him in the list of deities at the head of his great 
inscription. His son Salmanassar II appears , it is true , to have 



repute to whose service Nebukadnezzar was most attached. 
The Babylonian pronunciation of the name was Mar-duk, 
Ma-ru-du-ki; see Assjr. - Babyl. Keilinscb. p. 129, 
No. 13 ; its signification is obscure *. In the inscriptions 
of Nebukadnezzar the god is called bilu rabli Hhe great 

included the name of this deity in line 9 of his obelisk-inscription 
(the passage on the stone is corrupt) but makes no further reference 
to it. It is not till subsequent to the i-eign of Sargon (Khorsab. 2), 
i. e. after the capture of Babel by that monarch, that the Babylonian 
kings acknowledge themselves more frequently worshippers of Mero- 
dach, as, for example, Asarhaddon (I Rawl. 48 No. 9 line 1), Asur- 
banipal (Smith's Asurb. 9, 3), X - sum - iskun (I Rawl. 8 No. 6 
line 4. 5 (2. 3)). 

* According to Sayce-Lenormant = Amar-utuk; according to 
Delitzsch Parad. 228 Mar-Urudug "son of Eridu". [According to 
Fritz Hommel Mar dug arises out of Amar-udug, the North-^ahy- 
lonian and Akkadian name of the city-divinity of Babel. This deity 
became gradually confounded with Bel. Amar-udug, as a non- 
Semitic or Akkadian name, is rendered by Hommel "Gazelle of the 
light (or of day)" ; he also follows Lenormant in regarding Mardug 
as a solar divinity. Moreover in the Akkadian hymns we find him 
identified with the /Soiti/i-Babylonian Meri-(nmZM)-dug. 'Mulu' is here 
probably an unpronounced determinative = 'man'; dug is an adjective 
meaning 'good' and was an epithet of Ea (^'the good' par excellence). 
Thus the city of Ea was called Uru-dugga ("good town"). Another 
ancient South-Babylonian name of Mardug was Meri-alim-nunna. 
Alim-uunna ("ram of the water") was an epithet of E a (la), father of 
Mardug. Meri- therefore, as can be shown from other passages, 
evidently means 'son', and Meri-dug simply designates Mardug as 
son of Ea (I'a). He was regarded as mediator of all good between 
Ea and mankind and is occasionally designated 'first-born of the 
water-depths' or 'first-born of Ea'. See 'Vorsemitische Kulturen' pp. 
376 foil. Lenormant in his 'Chaldaean Magic', transcribing by Silik- 
mulu-dug (or-khi), gives many interesting examples of incantations 
and hymns in which this deity's good offices were invoked (see pp. 
10 foil. 19. 22, 190 foil.). A vivid description of the conflict of Mero- 
dach with the goddess or sea-demon Tiamat, derived from a recently 
discovered fragment of a tablet, may be read in Budge's 'Babylonian 
Life and History' (Relig. Tr. Soc.) pp. 142 foil.— Translator.] 


lord' (East India House Inscr. I. 30) and also patfsi 
siru "exalted ruler" (ibid, 5). The king likewise desig- 
nates him ilu b^nija "god, my begetter". In the Bor- 
sippa inscription he is named §ar §ami u irsitiv "king 
of Heaven and Earth" (col. II, 26), also ilu ilu "supreme 
god" (col. I, 15); lastly Asurbanipal (Smith's Assurb. 
105, 63) calls him sar ilt "king of gods". 

Just as Sin was the moon -deity, Nergal Mars, Nebo 
Mercury, Adar most probably Saturn, Istar or Beltis Venus, 423 
so Merodach was the planet Jupiter. From the fact that 
he was also simply called Bilu "Bel" := "Lord God" 
(Borsip. 1, 16) the circumstance can be explained that 
among the Mandaeans Jupiter was worshipped as "Bel" 
i. e. Bel-Merodach. Compare the evidence in Theolog. 
Studien u. Kritiken 1874 p. 342. Regarding his relation 
to Nebo see the note on Is. XLVI. 1 (p. 105). 

21. at/ainst the land Merdthaim (D^nnp), advatice against 
it, and against the inhabitants of PekSd (Tip? ^^I?'^). I 
showed in the first edition of this work (1872) that Pekod 
reminded us of the cuneiform race-name Pu-ku-du. This 
conjecture has since received considerable support from 
the circumstance that this race to which we are referring 
must clearly have been a Babylonian one. See the 
evidence in Keilinsch. u. Gesch. pp. 108. 111. 113 comp. 
also 115. The context manifestly points to Babylonia ; see 
verses 23, 28. This combination is confirmed by the 
further identification , which Delitzsch shows to be ex- 
ceedingly probable (Farad, p. 182), of the land Merathaim, 
in the original form Merdthim, with the cuneiform raS,t 
marri,ti "the sea-country" i. e. South Babylonia. Comp. 
Khorsab. 22 : mat Btt-Ja-ktn Sa ki-§ad nar mar-ra-ti 
"the land Beth-Jakin which is on the shore of the sea- 


river" i. e. of the Persian gulf (Oppert). Respecting the 
last phrase see mj essay *The names for seas in the 
Assyrian inscriptions", Berlin 1877 (8) p. 176, as well as 
Botta pi. 7 (bis), 55 and parall. Comp. also the note on 
Ezek. XXIII. 23. 

LI. 1. '•Oj? 3^ = Dnit'D according to the Athbash- 
alphabet, just as "^VJ =. ^23. See the note on chap. 
XXV. 26. 

23. O^JJD") mno. Comp. notes on 1 Kings X. 15 
(Vol. I, pp. 175. 6) and Is. XLI. 25. 

27. I0'^^^« nlD^PD "kingdoms of Ararat". See above 
Vol. I, p. 53 and Vol. II, p. 16. 

— ^^p "Minnaean". — Comp. the Mivvaq of Nicol. Damasc. 
quoted in Josephus Antiqq. I, 3. 6. — undoubtedly the 
424 Mann ai (M a n-n a-a i , Ma-an-na-ai) of Salmanassar II 
(Obelisk 165 comp. 168); of Sargon, Khorsab. 36 etc.; 
also of Asarhaddon and Asurbanipal (Norris, Gelzer). 
Perhaps the tribe may also be identified with the in- 
habitants of the land Mun (m§,t Mu-un-na) mentioned 
by Ramm§,nnirS.r I Rawl. 35. 8. Comp. Keilinsch. u. 
Gesch. pp. 174. 212. 520. 

"IDDI? scribe is the Babylono - Assyrian dup-sar-ru 
Syll. 370 of which the abstract is dup-sar-ru -ti 
II Rawl. 27, 27 e (respecting the sibilant comp. Ill Rawl. 
70, 78). We likewise find the form dip-sar II Rawl. 48, 
38 a (Haupt in Transactions of the Berlin Oriental Con- 
gress I, 2 77). The retention of the sibilant s in the form 
of the Hebr. D is the only correct orthography in the case 
of a word that was originally Babylonian. Whether the 
Assyrians pronounced the word dupsarru or dupsarru* 

* The connection of the Akkado- Assyrian dupsar, dupsarru 


cannot as yet be precisely determined. On this subject 
comp. Vol. I, p. 141 ; also the "Sargon-stele of the British 
Museum" p. 30 line 6 foil, on the one side, and F. De- 
litzsch Parad. p. 142 on the other. The word is of 
Akkadian origin and is compounded of d u p meaning 
'tablet' and s a r 'write'. Hence as a name for a person 
it signifies 'tablet- writer'. 


I, 1. On the river Kebar (13?). This stream, accord- 
ing to verse 3, lay in the "land of the Chaldaeans" i. e. 
Babylonia; moreover we only receive information of a 
deportation of Israelites to Babylonia by Nebukadnezzar * ; 
lastly, the name of this river is very clearly distinguished from 
that of the Mesopotamian "liDPI by the sounds which make 
up the word. We must therefore definitely abandon the 425 
identifications of these two streams which have until re- 
cently been the favourite ones. Instead of placing the 
Kebar in Mesopotamia, with Noldeke (Bibellexicon I, 
508) **, we should assign it to Babylonia, though we are 

with "IQO^ was originally suggested by Fr. Lenormant; see his 'La 
langue primitive de la Chaldee, Paris 1875, p. 365'. 

* Babel is expressly referred -to three times (2 Kings XXIV. 
15 a. b. 16) as the land of the exile. 

[** "The name has in fact", says Noldeke, "entirely disappeared, 
for the system of rivers and canals in Babylonia has in the course of 
millenniums suffered so many changes, and so many rivers and canals 
have even vanished, that we can hardly expect all the names to be 
preserved. I purposely speak of canals in this connection, because 
from olden times up to the present the same name {nahar) has been 
employed in that country to express both river and canal — even the 
smallest — of which there were thousands. We may imagine that Chebar 
was a canal." — Transl,] 


no longer in a position to point out a river or canal of 
that name in this region. 

VIII. 14. Tisn lammuz is written on the Babylonian 
inscriptions, as the name of a month, in the form D u - u - z i 
and Du-'-u-zi (Haupt, Akkadische und Sumerische Keil- 
schrifttexte I, 44) , a Babylono - Assyrian deity of non- 
Semitic origin. The name Dti-zi signifies in Akkadian 
**son of life". The original form of the word was, accord- 
ing to the syllabary V Rawl. 23, 21 c. d., Dumuzi, 
which comes much closer to the Western Semitic tlDH. 
Respecting the legend of Tammtiz-Adonis, see F. Lenor- 
mant in M^moires du Congr. intern, des Oriental. Paris 
1873. II, No. 11; comp. also P. Jensen in Zeitschr. f. 
Assyr. I (1886), p. 17 foil. 

XXIII. 6. 23. D^JJpi nlriB provincial governors and 
viceroys. On this subject see the notes on 1 Kings X. 15 
(Vol. I, p. 175 foil.). Is. XLI, 25 (Vol. II, p. 103). 

23. Tlie sons of Babel and all the Chaldaeans, Pekod and 
Shoa^ and K6a\ all the sons of Assur with them etc. Re- 
specting Tip? = Puklidu, see the note on Jerem. L. 21. 
Accordingly ^'S^ and 4^1p may likewise be race-names, and 
Delitzsch would be justified in identifying them with the 
Kutti (Gutium), who dwelt in the upper region of Adhem 
and DijS,lS,, and with the Sutii (Assyr.) who are constantly 
associated with them. The form Kutt would become 
abbreviated to Kti (= Jt/lp) and Sutti to Sti (VP = ylti^)*. 

[* On the names Gutii and Suta Delitzsch (Parad. pp. 233 foil.) 
cites a large number of illustrative cuneiform notices. From these he 
draws the inference : — "that the region of the land Sutft (including 
that of Sumastu and Jatbur) was the steppe that extended Eastwards 
from the river Diji,M towards Elam and the river Kerkha, from the 
Tigris as far as the Southern declivities of the Medo-Elamite moun- 
tains"; see Cheyne on Isaiah XXII. 5 foil. It is also evident that the 


We have already noticed (Vol, I, p. 123) the conjecture 
that the Guti (which is the softer Babylonian mode of 
pronunciation) are mentioned in Gen. XIV. 1. 

XXVII. 5. TJt?' Setnr; see note on Deut. III. 9 
(Vol. I, p. 146). 

18. "I'^s'pn Helbon, a Syrian town, the modern Hall)1\n 
in the neighbourhood (North West) of Damaskus(Wetzstein), 
is mentioned in one of Nebukadnezzar's inscriptions * (Bel- 426 
lino-cylinder I, 23 ; comp. I Rawl. H5) under the form mat 
Hi-il-bu-nuv, as a region from which the king obtained 
kar§,nav "wine", in order to present it to the deity 
among various other objects as — "fish" (nu-u-nuv), 
"birds" (is-su-ru), "oil" (§a-am-nuv), "honey" (di-i§-pa 
comp. Delitzsch in Smith's Chald. Genesis, p. 285), "cream" 
(hi-mi-tu HNpn). The passage referred-to runs thus : 

meaning "prince", which has been attached to the name ]}yp — Gesenius 
Lexic. 8th ed. compares Arabic cLS "spring upon", used of a breeding- 
camel — will have to be given up together with other imaginary signi- 
fications attached to these words.— Transl.]. 

* It is by no means certain whether the XuXv^ujv mentioned in 
Ptolemaeus V. 15. 17, as situated in the region Xa?.v^u)ViTig, is iden- 
tical with this Hal bun "Helbon", as has been generally assumed. 
The Barbalissus "on the Euphrates", spoken-of as lying in this district, 
points to quite a different region much further to the North or rather 
North-East. It is extremely likely that we ought, with Kiepert and 
others, to think of Berroea-Haleb. It is not surprising that Berroea 
should be specially mentioned along with Chalybon by an author 
of "Geography" who ultimately derived his materials from widely 
different sources, and it is equally natural that Haleb- Aleppo, which 
was subsequently well known to classical writers under its proper 
form XdXsTt, should have been blended with Helb6n {XccXvj3c6v), cele- 
brated for its wine and bearing a closely similar name. With this 
confusion of Halbiin-Chalybon with Haleb-Haleb we might compare 
that of Halman - Holw&n with Halman - Haleb among the Assyrians 
(Keilinsch. u. Gesch. pp. 229 foil, footnote), and that of Hamath- 
Hamath with 'Ahmetha-Ekbatana in Herodotus (Hitzig, Noldeke etc.). 


22, ka-ra-nav f-il-lu ka-ra-nav (so!) m^t I-za-al-lav 

23. mat Tu-'-im-mu m^t S i-i m-m i-n i m^t Hi-il-bu- 
nuv 24. m^t A-ra-na-ba-n u v mit Su-u-ha-am 
25. mat Bit- K u-ba-tiv u m^t Bi-ta-a-tiv i. e. 
"22. delicious wine (namely)^ wine from the land Izallu, 
23. from the land Tu'immu etc." Also in an Assyrian 
list of wines II Rawl. 44, 9 h we meet with the kari,n 
Hul (Hil?)-bu-nu i. e. *Helbonian wine". Moreover 
it is well known from Strabo XV, 735 that the Persian 
kings held the Helbonian wine in high estimation. 

427 23. |"iy a name of a country. Comp. Keilinsch. u. 
Geschichtsforschung p. 199 footnote* and see above note 
on 2 Kings XIX. 12 *, Vol. II, p. 11. 

ip'p3 Kilmad , identified by Smith and Delitzsch with 
the modern KalwS,dha near Baghd§,d, where bronze rings 
have been discovered bearing the inscription : ikal Ha- 
ara-mu-ra-bi S^arri. See Transactions of the Soc. of 
Bibl. Archaeol. I (1872) p. 61; Delitzsch Parad. p. 206. 

XXVIII. 14. 16. nV^ii It^-lp -in? on the mountain of 

* [Til Barsip, the modern Biredshik, was the capital of Bit Adini 
and was situated on the left bank of the Euphrates. Delitzsch (Parad. 
p. 4) speaks of it as a centre of the most important mercantile caravan 
tracks running between Syria (and we might also add Cilicia and Asia 
Minor generally) and Mesopotamia, Assyria and Babylonia. Moreover 
it was the point whence navigation started down the Euphrates, and 
was thus celebi'ated from ancient times for its ship-building and com- 
manded the commerce which passed down the Euphrates to the Pei*sian 
gulf. This spot as well as Bit Adini are unfortunately not marked on 
the map appended to Vol. I. Til Barsip or Bire^hik lies, however, 
within the limits of the map at the extreme end of the Euphrates to 
the North West, above Karkemish (Gargamis), while Bit Adini might 
be said to occupy the whole region between the Euphrates and its 
tributary Belikh (Balihu). Comp. the facts already stated by Prof. 
Schrader, Keilinschr. u. Gesch. p. 199; 219 sq. and the map appended 
to that work. — Translator.] 


God's sanctuary ; — D'^Klh^ "iri3 o7i God's mountain. It is 
evident that we have here a hint of heathenish associations. 
Compare the remarks on Is. XIV. 13 (Vol. II, p. 79 foil.). 

XXXVIII. 2. 3. aiH Gog, prince of Magog. This 
reminds us of the cuneiform representation of the name of 
the Lydian king Gyges Gu-gu, Gu-ug-gu (Smith's 
Assurban. 64, 5 = V Rawl. col. II, 95; Smith's Assurb. 
71, 86; 73, 1). We are likewise reminded of the name 
Ga-gi orGa-a-gi, the ruler of a district which has not 
yet been definitely ascertained, called m^t Sa-hi (Smith's 
Assurb. 97 IV, 1 foil.). Whether there is any connection 
between the name of the Biblical prince and the one or 
the other of the above-mentioned potentates , must remain 
a matter of uncertainty. Comp. the note on Gen. X. 2 
(Vol. I, p. 62) as well as Keilinsch. u. Gesch, p. 159 
footnote *. 

— prince of Rosh (t^'NI), Meshech and Tubal. Delitzsch 
(Parad. p. 322) combines the unknown race-name Rosh 
(comp. XXXIX. 1), in accordance with inscriptions of 
Asurbanipal (V Rawl. 5, 67. 70), with the "land R^sh" 
(mS.t Ra-a-Si) of the inscriptions situated on the Tigris 
at the frontier of Elam. But does this position harmonize 
with the mention of the people in connection with Meshech 
and Tubal, two races which we know for certain belonged 
to Asia Minor? 

6. The house of Togarmah, from the most distant 428 
North. Here Togarmah evidently appears to be the more 
distant, and Gomer to be the nearer race, while in the 
race -table (in Genesis) we have exactly the reverse. 

* Respecting G. Smith's identification of the inhabitants of the 
land Sahi with the Sakians, see Th. Noldeke in Zeitschrift der deutsch. 
morgenland. Gesellschaft XXIII, pp. 328 foil. 


G6mer standing at the head of the list as being the most 
distant people. But during the interval, i. e. in the period 
which lies between the composition of the race-table and 
the life of Ezekiel , the Gomer i. e. the Kimmerians 
(Gimirrai) had broken into Asia Minor, had taken posses- 
sion of Cappadocia, Tubal and Meshech and , we may 
presume, had caused a disruption in Tdgarmah and 
driven the people to the North or North -East. With 
this occupation of Cappadocia by the Gdmer-Kimmerians 
must be connected the later name for Cappadocia viz, 
Gamir (P. deLagarde, collected Essays p. 254; Dill- 
mann's Genesis 1882 p. 163). 

XLV. 12. Twenty Shekels, twenty five shekels and fifteen 
shekels shall be the mina among you. Ofcourse the prophet 
does not here mean three different minas (Hitzig), but 
without doubt fixes the standard of the entire mina at sixty 
shekels i. e. at the old value of the imperial or royal mina. 
See the note on Gen. XXIII, 16 (Vol. I, p. 127 foil.). 

XLVII. 16. 18. pin Haurdn, an Aramaic region lying East 
of Gilead and frequently referred-to in the Assyrian records, 
in the form (mS,t) Ha-u-ra-a-ni, (Ir) Ha-u-ra-ni and 
also (fr) Ha-u-ri-na. From the passage III Rawl. 5 
no. 6 lines 55 foil, (cited in Vol. I, p. 200) it follows that 
this region was a mountainous one, as we already know on 
other grounds. See Keilinsch. u. Gesch. p. 115. 


1. 1. Nehukadnezzar. The original pronunciation of 
the name was Nab^-kudurri-usur. See note on 
2 Kings XXIV. 1, Vol. II, p. 4 7 foil. 
429 4. Respecting '??"'n, Aram. '?^^"^ "palace" see 2 Kings 
XX. 18, Vol. II, p. 39. 


Writing and language of the Chaldees. Respecting the 
form and meaning of the name Chaldees (DHK'D) see 
Gen. XI. 28 (Vol. I, p. 116 foil.). The signification 
"wise men", that we meet- with in the Book of Daniel, is 
foreign to Assyrio-Babylonian usage and did not arise till 
after the fall of the Babylonian empire. This is in itself 
a clear indication of the post - exilic date of the Book 
of Daniel. 

7. Belteshazzar (1^N^^)'?3). The Babylonian form of 
the name was Balatsu-usur or Balatasu-usur i. e. 
"his life protect", a name which resembles SamaS- 
balatsu-ik-bi = "Saraas proclaimed his life", see further 
in Assyrisch-Babylon. Keilinsch. Exc. Eigennamen p. 154, 
No. 59a, and respecting the change of forms bala.tsu 
and bal4ta§u (comp. also ba-la-ti-ja Nebukadn. East 
India House Insc. II, 1. 64) see ibid. p. 249. Regarding 
the representation of sibilants in Hebrew , see Monats- 
berichte der Berlin. Akad. 1877 pp. 79 foil. — When in 
Dan. IV. 5 the name Belteshazzar is stated to have been 
bestowed on Daniel "according to the name of the god of 
Nebukadnezzar", the writer was evidently, in the case of 
the first syllable, thinking of the name of the god Bel ^5 
(comp. Jer. LI. 44) and in this respect wrongly placed the 
name parallel with the other, Belshazzar (1^X^75)5 ^^e 
chap. V, 1. Compare my essay "The Sargon-stele of the 
Berlin Museum", Akad. der Wissenschaften, Berlin 1881 
(2) p. 28 foil. 

The name Shadrach (J\'y}^') is explained by Delitzsch 
with considerable probability as a Babylonian one, Sudur- 
Aku "command of Aku" i. e. of the Moon -deity (Sin). 
He points to the Assyrian Tem-ilu = "PN'DyiO and to the 
Hebrew 'lM^D^{. On the other hand his interpretation of 


the name Meshach ('^K'''p) as = Mi-§a-Aku i. e. «who is 
like Aku ?" seems to me open to objection, because, in the 
first place, the true Babylonian form would be Mannu- 
ki-Aku (see Assyr.-Babylon. Keilinsch. 171 No. 6) and, in 
the second place, the corresponding Babylonian designation 
would certainly not be a mere translation of the correspond- 
ing Hebrew (i. e., in this case, of the name bNC£^"'P). We 
should have to deal with genuine Babylonian names, for 
which the Hebrew ones were to be exchanged, as is clearly 
shown by the other bestowments of names. 

Abednego (1J^ "l?I{) stands, as we have long known, for 
Id? "QV. "servant of Nebo". The conjecture has been 
confirmed by a bilingual (Assyrio- Aramaic) inscription 
(HI Rawl. 46 col. I, 82), in which the name [1]3il3i/ occurs 
430 as one that actually existed among the Assyrians. Other 
instances have been found of Babylonian names com- 
pounded with ^Di;, as Ab-du-mi-lik ■]':'013I/; also we have 
an Ab-du-uh-mu-nu ]0mDJ? (Oppert-M^nant docum. 
jurid. 271), the latter apparently meaning "servant of Ham- 
m6n", the former being certainly identical with the 1'?0131? 
that appears in the Insc, of Citium 2, 3. The latter name 
we also meet with on a Babylonian seal (Journal Asiatique 
1855, 2 p. 422 in Levy, Phoniz. Studien (Dictionary) p. 35). 

— 11. "1^7? name of an official, having some such 
meaning as 'overseer'. This obscure word may possibly 
be explained as identical with the Assyrian massaru 
(ma-as-sa-ru) "guardian", root "IJIJ; V Rawl. 32, 29 
massar b^bi "guardian of the gate". The insertion of 
a liquid after the removal of the duplication would not be 
unusual in Aramaic (Del.) ; comp. note on Is. VI. 1, p. 73. 

II. 2. ^K^X conjurer (one who employs conjurations) 
= Assyr. a-si-pu (II Rawl. 32, 11 e. f. 38, 12 e. f.) ; 


see Delitzsch, Assyr. Studien 1, 135. The meaning of the 
Assyrian word (comp. the Aramaic }.sq-a.]) is guaranteed 
by its Akkadian equivalent KA. KA. MA i. e. "the earnest 
speaker". Comp. also P. Haupt in the Transactions of 
the Berlin Oriental Congress 1 , No. XI "The Sumero- 
Akkadian language" p. 282. 

5. f<'^]N. Respecting this obscure word Theod. Noldeke 
writes to me : — "The word is Persian. It is the form 
azda discussed by Kern in Zeitschrift der deutschen mor- 
genland. Gesellschaft XXIII, p. 220 foil., and it should 
be so transcribed , because in Persian cuneiform final a 
(i. e. when no aspirate follows; ah is otherwise expressed) 
and k are written in the same way. In this case the form 
should certainly be written with final k, on etymological 
grounds. The word means "certain" "sure" = Sansk. 
addhS,. With it we may connect the NimN of Ezra VII. 
23; but about this 1 cannot be quite sure." This disposes 
of Fried. Delitzsch's conjecture (Libri Danielis, Ezrae etc. 
1882, p. VII) that NITN may be referred to a Semitic ItN 
meaning "to be firm". 

14. '?l'i''^^? Arioch. There is no reason to suppose that 
this name has simply been borrowed from Gen. XIV. 1 
(see comment, on the passage). The name I'rl-Aku is a 
genuine Babylonian one and may have been preserved in 
Babylonia up to the latest date with which we are here 
concerned. There is no reason whatever for holding that the 
name was derived (as Hitzig supposes) from the Sanskrit. 

48. JOJD (and in III. 2 N"'3JD) from jJD viceroy, provin- 
cial governor; see note on Is. XLl. 25 and footnote in 
Vol. I, p. 176. 

III. 1. Nlll HjypD? in the plain of Dura. There were 
several Babylonian places called Dtiru, for this name has 


been preserved in that region up to the present time as a 
designation for "hills" (Oppert, Exp^d. en M^sopot. I, 
pp. 238 foil.). The ancient Babylonian race-table shows 
IV Rawl. 38 on the Obv. col. 11, 9 — 11 alone three local- 
ities bearing this name; see Delitzsch Parad. p. 216. The 
name signifies "rampart" and then "fortress". 
431 2. nnS (plur. NnjrjD) viceroy, satrap-, see note on 
1 Kings X. 15, Vol. I, p. 175 foil. The other ranks of 
officers here mentioned (D^JlO?t^*) have Persian designations. — 
Respecting NHUIIN Noldeke remarks that this word in 
the form andarzgar was a title still in use under the 
S^sanids. See Noldeke's translation of Tabari p. 462 note. 

5. The musical instruments that are here mentioned, 
DirT'p {xid-aQLq), NDDC {aa(/^vxtj), |nnJDO (ipaXrrQiov) and 
n^JODID [avficpcovia), are Greek, and hence their names are 
looked-for in vain among cuneiform documents. 

29. And from me goes forth a command that every 
people, nation and tongue, that utters blasphemy against the 
God of Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego, shall be cut in 
pieces . . . The inscriptions of Nebukadnezzar, which have 
come down to us in considerable quantity, exhibit that 
monarch simply as a devoted worshipper, especially of 
Nebo and Merodach — and thus as a very pronounced 

IV. 1. /, Nebukadnezzar, lived peacefully in my house 
and contentedly in my palace, 2. when I beheld a dream 
which terrified me ... 25. All befel Nebukadnezzar the 
king. 26. After the lapse of twelve months he was walking 
upon his royal palace of Babel etc. The narrative of 
Abydenus quoted in Eusebius' Praeparatio evangelica runs 
closely parallel to this scriptural account (see Gaisford's ed. 
IX, 41, 6), and in an abbreviated form we have it in his 


Armeniaa Chronicle (ed, Schoene I, 41. 42; In C. Mueller, 
Fragm. hist. Gr. IV, p. 283 foil.). From the above we 
learn that, according to a tradition which prevailed among 
the Chaldees, Nebukadnezzar, after he had become stronger 
than Hercules and had undertaken expeditions to Libya 
and Iberia, and had settled a portion of the subjugated 
populations at Pontus, mounted the royal fortress and, in- 
spired by a god, had declared a prophecy, whereby Perses, 
(the Persian) mule , would bring the Babylonians under 
bondage, not without the complicity of their own Baby- 
lonian ruler, Nabunit-Labynetus , the * son of the Median 
woman" {yloq Mi/df/g as we should read with A. von Gut- 432 
schmid). A comparison of both accounts shows that they 
are narratives which have been moulded independently 
of one another from one and the same Babylonian popular 
legend. To these may be added a third variety viz. the 
concise story in Herodotus (I, 188) respecting Labynetus I, 
husband of Nitocris and his son Labynetus II *, the oppo- 
nent of Cyrus. Of the two first accounts the tradition in 
Abydenus, written down comparatively late in the form in 
which we now have it , possesses the greater claim to 
originality, both on the ground of form and of contents. 
"The form which the legend in the Hebrew tradition — i. e. 
through the writer of the Book of Daniel — has assumed, 

* We need not explain that he is the same as the Nabunit of 
Berossus and the Nabu-n&'id of the inscriptions. Nebukadnezzar as 
Labynetus is contrasted with him in the relation of father to son in 
just the same way as Belshazzar is contrasted with this same Nebu- 
kadnezzar in the Book of Daniel , and as the "son of the Median 
woman" to the "husband of the Median Amyitis" in the Chaldaean 
popular legend quoted by Abydenus. Herodotus, the Book of Daniel, 
and the Chaldaean popular tradition coincide in this case completely 
in the most important points. 



arises in part from mere misunderstandings. Thus, what 
the legend intended to apply to the foes of the Chaldaeans, 
was referred to the Chaldaean monarch , Nebukadnezzar. 
Also what the legend meant to be a stay among animals, 
was transformed into a life and a growth resembling that 
of animals. On the other hand, it also arises in part from 
the endeavour of the apocalypse of Daniel to employ the 
legend, which it misunderstood in its most important fea- 
tures, to illustrate the principle which the prophecy enun- 
ciates, that the mightiest on earth are completely in the 
power of the Most High, whose action is truth and whose 
ways are uprightness, and who is able to bring low those 
433 who walk in arrogance (Dan. IV. 22, 29. 34). The 
representation in the Book of Daniel is the Judaeo- apo- 
calyptic reconstruction of the Babylonian popular myth, 
preserved to us in its relatively more original shape by 
Abydenus." See my essay : "The legend of Nebukad- 
nezzar's frenzy" in the Jahrbiicher fiir protestant. Theologie. 
1881, pp. 618 — 629, especially p. 628. 

V. 1. Belshazzar (n^NI^'^S) , the king, gave a great 
banquet etc. The legend of the Babylonian king Bel- 
shazzar is not simply invented by the author of this book. 
A Babylonian prince, bearing the above name, actually 
existed. He was the first - born son of Nabunit (the 
Nabti-n^'id of the inscriptions *) and his Babylonian 
name was Bt'l-s ar-usur i. e. "Bel, protect the king"; 
see Assyr.-Babylon. Keilinsch. p. 128 No. 11, and, on the 
reproduction of the sibilants in Hebrew, see my essay in 
Berlin. Monatsberichte 1877**. The passage to which we 

* See Assyr.-Babylon. Keilinsch. p. 136 No. 25. 
** The orthography with x retained and "^ dropped after the {J,', 
•• 6. "iSKIi'^D instead of IJiX^K^^D , may perhaps be accounted-for 


owe this information occurs on the cylinder of Nabunit 
(cuneiform Nablina'id) I Rawl. 68 col. II 24 foil., where 434 
we read: 24. u sa Bil-sar-usur 25. abal rts-tu-u 
2Q. si-it lib-bi-ja : 27. pu-lu'h-ti ilu-u-ti-ka rabi-ti 
28. lib-bu-u§ §u-us-kin-ma 29. ai ir-sa-a 30. hi-ti-ti 
31. la-li-i bal§,ti lisbi i. e. 24. "and as to Belshazzar, 
25. the exalted son, 26. the sprout (riNU root ^<5i^<) of my 
body (properly 'heart'), 2 7. do thou place (thou, god 
Sin, see line 3) the adoration of thy great deity 28. in 
his heart; 29. may he not give way (Arabic Lii.; comp. 
Khorsab. 51) 30. to sin; 31. may he be satisfied by 
life's abundance" (comp. Joh. Meinhold , die Compo- 
sition des B. Daniel, Greifswald 1884, p. 14 foil.). — See 
also the glossary and compare the articles "Belsazer" 
in Schenkel's Bibellexicon I and in Riehm's Hand- 
worterbuch des biblischen Alterthums. — That this first- 
born son of Nabunit occupied a distinguished position next 
to the king during his life-time, and especially at the 
fall of the empire , has been recently established by an 
inscription on a clay tablet containing the annals of 

from the- teudeucy to approximate to the form of the other name 
"15iNli'l07D known to the copyist from the preceding passages. lu 
this case the omission of the "^ would be quite natural. Conversely 
from this same tendency may be explained the punctuation of the 
other name as '1JJ{<^*10'?3 with the meaningless prefix "^2 l^ee note 
on I, 7). The accompanying table will make the formation of the 
following three names clear, viz. Nebukadnezzar = Babyl. Nabu- 
kudurri-usur; Belshazzar = Babyl. B i'l - s a r - u s u r ; Belteshazzar 
= Babyl. Balata-su-usur. Besides these' Nergalsharezer = Babyl. 

1. Nabii-kudurri-usur = "^j^x T1D 123 

2. Nirgal-sar-usur = -|jjx -)]^ ^J-lJ 

3. Bi'1-sar-usur = "irjx [■■\\]^ ^{}})'2 

4. Balata-su-usur = '\^'^ ^ lO^D- 



NabUnaid (Transact. VII, 1 p. 153 foil.). According to 
this document ^the son of the king" (abal §arri), i. e. the 
crown-prince, was as early as in the 7*'' year of the 
king's reign, i. e. 649 B. C, accompanying the army 
in Akkad, i. e. North Babylonia, along with the chief 
men of the empire ; he may have held there an in- 
dependent command. See the annalistic inscription Obv. 
II. 5 (= 7*" year); 10 (= 9*" year); 19 (= 10*" year); 
23 (= IV^ year). In the last or seventeenth year, in 
which the overthrow took place , we see instead of the 
crown -prince king Nab<in£t'id himself accompanying the 
army in Akkad at Sipar-Sepharvaim, where he fought a 
435 disastrous battle with Cyrus (Rev. 14. 15). On this 
occasion no mention is made of the crown-prince. Per- 
haps while the father confronted the foe on the open field, 
the son was appointed to defend the capital. On the 
capture of the town the crown-prince lost his life, meeting 
with a more honourable end on the field of battle than his 
father who fell into captivity. Hence in the legend tradi- 
tion has preserved a vivid remembrance of the former and 
his death. Already in the days of Nebukadnezzar we have 
an example of the crown-prince holding a distinguished 
position in the life-time of his parent. Hence there is 
nothing surprising in the circumstance that even the title 
of king was bestowed on him by tradition. We might also 
compare the designation of Nebukadnezzar as king of 
Babylon as early as the time of the battle of Karke- 
mish; Jerem. XL VI. 2, see above p. 115, Vol. II on that 
passage, and also Vol. II p. 43 on 2 Kings XXIII. 29. 
2. Nebukadnezzar his father, comp. verses 11, 18 and 
22. Agreement with the facts of history, whereby there in- 
tervened between Nebukadnezzar and the last king of Baby- 


Ionia a whole series of rulers (see the canon of Ptolemj 
and Berossus), does not fead we -lo thfe Assumption of a 
more indefinite and broader signification for the words 
"son" and "father". The fact rather is that it was only 
the blooming period of the great founder of the empire 
(I do not say the first Babylonian king) and the time of the 
empire's downfall that remained fixed in the memory. Thus 
in the various traditions the period of prosperity was uniform- 
ly represented by Nebukadnezzar, while the closing period 
was associated in the memory of the Jews with the person 
of Belshazzar *. On the other hand among the Babylonians it 

* We meet with the same statement in the Book of Baruch I, 
1 1 foil. The question may arise whether one of the two writers could 
not have borrowed from the other. If so, who was the borrower ? or 
have both derived their accounts from a third source. The agreement 
also of Bar. I. 15—17, II. 1. 2. 7 foil. 11 foil, with Daniel IX renders 
it more probable, that the less original author of the Book of Baruch 
derived his materials from the thoroughly independent writer of the 
Book of Daniel. Comp. De Wette-Schrader , Einleitung in das Alte 
Testament 8t'> ed. § 391 p. 603 note f. Moreover, the manner in which 
the Book of Baruch describes the rule of Belshazzar is decisive in 
favour of this view. In Daniel Belshazzar is throughout the Baby- 
lonian tyrant, who in his arrogance goes so far as to defile even the 
sacred vessels, and the representation in this book is pervaded by 
the spirit of vengeance, which is to overtake the Babylonians for their 
haughtiness. On the other hand, in the Book of Baruch the two kings 
of Babylonia are two rulers, under whose shadotv (!) Juda has been 
living for a long while, whom Juda serves and before whom he Jiiids 
favour; and this is obviously the reflex of a description such as that 
in the Book of Daniel of the lot which fell to the person of Daniel 
according to this very book. Observe also the verbal agreement of 
Baruch II. 6 with Daniel IX. 7; of Bar. II. 8 with Dan. IX. 13 b; of 
Bar. II. 9 with Dan. IX. 14; of Bar. II. 11 with Dan. IX. 15 etc. !— 
Moreover, while it is quite certain, on account of IX. 4 comp. with 
Neh. I. 5, IX. 82; Dan. IX. 15 comp. with Neh. IX. 10; Dan. IX. 8 
comp. with Neh. IX. 44; Dan. IX. 7. 8 comp. with Ezra IX. 7 (see 
C. von Lengerke, Buch Daniel p. 411), that the writer of the Book of 


436 was connected with the person of Nabunit (comp. Herod. I. 
188). In order to make the above statement clear I 
append the following table. Upon this I would merely remark 
that Herodotus, who like every other ancient Greek, never 
mentions Nebukadnezzar under this, his proper name, 
always replaces this altogether strange designation by one 
that at all events seemed pronounceable to him, and was 
moreover shorter and more current, viz, Labynet i. e. 

I. II. 

Book of Daniel. Herodotus. 

Nebukadnezzar, father. Labynetus I, father. 

Belshazzar, son and last king. Labynetus II, son and last king. 

437 VI. 1. And Darius, the Mede , succeeded to the king- 
dom; comp. verse 29 : under the rule of Darius and 

during the rule of Cyrus, the Persian. In accordance with 
the notices of classical and oriental writers, with which 
we have hitherto been acquainted, the hypothesis of a 
Median interregnum has appeared, to say the least, ex- 
tremely improbable. But by the recently discovered 
cylinder of Cyrus as well as by NabUna'id's annals such a 
theory has been finally disposed -of. Both these docu- 
ments represent the last king of Babylon, called Nabtin§,'id, 
as being immediately succeeded in the rule over Babylonia 
by the Persian Cyrus. Comp. Cyrus-cyl. 17 foil.; Nabu- 
nit's Annals Rev. col. I. 12 foil. The conception of a 

Daniel was acquainted with the Books of Ezra and Neheraiah, it is, 
on the other hand, quite certain, from the verbal agreement of 
Bar. II. 6 with Dan. IX. 7; Bar. II. 10 with Dan. IX. 10, that the 
author of the Book of Baruch went to Dan. IX as his special and 
immediate authority. Comp. E. Schiirer in Protestant. Real-Encyclo- 
padie 2nd ed. I, p. 501; J. J. Kneucker, Das Buch Baruch 1879, 
pp. 31 foil. 


Median interregnum, which pervades the Book of Daniel *, 
evidently originates from a dim recollection of the former 
position of superiority possessed by the Medes. Their place 
in Medo-Persia was occupied by the dominion of Cyrus 
and the Achaemenidae. The tradition takes no account 
of the fact that this Median rule exactly coincided chrono- 
logically with the Babylonian, and that the Persian conqueror 
had brought Media earlier than Babylonia under his sway. 
This same tradition made no scruple to assume as a Median 
interrex, one having the pure Persian name Darius. How 
far the legend adopted in other respects the material which 
here comes under consideration, may be ascertained by the 
reader from my essay "The legend of Nebukadnezzar's 
frenzy" in Jahrbiicher fur Protestant, Theologie pp. 618 — 
629. See the remarks on chap. V. 1. 

VII. 1. In the first year of Belshazzar. Comp. VIII. 1438 
"in the third year of Belshazzar". To judge from this mode 

of expression, the author of the Book of Daniel regarded 
Belshazzar as a separate and independent monarch , who 
reigned several years. We cannot at any rate prove from 
documentary evidence that such was the fact; comp. note 
on V. 1. Probably we have simply a confusion of this 
king of Babel, whom the Jews supposed to be the last, 
with the actually last king Nabunit, who reigned altogether 
17 years; comp. note on chap. V. 2. 

VIII. 2. v^N Eulaeus Evlaioq, in Assyrian nS.r Ulai 

* Comp. not only V. 28, VIII. 3. 20 but especially VII. 3 foil. 
In the last passage the kingdom represented under the image of a bear 
is without doubt the Median empire, in the same way as the "lesser" 
empire that follows the Babylonian, referred-to in the monarchic image 
described in II, 39 a. 


(written U-la-ai) *, the name of a river in Elam-Susiana, 
which flowed in the immediate neighbourhood of Susa- 
Shushan **. "Whether it is identical with the Kercha 
flowing West of Shush-Susa, the Choaspes of the ancients, 
as we conjecture, or, whether we should not, with Delitzsch 
Parad. p. 177 foil. 329, consider it the same as the modern 
Kartin, East of Susa, is a matter which cannot be deter- 
mined without further investigation. 

IX. 1 . Darius, son of Ahasliuerus, of Median descent. 
On these names see the note on Ezra IV. 5. Comp. also 
immediately above the remarks on chap. VI. 1. 

X. 1. Koresh, king of Persia. See the note on 
Ezra I. 1. 


V. 13. And Ephraim goes to Assur and sends to king 
Combatant; yet he is not able to heal you. Comp. X. 6. 
430 As the reader is aware, exegetes are uncertain whether the 
Heb. 3"!)' ("^59) is to be understood as a proper name = 
"(king) Jareb" or as an appellative = "the combatant 
king". The latter explanation is the only tenable one 
from the simple fact — apart from all others — that a king 
"Jareb" cannot be pointed out in the Assyrian lists of 
kings. What Assyrian king was specially meant by the 
prophet it is impossible to state positively, since the Biblical 

* I have already shown in the Monatsberichte der Berlin. Akad. 
der Wissensch. 1880 p. 275 that the Assyrian should, in agreement 
with the Greek and Hebrew representation of the name, be transcribed 
Ulai and not U1&. 

** Smith's Assurb. Ill, 94 foil. (= V Rawl. 3, 41 foil.); 127, 86 foil.; 
198, 9 (= IV Rawl. 52 No. 2, 9; Sanherib Bull-inscription Plate 3, 2 
(in Rawl. 13). 


chronology in relation to the Assyrian is an unsettled pro- 
blem, and so is the date at which these oracles were com- 
posed. In a subsequent passage (see the comment on X. 
1 4) we have perhaps mention of a Salmanassar , who can 
only have been Salmanassar III (783 — 773); but, from 
the way in which he is spoken-of, he must have been a 
king who by that time belonged to the past. Hence when 
Hosea refers to "king combatant" he must have meant one 
of the immediate successors of Salmanassar, perhaps Asur- 
dan, who in the years 755 and 754 made expeditions 
against Chatarik (Hadrach) and Arpadda (Arpad) ; see the 
List of Governors. When we consider the difficulty of 
reconciling the Assyrian chronology and the traditional one 
of the Bible for this period, we can scarcely expect to 
reach a definite conclusion. Nowack in his commentary 
on this passage identifies 31J with Tiglath-Pileser II *. 

* [The identification with Tiglath-Pileser II is certainly the more 
probable hypothesis. Our knowledge of Asurdanilu's military enter- 
prises is very limited, being derived from the notices in the List of 
Governors. From these we infer that his powers of offence were 
seriously crippled by revolts in Assyria itself. Under these circum- 
stances it seems doubtful whether he was in a position to exercise 
sufficient pressure on Palestine to extort the payment of a subsidy. 
If Kamphausen's carefully elaborated chronological scheme be even 
approximately correct (Chronolog. der Hebr. Konige p. 32), the date 
proposed by Schrader 754 would fall within the reign of the powerful 
and prosperous Jeroboam II. But this was not an age in which 
Ephraim suffered from serious political distemper (comp. Hos. V. 13). 
The notices in 2 Kings XIV. 25, 28 point in the opposite direction. 
Nor does Juda's "wound" easily apply as a descriptive epithet during 
the strong rule of the contemporary Uzziah at that particular time. 
On the other hand the language of the prophet in this and other 
analogous passages (VII. 9, 11, XI. 1, XIV. 3) clearly points to a later, 
degenerate age, when the weak reigns of Menahem and Pekah placed 
Israel under subservience to Assyria, her Eastern frontiers being 
exposed to the victorious inroads of Tiglath-Pileser II. — The "wound 


In the second passage X. 6, to which reference has been 
made, "presents" nn^O are mentioned which were given to 
the Great King. How far this involved a recognition of the 
supremacy of Assyria, we do not know, since the contem- 
porary Assyrian records are missing. It may be readily 
understood from the way in which the Assyrians were 
accustomed to regard such "presents" or "gifts" (Assyr. 
mandat(t)u, raad(d)atu), that these despatches of 
tribute were not altogether unaccompanied by such a 
440 recognition of supremacy. Nevertheless we perceive from 
this passage that the ties of dependence which united Nor- 
thern Palestine to Assyria, and which had been reestablished 
by Ramm^nnirar about 800 B. C, had meanwhile become 
considerably relaxed; see above Vol. I, pp. 206 — 208. 

6. ^b Memphis; see note on Is. XIX. 13, p. 82. 

X. 14. and all thy fortresses will be laid waste, as 
Shalman laid waste Beth- Arb' el on the day of battle. It seems 
natural to understand by "Shalman" (]P^tt') an Assyrian 
ruler, that is to say a Salmanassar, Assyr. Salmanu- 

of Juda" may refer to the losses sustained by the Southern kingdom, 
in the overthrow by Tiglath-Pileser of the confederacy supported by 
king Uzziah (Azariah) ; see Vol. I, pp. 209 foil. This we might refer 
to the year 740 B. C. The subservient conduct of Ephraim, on the 
other hand, would correspond with the payment of tribute by Menahem 
(2 Kings XV. 19), to which the eponym- canon enables us to assign 
the date 738 B. C. Nothing is said about subservience on the part 
of Juda. It is true that Juda suffered by the brunt of war, but 
honour was not sacrificed. This is exactly in accordance with what 
we otherwise know respecting Uzziah (Azariah) ; comp. Vol. I, p. 245. 
— Lastly, the reader will observe that in the comment on X. 14 
Di\ Schrader expresses doubts as to the identification of "Shalman" 
with Salmanassar III, thus invalidating one of the grounds on which 
his hypothesis, that Jareb = Asurdanilu, is made to rest. — There can 
be little question that no Assyrian monarch better deserved the epithet 
of "combatant" or "struggler-king" than Tiglath-Pileser U. — Translator.] 


a§^rid, from which name that which stands in the text 
has become abbreviated ; indeed , according to Oppert, 
Exp^d. en M^sopotamie 1, 366 there exists in London a 
piece of ivory on which the name (this royal name ?) 
appears shortened into Salmanu. And, when we ask 
which Salmanassar was specially meant by the prophet, 
we might suppose it was the great Salmanassar, the second 
of that name (860 — 825 B. C), the same as the king to 
whom we owe the small obelisk of black basalt and who 
makes mention of Jehu of Israel. But apart from the 
fact that no reference is made in his inscriptions to the 
destruction of a city Betharbel, such an event was evidently 
one which still remained fresh in the recollection of the 
prophet and of those whom he addressed. Accordingly we 
must fix upon a later Salmanassar, namely the king who 
reigned according to the Canon of Rulers from 783 — 773 
B. C. i. e. in the last decads preceding the composition of 
Hosea's discourses. But the Beth-Arb^l (^NDIN P''^) of 
this passage can hardly have been the Galilaean place of 
that name, since we can scarcely conceive of the destruc- 
tion of that city unless the district had been invaded by 
the Assyrians, an enterprise of which we have no informa- 
tion whatever. Nor can Beth-Arbel be identified with the44i 
Assyrian Arbela, South-East of the modern Mosul, in which 
there existed a sanctuary of Istar held in very high esteem 
(see Assyr.-Babyl. Keilinschriften p. 172), for this place 
had for many centuries formed a part of the Assyrian 
empire, and it can hardly be supposed that the destruction 
of so distant a town would have produced a very powerful 
impression on the Israelites. It is much more likely that 
Beth-Arbel is the place of that name situated on the other 
side of Jordan, near Pella (see Eusebius-Hieronym., Ono- 


mast. ed. Lagarde I. 88, 6). And this agrees with the 
fact which we learn from the List of Governors, that Sal- 
manassar III (783 — 773), already referred-to , made in 
the year 775 an expedition into the cedar-country (m§,t 
frini), that is to say the Lebanon-district (see my remarks 
on 1 Kings V. 13, Vol. I, pp. 172 foil.). On that occasion 
he may have penetrated into the trans-jordanic region and 
destroyed this Arbela. But here again I cannot refrain 
from doubts respecting this whole combination. Would the 
prophet have actually omitted to define the Assyrian Great 
King as such, i. e. as an Assyrian, by the addition of "king 
of Assyria", while in other cases (e. g. X. 6), as the reader is 
aware, he speaks of "kings of Assyria"? — Now Tiglath- 
Pileser (Pul) in his great triumphal inscription II Rawl. 6 7 
line 60 (see above Vol. I, p. 249) mentions a Moabite king 
Salamanu i. e. jobLJ'* * as a prince who paid tribute to him. 
According to the Bible, Hosea was a contemporary of Mena- 
hem, and therefore of Tiglath-Pileser (Pul) also (comp. too 
the chronological excursus below). Hence there cannot be 
any doubt that Salman of Moab was a contemporary of 
442 Hosea. Now we know from 2 Kings XIII. 20 that the 
Moabites in the time of Joash made an incursion into Israe- 
lite territory. They were afterwards, it is true, subjugated 
by Jeroboam II (2 Kings XIV. 25). After his death, however, 
when troubles broke out in the Northern kingdom , they 
must have once more made themselves independent. Per- 
haps they even assumed the offensive, and, in an incursion 
into the territory of Israel, destroyed the town of Beth- 
Arb^l. In the case of a contemporary prince, reigning 

* )07K' appears as a proper name also on a Palmyrene inscription; 
see de Vogii^, Syrie Ceutrale 1 p. 55 No. 76. 


over a neighbouring people, the omission by the prophet 
of any defining epithet, to designate the personality referred- 
to, is easily intelligible. Unless we are to assume the 
existence of a place called Salman - Bethel - Arbel (with 
Hitzig and Steiner), about which we have no knowledge, 
the last combination to which I have referred has most to 
be said in its favour. Comp. also Nowack's Commentary 
on Hosea ad loc. 


I. 4. Hazael, Benhadad; see my remarks on 1 Kings 
XX. 1, 2 Kings Vm. 15 (Vol. I, pp. 191, 19 7 foil.). 

5. nJ^ n""? Beth-Eden; see notes on 2 Kings XIX. 12 
(Is. XXXVII. 12), Ezek. XXVII. 23; comp. Keilinsch. 
und Geschichtsf. p. 199. 

V. 26. 2'hus shall ye then take Sakkuth (HIDD), your 
king, and Kewan (]1^3)» your star-god, your images which 
ye have made for yourselves, and I will carry you off into 
captivity. The justification of this rendering may be read 
in my article "Assyrio-Biblical" (I) in the Theolog. Studien 
u. Kritiken 1874 pp. 324—332, where (p. 332) the 
meaning of the passage is expounded in its connexion *. 
niDD is to be punctuated PISD, and ]VD as ]V3. These are 443 
names of deities — originally Babylono - Assyrian deities. 

* The meaning of the entire passage is : I take as little pleasure 
today in your burnt-ofterings and meal offerings (V. 22, 23), as for- 
merly during the journey through the wilderness (V. 25) and the 
people will certainly not be able by such external ceremonial service 
to prevent the arrival of the judgment (V. 24), which will befal both 
the people (V. 26) and the gods worshipped by them (V. 25), both of 
whom shall equally be destined to go into exile (comp. Is. XL VI. 2 
as well verse 5 in the above chapter of Amos). 


The former corresponds to the name of the Assyrian divi- 
nity Sak-kut, according to II Rawl. 5 7, 40 c. d., another 
term for Adar (= Adrammelech). The latter is, as Op- 
pert has ah'eady recognized, identical with the Assyrian 
Ka-ai-va-nu*, a name for the planet Saturn, II Rawl. 
32, 25 e. f. And this tallies with the epithet □5^1'?^? 3?i3 
in the Hebrew text ** and also with the tradition of the 
Mandaeans (and then of the Arabians and Persians) accor- 
ding to which ^^^^^ is the name for Saturn. This expla- 
nation is supported by the Peshitto, which gives us jJoas 
as well as by the LXX whose Paicpav (not Remphan !) 
must be simply a corruption of the Greek form correspon- 
ding to the Hebrew ]VD. The etymology of the name 
Kaivan is still obscure; the derivation formerly attempted 
from the Semitic root pD must now be given up. The 
name Sakkut I consider to be, like the alternative name 
Adar, of non- Semitic i. e. of Sumiro- Akkadian origin. 
Perhaps, just as Adar signifies "Father of Destiny" 
(A -tar), so Sakkut may mean "Head (§ak) of Decision 
(kut)". See the evidence in "Reports of the Konigl. Sachs. 
Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften", Philolog. histor. CI. 1880 
pp. 19--23. 
444 — 27. and I carry you into captivity beyond Damaskus. 
This expression only possesses meaning when we suppose 
the prophet to have had the Assyrians in his mind, who 
after the time of Asurnasirabal and Salmanassar II — nay 

* Regarding the pronunciation Kaivan (notKavan!) see Monats- 
berichte der Berlin. Akademie der Wissenschaften 1880, p. 275. 

** Respecting the transposition of the plural □3^l3'?y which is 
quite meaningless as it stands, and which ought to be placed after 
DD^n'?{< 2D1D (comp. also the LXX), see the above-mentioned Art. in 
Stud, und Kritiken p. 331. 


as far back as the days of Tiglatli-Pileser I — were only 
too familiar to the inhabitants of Palestine-Phoenicia. The 
way, however, in which the Assyrians are merely hinted at 
in this passage would lead us to conclude that there was 
no immediate danger to be apprehended from them at that 
time. Corap. the notes on VI. 2 and 14. 

VI. 2. Pass over to Kabieh (^^73) a7id behold, and go 
from thence to Hamdth, the great (n3T non) , and descend 
to Gath of the Philistines etc. The phraseology points to 
serious catastrophes which befel the towns above-mention- 
ed. \i Kalneh is the same as the Kul-unu in Babylonia, 
referred-to in the inscriptions, it appears as a captured 
town in the records of Sargon, composed after the occu- 
pation of Babylon in the year 710 B. C. * Haniath fell 
in the reign of Sargon, in the year 720 B. C. (see above 
Vol. II, p. 6, 8 — ). — Gath we may hold to have been 
mentioned as a town captured by Sargon, if the Gimtu 
Asdudtm in the inscriptions of that monarch be Gath in 
Philistia (see above Vol. I, p. 154); for that town would 
have come into the hands of the Assyrians (see note on 
Is. XX. 1, Vol. II, pp. 89 foil. 95) in the 11"' year of the 
kings reign i. e. 711 B. C. at the same time as Ashdod 
itself. The three dates would agree with one another in a 
manner as remarkable as is their disagreement with the 
traditional view that the book of Amos was composed about 
800 B. C. One would scarcely, however, he disposed to 
place the composition of the Book of Amos so late as 
700 B. C, and this for the simple reason that we have 
in these oracles merely hints respecting the Assyrians 

* Cyprus-stele col. I (II), 15. Khorsab. 9; conip. Botta's Aimals 
p. 109, 10 foil. 


(V. 2 7, VI. 14). Hence the opinion forces itself upon 
445 us that verse 2 has been interpolated. Gustav Bickell 
holds that we are justified in assuming this upon internal 
grounds derived from the grammatical connexion as well 
as from the facts involved *. Comp. my remarks on 
Is. X. 9 (XXXVI. 19, XXXVII. 13 =) 2 Kings XVIII. 
34; XIX. 12, 13. 

14. from Hamdth as far as the brook of the plain. 
Comp. 1 Kings VIII. 65 from Hamdth as far as the brooJc 
of Aegypt. The current idiomatic form of the phrase 
shows that we ought not to draw any conclusion from 
verse 1 4 with respect to the mention of Hamath in verse 2 
(see the remarks above). — As to the "people" (^iil) whom 
Jahve here summons against Israel, we can only under- 
stand the Assyrians to be meant by this term , though 
the announcement is couched in mysterious language. 
Comp. the note on chap. V. 27. 

* Bickell's reasons, contained in a private communication, are 
as follows. "(1) Verse 2 does not fit in to the metrical system 
of Amos VI. 1 — 7 (heptasyllabic distichs); (2) It breaks the gram- 
matical connection (apposition) between verse 1 and verse 3 , since 
D^njDu cannot possibly refer to the suffix in □3^3J}3. (3) It 
does not furnish an intelligible sense either in itself or in the con- 
text, since the meaning which seems to be on the surface, that the 
towns are to serve as warning examples, does not harmonize with the 
following question, which is moreover extremely obscure and un- 
grammatical , while , to regard them as examples of states , on whom 
God has bestowed fewer favours than on thankless Israel, introduces 
an altogether foreign conception, which has to be for the most part 
supplied in thought, and presupposes a much too tortured form of 
expression. [The challenge is, according to Bickell, probably a marginal 
note on the part of a reader belonging to the time of Sargon; and 
the question is an unfortunate attempt to explain it, proceeding from 
a gloss-writer of a much later period.] (4) The overthrow of Kalneh 
and of Hamath here alluded-to we may infer from Is. X and XXXVII 
had not yet taken place at the time when the Prophet Amos lived" 
[This is quite right — see the text. — Schrader]. 



20. TIOQ. The Persian cuneiform inscriptions of Darius 
repeatedly refer to ^parda as a land or race under 
subjection to the Great King and this name is always 446 
mentioned in immediate connection with Jaun^ i. e. 
"lonians" or "Greeks". In the great Behistun inscription 
we read col. I, 15 (Persian text) : ^parda, JaunH, 
M^da, Armina, Katapatuka, Parthava i. e. 
"Sparda, Ionia, Media, Armenia, Cappadocia, Parthia". 
In the inscription of Darius lines 12. 13 we read : 
Armina, Katapatuka, (j^parda, JaunS,, tjaij 
uSkahjS. utt tjaij darajahjS, i. e. "The Armenians, 
Cappadocians , Sparda, the lonians of the mainland and 
those of the islands" etc. Lastly, in the first inscription 
of Darius from Naksh-i-Rustam (NRa. 2 7. 28) : Armina, 
Katapatuka, Qparda, Jauna, ^aka i. e. "Armenia, 
Cappadocia, Sparda, the lonians, the Scythians". From 
these passages it is quite certain that by (^parda we 
must understand a district in Asia Minor , if not in 
Europe (?), at all events one that was close to the lonians. 
The Sepharad occurring in this passage of the Bible has 
repeatedly been connected with the above Sparda, most 
probably Sardis. To this spot accordingly captive Jews 
were transported or sold. But the question might arise : — 
Is it at all probable that Nebukadnezzar, who is never 
reported to have made his way to the settlements of the 
lonians in Asia Minor, transported even a portion of the 
Israelites into those regions, especially as it is the uniform 
tradition of the Jews from the most ancient times, that, 
when they were deported, settlements were assigned to 
them in Babylonia? The exegete is here confronted by 



the alternative either to attribute the book to a later period, 
or to give up the identification with Sardis. If Seph^rad 
is really identical with (^parda and the latter with Sardis, 
the oracle cannot have been composed in the days of 
447 Nebukadnezzar, which is the ordinary opinion *. Its origin 
must necessarily in this case (with Hitzig) be assigned to 
the Persian or Greek period. But if the oracle was com- 
posed in the time of Nebukadnezzar, we can only under- 
stand by SephS.rad a Babylonian or some other locality, 
district etc. If such be the case, we might suppose that 
the (m i t) S a p a r d a of Sargon's inscriptions was referred 
to, situated in South -Western Media towards Babylonia, 
a name which would phonetically correspond in every 
respect with the Hebrew 1"1DD. Keilinsch. u. Gesch. 
pp. 116—119. 


I. 2. Go to Niniveh, the great city. 

III. 3. But Niniveh was for God a great city, taking 
three days to compass. 

IV. 11. Niniveh, the great city, in which are more than 
twelve myriads of human beings, who know not how to distin- 
guish between right and left. 

Though these statements respecting the size of Niniveh, 
inasmuch as they are those of a late writer, cannot lay 
claim to statistical accuracy, yet they do nevertheless rest 
upon a tradition not far removed from the actual basis of 
facts. As we have already pointed out, in the comment 

* Comp. De Wette-Schrader, Einleitung ins Alte Testament 8'h ed. 
§ 290 and Bleek's do. 4tii ed. § 216. 


on Gen. X. 11 (Vol. I, p. 83), 'Niniveh' may be under- 
stood in a narrower and a broader sense. In the narrower 
sense it is only the Western town that is meant^ the residence 
of Sennacherib and Asurbanipal , and lying opposite to the 
present Mosul. In the broader sense the name can only 
designate the entire network of towns situated in the angle 448 
formed by the Tigris and its tributary, the Zab, that flows 
into it. Thus it would not only embrace Niniveh proper 
(Kujundshik) but also Kalah (Nimrlid), Rechoboth-l'r, and 
lastly Dtir-Sarrukin (Khorsabad). The circumference, in- 
cluding these four quarters or towns, was calculated by 
Jones to amount to 90 miles, which would, roughly speak- 
ing, correspond to three-days journey. 

Assuming that the number of children below the age of 
eight bears to the number of the remaining population the 
proportion of one to five, it follows that there were 600,000 
adults living together with the 120,000 children. We 
might therefore reckon the total population as amounting 
to about 700,000 inhabitants — in itself not an improbable 
supposition. But we must beware of basing on this circum- 
stance any presumption in favour of the credibility of the 
narrative in the Book of Jonah in all its details upon this 
subject. For while from the above considerations we should 
be disposed to consider the estimate of Niniveh's size on the 
part of the later writer to be near the mark , yet we must 
not forget that this presumes that the Northern town, viz. 
Khorsabad, belonged to Niniveh. But Dtir-Sarrukin was 
only built by Sargon in the closing decads of the 8*'' cen- 
tury B. C, in other words 100 years after the time when 
the Prophet Jonah lived and worked in the Northern king- 
dom. If we exclude the Northern town , ofcourse our 
calculation is altogether different. 




I. 6. And 1 make Samaria into a stone-heap in the 
field (mtSTI ^J/'?) and into vine - plantations (DID ^VlOtS). 
The oft-recurring Assyrian phrase is exactly similar ana 
til u karml uttr "I changed into a rubbish-heap and 
fields" (i. e. the town). See above Vol. I, p. 226 
449(11 Rawl. 67 line 25 ad fin.) and the comment on the 
phrase p. 228. There is no reason to alter the text into 
njjc; witb Hitzig. 

IV. 10. For thou shalt pass forth from the town, dwell 
on the field and then reach Babel. The threat of a trans- 
portation to Babel has seemed strange. But there is 
nothing surprising about it when we bear in mind that 
Tiglath-Pileser had already subjugated Babel (see above 
Vol. I; p. 222 foil.) and carried out deportations of tribes 
from that region as well as to that region. If the oracle 
was not composed till after the fall of Samaria, the threa- 
tening referred-to becomes still more intelligible, since we 
know that Sargon, even in the first year of his reign, 
transplanted Babylonian tribes to Syria , and , we may 
suppose that in their place, again, others were appointed 
to settle in Babylonia (2 Kings XVII. 24; Is. XX. 1). 
The report of the settlement of subjugated populations, 
more especially in Babylonia, must have also made its way 
to the Hebrews. Hence the threatening pronounced by the 
prophet. Are we therefore actually to regard verse 10 
as a vaticinium ex eventu with B. Stade in Zeitschrift fiir 
die alttestamentliche V7issenschaft I (1881) p. 167, and 
are we, mainly and almost solely on the ground of this 
verse, to separate the entire section IV. 8 — 10 from the 
rest of the text ? 



III. 8. Art thou better than No - Amon (]1DJ< NJ), 
situated on the river Nile, water round about her, which is 
a fortress of the river, whose wall is the river*? 9. Aethio- 450 
pia mightily and Aegypt without number **, Put and the 
Tjibyans were thine aid. 10. She too hath gone into exile, 
hath departed into captivity; her children too were dashed in 
pieces in all corners of the streets and over her chief ones 
they cast the lot, and all her great ones were bound in 
chains. 11, ll^ou too shalt be intoxicated, shalt be covered 
with night ; thou too shalt seek protection from the enemy. 

* [The interpretation is somewhat uncertain. The use of the word 
□> in this passage for the river Nile occurs also in Isaiah XVIII. 2, 


XIX. 5 (comp. Is. XXVII. 1, Jer. LI. 36, where it is applied to the 
Euphrates). The term may be used in reference to any broad sheet 
of water, and the Nile when it overflows might well he called a lake. 
Dr. Cheyne compares the Sanskrit sindhu 'sea' as applied to the Indus. 
The 'waters around her' probably refer to the canals cut on both sides 
of the Nile; see the plan in Diimichen's Egypt (AUgemeine Geschichte 
in Einzeldarstellungen 1880, Abth. 25). The phrase is, however, rather 
obscure. The last two clauses might be rendered "which is a lake- 
stronghold, by the lake arises her wall" — but the translation given by 
Schrader is on the whole preferable, though involving an oxymoron (like 
that of LXX, Syr. and Vulg. which read Qt^). Ewald's rendering "whose 
wall was a defence from sea to sea" sets aside the punctuation (which 
agrees here with the versions) and is doubtful as to its precise mean- 
ing; but it certainly presents a smoother construction (comp. Mic. VII. 
12). — The fame of Thebes— one of the great wonders of the world — 
was quite familiar to the Hellenes in those days. The bards of Javan 
sang its greatness in the lines : 

o&i TiXslota S6[xoiq iv XTijf/.ara xeirai, 
Ai 5-' sxavo/biTtvXol elai, Sttjxooioi 6'dv' kxdazccq 
^Avsgeq i^oi'/vfiai avv "nnoiaiv xul cxfO(piv. — Translator.] 

** [A better construction is obtained by pointing |!;oy W and trans- 

T : T 

lating : — "Aethiopia was her strength and also Aegypt — yea, without 
end".— Transl.] 


This was a passage that for a long time occasioned 
great perplexity to the commentators — so much so that it 
was regarded as a later interpolation and some critics were 
disposed to cancel it as such out of the text. But an 
unexpected light has been thrown upon it by the Assyrian 
inscriptions, which give us special details respecting the 
destruction of Aegyptian Thebes here referred-to. Accord- 
ing to these documents it was Asurbanipal, son and suc- 
cessor of Asarhaddon, who in his second Aegyptian ex- 
pedition against Urdamani i. e. Rud-Am6n, the successor 
of Tirhaka, brought upon Thebes its overwhelming fate. 
We read in Smith's Assurbanipal 55, 70 : In a tu-kul-ti 
A§ur, Sin u ilt rabtiti bilt-ja 71. ina tahiz stri 
rap-§i apikta-§u i§-ku-nu u-par-ri-ru il-lat-su. 
72. U r-d a-m a-n i-1 I-di§ ip-par-§id-raa 1-ru-ub a-na 
ir Ni-' ir sarrii-ti-su. 73. Ma-lak arah X. timi 
ur-hi p a-as-ku-u-ti arki-§u il-li-ku a-di ki-rib 
ir Ni-', 74. Ir §u-a-tu a-na si-hir-ti-§u ik-su-du 
is-pu-nu a-bu-bi§. Rev. 1. Hur§,su, kaspu, i-par 
mS,ti-§u ni-sik-ti abni NIN. ak-ru (also r.!) ni-sir-ti 
[i-]kal-[su] 2. lu-bul-ti bir-mlKUM (PI.) sisl rabtiti 
nist zikrtiti u sin[nisj 3. . . . za-a-ti pa-gi-i u-ku-pi 
tar-bit sad-di-§u-un 4. ina la mi-ni a-na mu-'-di-l 
ul-tu ki-rib-f-§u u-§f-su-num-ma im-nu-u §al-la-ti§ 
5. a-na Ninua Ir bi-lu-ti-ja §al-mis i§-gu-num-ma 
45iu-na-a§-Si-ku §lpa-ja i. e. 70. "In confidence on 
Asur, Sin and the great gods, my lords, 71. they (i. e. my 
troops) inflicted on him in the battle, in a wide plain, a 
defeat and shattered his might. 72. Urdamant fled alone 
and entered into No, the city of his royalty. 73. In a 
march of a month and ten days they advanced, on ways 
hard to traverse, behind him, into the midst of the city N6 ; 


74. that town in its entire extent they captured, overthrew 
like a flood. Rev. 1 . Gold, silver, the dust of its land, 
objects of cast metal (?), precious stones, the treasure of 
his palace, 2. garments of Berom (?) and KUM, great 

horses, men and women, 3 P^'gi ^^^ ukupi, 

the product of its mountains, 4. in measureless quantity 
they carried forth out of it (lit. out of the midst of it), they 
counted as spoil; 5. to Niniveh, my royal city they carried 
them away in good condition and kissed my feet." 

Notes and Illustrations. 70. Tukulti absol. state instead of 
tuklat; see Assyr. -Babylon. Keiliiiscli. p. 230;— 71. si'ru stands also 
in other places, as it does here, in the sense of "plain" also "desert". 
Compare with this passage Sanherib's Taylor-cylinder col. III. 53. — 
72. idis = tt^lH) I'oot in = inN;— '^3. malak, root n^ri;— Rev. 1. 
ipar is 10^ "dust", exists in exactly the same connection in Tiglath- 
Pileser Il's inscription II Rawl. 67 line 27 ad fin. (see Vol. I, p. 226 
—also 228), comp. also Job XXVIII. 6 ^TW nilD^ "ingots of gold"; 
— akru comp. akartuv Sanherib Bellino-cyl. line 10; — lubulti for 
lubu§ti, root K^D*^; — pagi', u^upi are probably names for animals. 
They cannot be species of wood or metals since the corresponding 
determinative ideograms are not employed. But if they are names for 
animals, they are altogether unknown to us. Should we connect 
ukupi with F]ip 'an ape'? — tarbit, root HDIi see Sanher. Taylor-cyl. 

col. ni. 64, Vol. II, pp. 36, 38;— 4. mu'di' (Genit.) from ^xp; mini root 
P1JJ3; kirib-i-gu (sic!) instead of kirbi-su, see Assyr.-Babylon. Keil- 
iusch. p. 207 note; u§isu, root X!JN = NJi^i salmis adverb from 
salmu "well-being" ^ "in good preservation"; Lotz, Die Inschriften 
Tiglath-Pilesers I, p. 182. 

We perceive how completely the account of the Assyrian 
tallies with the description by the prophet which now lies 
before us. And since we know absolutely nothing of any 
other destruction of Thebes, whether earlier or later, put- 
ting aside the last destruction (which in the present case, 
moreover, falls altogether out of account), no doubt can 
henceforth be entertained that Nahum threatens the Assyr- 452 
ians with the same fate that they had themselves inflicted 


on the Aegyptian capital. Moreover the time when the 
latter event took place, and therefore also indirectly the 
date of Nahum's oracle , may be determined with fair 
precision. It follows from the account of Asurbanipal in 
his annals, that the second great campaign, which the 
Assyrian conducted against Aegypt, and in which Thebes 
suffered her untoward fate, took place soon after Tirhaka's 
death. We read in Smith's Assurbanipal 47, 67 : Ur-da- 
ma-ni-1 abal a§Sati-§u ina kusst-§u u-§ib-ma 
u-ma-'-ir ma-a-tu. 68. I'r Ni-' a-na dan-nu-ti-§u 
i§-kun u-pa-hir 11-lat-su, 69. a-na i-bi5 kabla 
u tahS,za ill umm§,ni-ja tuklS.ti-§u u-§at-ba-a 
is-ba-ta har-ra-na i. e. *67. Urdamani, son of his 
(Tirhaka's) wife, set himself upon his throne and summoned 
the country. 68. N6-Thebes he prepared for his defence, 
marshalled his might. 69. To join battle and combat, he 
caused his troops to march out against my host (and) 
commenced the journey." — Now Tirhaka, according to the 
Apis-stelae, died in the year 664, and the second Aegyptian 
expedition of Asurbanipal here spoken -of perhaps took 
place in the year following. Moreover the overthrow of 
N6-Amon was still fresh in the memory of the prophet and 
of his contemporaries. Hence the year 660 might be 
regarded as the approximate date when Nahum delivered 
his prophetic discourse against Niniveh. It is scarcely 
probable that a prophet 'even after several decads' should 
have referred to this event as one that was clear to all 
and stood vividly before the imagination (Steiner), if we 
have here simply a catastrophe befalling a foreign race 
453 and not one that immediately concerned the people whom 
the prophet was addressing. 

17. "^I'lpp^V See note on Jerem. LI. 27. 



III. 11. n^Dl {8un and Moon remain) in their exalted 
dwelling. See note on 1 Kings VIII. 13. 


II. 14. If we translate : — */or the cedar-beams are 
pulled down" (comp. the LXX) we might bear in mind 
how the Assyrian kings, at all events after the time of 
Asurnasirabal, employed cedars in the construction of their 
palaces. See note on 1 Kings V. 13 (Vol. 1, p. 172 foil.). 
But this entire view of the passage has its difficulties ; see 
Hitzig's commentary. 


I, 7. in the eleventh month , that is the month Shebdi- 
(lOD^*); see note on Neh. I. 1. 

IX. 1. '^flC Hadrach may be conjectured to be the 
land (mat) Ha-ta-rak-ka or Ha-ta-ri-ka or Ha- 
ta-rik-ka of the Assyrian inscriptions, in which this 
name occurs in conjunction with Damascus and Hamath, 
as well as with Z6ba, Zemar (Ssemar) and Arka. See 
Keilinsch. und Geschichtsforschung p. 122 and compare 
also below the List of Governors as well as III Rawl. 
10. 3. line 34. 

XI. 5. nj/*! herdsman occurs also in Assyrian in the 
signification which is ultimately intended in this passage 
viz. 'prince'. The word ri'ti ^V] has this sense in e. g. 
Sargon's cylinder I Rawl. 36. 3, in which ri-l-uv ki-l-nuv 
'faithful shepherd' is an epithet of Sargon. Also we have 
the abstract substantive ri'^t mi/"l "rule", Sanherib Taylor 
cyl. VI, 65 etc. 


454 XII. 11. At the same time great is the lamentation 
at Jerusalem, like the lamentation for Hadad-Rimmon 
(|iiSn"llM) in the valley Megiddo. We shall not here 
discuss the vexata quaestio as to whether by Hadad-Rim- 
mon in this passage a god (Adonis? — corap. Ezek. VIII. 
14) was intended for whom lamentation was made, — which 
lamentation here forms the fertium comparationis , — or 
whether Hadad-Rimmdn is to be regarded as the proper 
name of a geographical locality designated from the above- 
mentioned deity. We shall content ourselves with simply 
observing that the name of the deity, from which this 
locality was unquestionably called according to the second 
theory, has received in all essential points definite illustra- 
tion from the Assyrian monuments. It has already been 
clearly established from the classical writers (Macrob. 
Satir. I. 23) that Hadad CT^^) was the Syrian god of 
heaven as well as sun-god. Also the monuments show that 
the Syrian god Dad i. e. Hadad is identical with the Assyr- 
ian Rammi,nu, R§,m§,nu, the god of thunder and storm 
(root Dyn). See note on 2 Kings V. 18, Vol. I, p. 196 foil. 
The same ideogram (AN.) IM serves to designate both the 
deity Dad = Hadad and the god Ramm§,n (Keilinsch. 
u. Gesch. p. 538 foil.). The compound form Hadad- 
Ramm^n signifies that the heavenly deity, Hadad, is here 
specially regarded as the 'storm-god'. The double name 
might be compared in signification with the designations 
of Zeus (Jupiter) as Zsig ^Qovtrfiioc, or ^qovtcov (Inscrr. 
Graec. 3, 4040, I; — 3, 3810. 5932) or else with "Jupiter 
tonans". The vocalization of the form pi, that was com- 
pletely misunderstood by the punctuators, as |ii3"! is due 
to mere conjecture; comp. note on 2 Kings V. 18 (Vol. I, 
p. 19 7). The deity referred-to has nothing whatever to 


do with the pomegranate. The reader might consult 
Hitzig-Steiner's commentary on the passage; Baudissin's 455 
Studien zur semit. ReHgionsgeschichte I (1876), p. 305 
foil.; J. Wellhausen in Gottinger Gelehrte Anzeigen 187 7, 
p. 185 foil., and my own articles in Riehm's Dictionary 1294, 
as well as in Zeitschrift f. Keilschriftforschung II (1885) 
p. 365 foil. 


II. 12. IplJ^^ do homage. Also in Assyrian ptt'3 is em- 
ployed in the Paal and likewise in the Kal to signify 'kiss 
of homage'. Comp. Asarhaddon IV. 26 — 28: mur-ni- 
iz-ki rabtiti (a ban) ugna, ti-ib mati-su, a-na 
Ninua ir bf-lu-ti-ja i§-su-num-ma u-na-as-§i-ku 
§ipS,-ja i. e. "great steeds, Ugnu-stone, the best of the 
land, they brought to Niniveh, the city of my dominion, 
kissed my feet." Similarly in Sanherib, Taylor-cyl. II. 57 : 
is-si-ku §lpa-j a (Vol. I, p. 281). Comp. also Hos. XIII. 2. 

XIX. 7. N^lD rising of the sun. We have just the 
same phrase in Assyrian si -it §am-§i (i. e. ^1^^ riNJi); 
see notes on Gen. XIX. 23, Vol. I, p. 126. 

XXIX. 6. ]i^")K'^ and Sirjon. Here too llnK' should be 
read (with tr^). See note on Deut. III. 9, Vol. I, p. 146. 

XLIX. 15. i*? h^]P ^IN^' (^the lower world— their palace 
of splendour". Compare the phrase 'in glory' in verse 13. 
Also respecting the signification of 72] consult the note on 
1 Kings VIII. 13, Vol. I, p. 174 foil. 


X. 21. — before I depart, never to return, into the land 
of darkness and gloom. We find similar passages in Job 
XVI. 22, XVII. 16 {''dust"); Is. XXXVIII. 10 ("gates 
of the lower world"). With these compare the language 


of the opening lines of 'Istar's descent to Hades', Obverse 
lines 1 — 20 (see my edition of Hollenfahrt der Istar, 
Giefsen 1874, p. 8 foil, and compare Alfr. Jeremias, die 
Hollenf. d. 1st. Lpz. 1886, p. 8) : 

1. A-na mS,t la tairat kak-ka-ri i-di-[...?] 

2. IStar marat Sin u-zu-un-§a [ki-ni§] 

3. i§-kun-raa* marat Sin u-zu-un-[§a i§-kunj 
\^-[-<J}i-- 4. a-na bit 1-ti-i §u-bat** Ir-kal-la 

5. a-na biti §a i-ri-bu-§u la a-s u-u 

6. a-na har-ra-ni §a a-lak-ta-sa la ta-ai-rat 

7. a-na biti §a I-ri-bu-Su zu-um-mu nu-u-ra 

8. a-§ar ip-ru ma'du bu-bu-us-su-nu a-kal-su-nu 

9. nu-u-ru ul im-ma-ru in a i-tu-ti a§-ba 

10. lab-§u-ma kiraa is-su-ri su-bat kap-pi 

11. Hi dalti u sikliri sa-pu-uh ip-ru. 

12. I § tar a-na b§.bi m^t la tairat i-na ka-§a-di-ga 

13. a-na NI. GAB ba-a-bi a-ma-tuv iz-zak-kar 

14. a-na NI. GAB mf-1 pi-ta ba-ab-ka 

15. pi-ta-a ba-ab-ka-ma lu-ru-ba a-na-ku. 

1. To the land without return, the region ...(?) 

2. Istar, Sin's daughter, her mind [fast?] 

3. directed and the daughter of Sin [directed her] mind 

4. to the house of darkness (?), the dwelling of Irkalla, 

5. to the house whose entering is not returning, 

6. to the path whose way is without return, 

7. to the house, whose entering is bereft of light, 

456 8. a place, where much dust is their nourishment, clay their food, 

9. where light they never behold, where in twilight one dwells, 

10. where they are clad like birds with a winged garment, 

11. on the doors and their panels (?) dust spread. 

12. "Istar, as she reaches the gate-way of the land whence there 

is no return, 

[* Comp. Insc. col. II 6 Vol. I p. 109 and the Heb. phrase ^ i^D^ I'^DH 
'set one's heart on', 'purpose to..', Ezra VII. 10; 2 Chron. XII. 14.— Transl.] 
** Var. mu-sab. 


13. to the sentinel at the gate-way the command she addresses, 

14. to the sentinel of the water : — "open thy gate, 

15. open thy gate; assuredly I will enter!" etc. 

Notes and Illustrations. For the different readings of the text in 
this edition see the cited paper of A. Jeremias p. 22 foil., whose 
corrections of the translation I adopt also in the main. — Respec- 
ting KUR. NU. GI'. = mat la tairat compare the phrase in Job 
XVI. 22 :— aili'J^ nS niN- See Hollenf. d. Istar, pp. 23 foil.— 


9. immaru stands for imaru 3 pers. plur. pres. of am&ru "to see" 
(comp. the Aethiopic ^/\^^^ \)- See Haupt, Sumer. Familienges. 
p. 10 note 1; 42 note 1; — 10. read labsu-ma perf., root K^^'j; see 
Haupt, Nachrichten von der Gott. Gesellsch. der Wiss. 1880 p. 518. 

XVII. 16. nnJ "ipjt^ h^ {where) . . . in the dust is rest. 
Compare the passage in 'Istar's descent to Hades' quoted 
above on X. 21, lines 8 — 11. 

XXVIII. 6. 1'? 3mJ ni^JH] and it has ingots of gold (or 
gold ore'?). We have a parallel phrase in the Assyrian. 
Comp. Smith's Assurbanipal 55 Rev. 1 (quoted above on 
Nahum III. 8 foil.) : — hur§,su, kaspu, I-par m^ti-§u 
. . . ni-sir-ti fi-]-kal-su] "gold, silver, the dust (ore?) of 
his land . . the treasure of [his] palace", comp. also Tiglath- 
Pileser's inscription II Rawl. 67 line 27 ad fin. cited in 
Vol. I, p. 226, 228. 

XXXVIL 22. From the North comes gold. See the 
comment on Isaiah XIV. 13, Vol. II, p. 79 foil. 

XXXIX. 9. 10. Dn^ more correctly DN"l (comp. Numb. 
XXIII. 22, Deut. XXXIII. 17), occurs frequently in 
Assyrian in the form rimu, written ri-i-rau, and without 
doubt designates a species of antiiope. But it is, to say 
the least, doubtful whether it denoted the same thing 
among the Assyrians, as among the Hebrews. Among the 
Assyrians the rimu was a large powerful animal, accor- 
ding to figured representations a (wild) ox with a shoulder 
fully arched; hence it was probably the wisent. We con- 


tinually meet with metaphors in the inscriptions derived 
from the strength of this animal ; e. g. Salmanassar Monol. 
II, 52 m4t-su kima (a lap) rimu a-di-i§, 'His land 
I trod down like a wild ox' (root tt^H) ; the adverb ri-ma- 
ni§ *like a wild ox" we read in Sennacherib's Taylor- 
cylinder I, 69 etc. * See F, Hommel, Die Namen der 
Saugethiere, Leipzig 1879, p. 22, 432 foil. 

* [Fried. Delitzsch in his 'Hebrew viewed in the light of Assyrian 
Research' p. 6 remarks : — "The last two editions of Gesenius' Lexicon 


explain QJ^n the Arabic Ji. "antilope leucoryx", although that 

animal could never have lived in Palestine, its home being on the 
sandy wastes of Arabia and the North - Eastern regions of Africa. 
Besides, in spite of its two spear-shaped horns, the antilope leucoryx 
is known to be an animal of meek disposition, directly opposed to the 
wild, hostile nature ascribed to the QXI- Gesenius, guided by the 
parallelismus membrorum, in passages like Deuteron. XXXIII. 17, trans- 
lates buffalo, but the existence of the buffalo in Western Asia is 
traceable only a short time before the Christian era. We know now, 
by the cuneiform inscriptions and the pictorial representations on the 
Assyrian sculptures, that the QXl is the Assyrian rimu [It is only 
fair to Miihlau and Volck's 9*^'' ed. (1883) of Gesenius' Lexicon to state 
that the Assyrian equivalent is there given— Tr.] that strong-horned, 
fierce -looking wild -bull skilled in climbing the mountains, whose 
colossal and formidable likeness was placed by the Assyrian kings 
before the entrance of their palaces to ward off and terrify the 
approaching enemy." On the other hand Prof. Schrader, in Keilinsch. u. 
Geschichtsforschung p. 135 footnote**, thinks it most probable that 
this animal, figured as possessing a powerfully arched neck covered 
with mane-like hair, which also extended over the shoulder, and also 
as possessing short bent horns , was a species of wisent or buffalo 
which is still to be found wild in the Caucasus. In the great mono- 
lith-inscription of Asurnasirabal col. Ill, 48. 9 that monarch boasts of 
having slain 50 and captured 8 of these rimi with his own hand. 
But in a cylinder-inscription of Tiglath-Pileser I (col. VI. 62 — 70) that 
despot speaks of hunting and slaying not only four powerful rimi in 
the land Milan and the city Arazik, but also ten huge elephants 
(AM. SI comp. Vol. I, pp. 176 — 7 and footnote*) in the land of 
Harran and on the banks of the river Chabor, four of the latter being 



II. 9. ^ri3 "wall" occurs in Sennacherib's Taylor-cylind. 
VI. 28 in the form kutallu *. 

IV. 13. Dl^Q "pleasure-garden", jtaQaSELOoq. See note 
on Neh. II. 8. 


I. 13. Iv rep xrjQ Navaiaq hgco in tfie temple of Nanaea, 
compare too the same verse b and 15. We find mention 
also in the Babylonian inscriptions of a goddess Nan^ 
(Na-na-a) or Nanai (Na-na-ai). See Norris Diet. 944; 
Delitzsch Parad. p. 2 22; Strassmaier (in the journal below 
cited) No. 62, 40. According to the Biblical passage the deity 
was worshipped in Elam. We are informed by Asurbanipal 
that the image of Nana, which had been carried off 1635 
years previously from Babylonia and erected in Susa, he 
had brought back to Erech. See above Vol. I, p. 122: 
comp. also Smith's Assurban. p. 234. 9; 244, c; 249 f, g. 
Regarding the number see Keilinsch. u. Gesch. p. 48 **. 

also captured alive. These he conveyed together with the skins aiad 
tusks of the slain animals to his royal residence A§ur. — From such 
passages, where the rimu is mentioned side by side with the elephant 
(piru), we may infer that the rimu like the elephant was an animal 
of large bulk.— Comp. also Wetzstein in Delitzsch's commentary on 
Job 2"<i edition (1876), who compares the Arabic maha (Lane's Arab. 
Lexicon 234 col. II). The revised Version has altered the rendering 
'unicorn' (LXX /^orSxeQcoq, Vulg. vnicornis) into 'wild ox'. — Translator.] 
* [Compare also the Chaldee NtTTiS (Dan. V. 5 ^n3)— Transl.] 
** "In one inscription (Smith's Assurb. p. 234. 9) the number is 
given as 1635, but in the other (249, g) as 1535. The first quotation 
is the correct one, as is perfectly clear from a third passage (251, 16), 
in which the number is reckoned not by the decimal but by the 
-system [Soss = 60J as 2 Ners 7 Bosses 15 years i. e. 2 X 600 


We frequently meet with the name of this deity on con- 
tract-tablets belonging to the time of the ancient Babylonian 
king Hammurabi (see Strassmaier, Ancient Babylonian Con- 
tracts of Warka, in Transactions and Addresses of the Fifth 
International Orientalist Congress, Berlin 1882, p. 349). 
From one of the passages there cited (see Text p. 71 
line 1) we learn in particular that NanS. was distinct from 
Dingir-ri (= Venus) and Istar ; and we gather from Smith's 
Assurbanipal p. 250 that she had the epithets (ilu) 
U-sur-a-mat-sa "preserve her declaration" and (ilu) 
Ar-ka-ai-i-tu "she of Erech". Accordingly we might, in- 
deed we should, suppose her to have been a deity that was 
originally Babylonian and whose cultus in later times still 
survived in Elam. Consult Lagarde, Gesammelte Abhand- 
lungen (collected essays) 16. 143. 157. 295; G. Hoff- 
mann, Ausziige aus syr. Aktt. pers. Martyrer p. 156 foil. 

= 1200, -)- 7 X 60 = 420, -f 15 = 1635. The mistake must have 
been not so much one of computation as of reading, the copyist 
having read the number from a document on which one of the 
3 lower wedges, of the six representing hundreds, had become scarcely 
legible or completely obliterated." [On the sexagesimal system of the 
Babylonians comp. Vol. I, pp. 1 foil, and p. 48 footnote **, Lenormant, 
Chaldaean Magic p. 366, Delitzsch, Assyr. Lesestiicke 3*^ ed. (1885) 
p. 38.— Transl.] 


When we come to examine Biblico-Assyrian chronology 
we find ourselves in the strange position of being con- 
fronted by two completely developed systems, the Hebrew 
chronology of the Books of Kings, and the Assyrian con- 
tained in eponym-canons from B. C. 900 to 666 *. This 

* For Assyrian chronology before 900 B. C. we incidentally obtain 
evidence (1) in a notice contained in Sennacherib's Bavian inscription, 
from which we learn that Sennacherib, when he occupied Babylon for 
the second time, brought back from thence to Assyria the Assyrian 
images which Tiglath-Pileser I had lost after a disastrous battle with 
the Babylonian king Marduk-nSdin-ahi. The following is the passage 
III Rawl. 14, 48 : Hi a-sib lib-bi-su kata ni§i-ja ik-§u-su-nu-ti-ma 

u-§ab-bi-ru-ma sa-ga-Su-nu il-ku-ni. (Ilu Ramman) 

(ilu) Sa-la (?) ili 49. sa ir ikalati ia Marduk-nSdin-ahi §ar 
m&t Akkadi a-na tar-si Tukul-ti-habal-isarra §ar mat A§sur 
il-ku-ma a-na B^b-ilu u-bil-lu 50. i-na IV. C. XVIII san§.ti ul-tu 
B4b-ilu u-si-sa-am-ma a-na ir ikalati a-na a§-ri-§u-nu u-tir-§u- 
nu-ti i. e. "48. The gods, which dwelt there, the hands of my people 
seized and broke them in pieces . . . their treasures they carried off. 
RammSn, Sala (?) the gods 49. of the City of Temples which Merodach- 
nadin-ahi, king of Akkad, had taken away from Tiglath-Pileser king 
of As§ur and had brought away to Babylon, 50. after 418 years I 
carried off from Babylon and brought them to the City of Temples to 
their place". Now this restoration of the images is connected with 
the defeat of Suzub and Nebo-sum-i§kun of Kardunias, the son of 
Merodach-Baladan. This event occurred, according to Sennacherib's 
Taylor-cylinder, in his 8t'i campaign. But Asurnadinsum sat on the 
throne of Babylon until 694 — 3. Consequently the above restoration 
of the images must not be assigned to a date previous to the 12"^ 



459 would be a matter for congratulation if the two systems 
coincided. But this is not the case. There is a single 

year of Sennacherib's reign, 693 B. C. at the earliest. If we add to 
this 418 years, we are led back to about the year 1110 B. C. as that 
in which Tiglath-Pileser I was deprived of those statues of divinities 
by the Babylonian king. Now on the cylinder , on which Tiglath- 
Pileser describes the events of the first five years of his reign, not a 
word is said about this war with Babylon. Hence we cannot with 
propriety assume that it occurred at any other period than the latter 
part of his reign. Therefore he may have ascended the throne of 
Assyria as early as in 1130 B. C. and even before that. 

For the time immediately preceding Tiglath-Pileser I some evi- 
dence is furnished by the names, preserved in his cylinder-inscription, 
of his father Asur-ri'i-isi, of his grandfather Mu takkil-Nabu 
(Nusku), of his great-grandfather A§ur-d&n, and lastly of his great- 
great-grandfather Adar-abal-isarra. Moreover in the synchronistic 
table in reference to Assyrio-Babylonian history (Hi Rawl. IV. No. 3 
lines 20. 21) we find mention of a Bi'l-kudur-usur as the predecessor 
(father ?) of the last mentioned monarch. We have thus five successive 
reigns, and, by assuming that each amounted in round numbers to 
20 years, we in this way reach the second half of the \^^^ century 
viz. about 1250 — 1230 B. C. (Geo. Rawlinson, History of the Five Great 
Monarchies II ed. Vol. U p. 49). For the period that immediately 
precedes this we have no data from the monuments. The tradition 
respecting the succession of sovereigns is here interrupted. On the 
other hand, we have once more a datum for the reign of Tuklat-Adar 
the son of Salmanassar I — the latter being the founder of the city 
Kalah (see Vol. I, p. 80). This piece of evidence consists in a very 
remarkable tablet of Sennacherib, in which that king tells us that in 
one of his conquests of Babylon — it may be the first in the year 703 
B. C. or else the later one (693? see above) — he recovered the seal of an 
old Assyrian king, no other than Tuklat-Adar, in the treasure-house of 
Babylon and brought it back to Assyria, from which it had been taken 
600 years before to Babylon. Moreover he takes the opportunity of 
quoting the inscription borne by the seal. The whole passage reads 
as follows (HI Rawl. 4 No. 2 lines 1 foil.) : 1. . . . Tuklat-Adar 
§ar Aggur abal Sulm&-nu-a§^rid sar m&t AsSur, 2. k&gid-ti Kar-du. Mu-kak-kir sitra-ja §uma-ja, 3. ASur, RammSn 
sum-su mat-su lu-hal-li-ku. 4. Kunukku an-nu-u istu m&t 
A§sur ana m. Ak-kadi §a-ri (?) ik-ta-din. 5. Ana-ku Sin-ahi- 
irib §ar mat Aisur 6. ina VI. C. sanati Bab-ilu aksu-ud-ma 


date, viz. the capture of Samaria 722 B. C. *, in which the 
two schemes either completely coincide (if we adopt as our 460 
basis of computation e. g. Thenius' chronological measure- 
ment), or coincide approximately. But the two systems 
do not agree either before or after the above date. What 
therefore at first sight appears a cause for satisfaction turns 
out to be quite the reverse. Only one of the two schemes 
can be correct. Thus the chronologist finds himself com- 

7. istu ga-ga BS.b-ilu us-si-si a§-su i. e. "1. Tuklat-Adar, king 
of Assyria, son of Salraanassar, king of Assyria, 2. the conqueror of 
Kardu {sicl) who blots out my writing, my name, 3. his name and his 
land may Aiur and Rammfin destroy. 4. This seal was carried off (?) 
from Assyria to Babylonia ... 5. I, Sennacherib, king of Assyria 
6. after 600 years conquered Babylon 7. and took it forth and away 
from the treasure of Babylon (roots X^N ^^^ NK'J)-" After a lacuna 
the tablet once more recites the inscription on the seal (lines 1 — 3), 
only in place of Kar-du we have here the fuller form Kar-du-ni-si; 
and beneath the inscription we find the subscription §a ina ili 
kunukki sa za-kur i. e. "(this is) that which is'stated on the seal" 
(Strassmaier reads sa za-lat and renders : "seal of Zalat-stone"). 
This notice leads us from 700 B. C. to a date 600 years anterior viz. 
1300 B. C. as that in which Tuklat-Adar either had the seal made or 
when it was carried off to Babylonia. This king is mentioned on an 
inscription of Samsi-Rammtn I Rawl. 35, III 19. 20 as §ar rati §u- 
mi-ri u Ak-ka-di i. e. king of Babylonia. Proceeding backwards in 
time we become acquainted with the kings of Assyria through four 
generations from the tablets of Kal'at-Sherkat, the ruined site of the 
ancient imperial capital A§ur (see above Vol. I, pp. 35, 81), where the 
monarchs preceding Salmanassar I resided, at least as a general rule. 
For the inscriptions here referred-to see I Rawl. 6 No. Ill, A — C and 
No. IV. According to these, Salmanassar I 's father was RammSn- 
nirari I, whose father again was Pudi-il, and his father last of all was 
Bi 1-uir^ri. Ascending upwards in time from the reign of Bi'l-nirari we 
only know a few royal Assyrian names, without being able to arrange 
them even approximately in chronological order. 

* The reasons for placing the capture of Samaria in the year 722 
B. C. are stated in Keilinschriften und Geschichtsforschung p. 314 foil. 
[The facts are clearly set forth in Vol. I of the present work pp. 264 — 
266. Comp. Geo. Smith's Assyrian eponym canon pp. 174 — 176. — TransL] 



pelled to decide to which of the two systems he will turD and 
which he with declare to be the right one. The course which 
first suggests itself is to take the Biblical chronology as our 
basis, seeing that it is so well dovetailed together and the 
chronological notices of the Books of Kings, relating to the 
461 two kingdoms of Israel, are apparently checked the one by 
the other. But every Old Testament inquirer is aware that 
this Biblical scheme is by no means without its difficulties. 
Not a few discrepances yawn within it *. And un- 
fortunately we cease to feel confidence in the scriptural 
computation just at the point where a comparison with 
another chronological system is rendered possible, namely 
in the period succeeding 722**. For this period we possess 
an extra-Biblical test in the shape of the so-called Canon 
of Ptolemaeus. From this we learn that the campaign of 
Sennacherib to Aegypt-Palestine cannot have taken place 
until after 705, the year when the Assyrian king ascended 

* See von Niebuhr, Geschichte Assurs und Babels p. 84. J. Well- 
hausen in Jahrbiicher fur deutscbe Tbeologie XX, p. 607 foil, and comp. 
above Vol. I, p. 215 foil., and also E. Krey in Zeitschrift fiir wissen- 
schaftliche Tbeologie XX, p. 404 foil. 

** Tbere is no sufficient reason for the objection, that the guarantee 
afforded by the parallel North Israelite chronology extending, as the 
reader is aware, to the 6*'^ year of Hezekiah's reign and which breaks 
off subsequent to that date, is altogether more worthy of confidence. 
For this is notoriously untrue with respect to just the very period 
referred-to. Thus, according to the chronological statement 2 Kings 
XV. 30, Pekah was slain in the 20t'> year of Jotham's reign i. e. in 
738 B.C.; according to the same verse and according to the cuneiform 
records, the murder of Pekah was immediately followed by Hoshea's 
accession to the throne of Israel, i. e. Pekah was assassinated in the 
year 728 B. C. Thus, in the portion of Israelite history which is 
controlled by the chronology of the Northern kingdom, we have a dis- 
crepancy of full 10 years, just as in the subsequent period we have 
a discrepancy of 13 years! Wherein then consists the essential dif- 
ference between the two chronologies? Compare also the dissertations 
cited below. 


the throne, while, on the other hand, the Books of Kings 
represent the expedition as having occurred in 714 B. C. 
of the traditional chronology. Here we have a discrepancy 
of at least 9 years *. We see that one of the two systems 
must be abandoned. And we cannot doubt against which of 462 
the two sentence must be passed , when we bear in mind 
the fact that the chronological data of Ptolemaeus are 
confirmed down to the smallest detail by the Assyrian 
chronology viz. the eponym-lists and the annals of Sargon 
(see 'chronological addenda' Nos. Ill and IV), It is there- 
fore in the most recent period of chronology that our 
verdict must be pronounced against the scriptural system, 
though we should have expected the most trustworthy and 
unassailable statements with respect to that period. The 
system must, however, be abandoned in presence of the 
corresponding statements of the monuments and the eponym- 
canon **. We ask the question : — have we any right to 

* In reality 13 years! see Vol. I, p. 305 foil. 

** Attempts have been made to get over the difficulties by assum- 
ing that the chapters in the 2 Book of Kings and in Isaiah have been 
transposed (J. Oppert in Zeitschrift der deutscben morgenlandischen 
Gesellsch. XXIII (1869) p. 147 and elsewhere; V. Floigl, Cyrus und 
Herodot 1881 p. 26), or by assuming that there was a confusion of 
the year of Sennacherib's invasion, which was the 29"> of Hezekiah's 
reign, with a previous invasion by Sargon, which was in the 14'^ year 
of Hezekiah's reign (H. Brandes, Abhandlungen zur Geschichte des 
Orients, Halle 1874 p. 76 foil.; P. Kleiuert in Theolog. Studien u. 
Kritiken, 1877 p. 171; Raska, Chronologie der Bibel, 1878 p. 286; 
H. Matzat, Chronolog. Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der Konige von 
Juda u. Israel (Weilb. Progr. 1880) p. 23, also previously Prof. A. H. 
Sayce. [The theory that the chapters in 2 Kings and also in Isaiah 
have been transposed was originally put forward by Dr. Hincks in 
the Journal of Sacred Literature Oct. 1858. "The text" he says "as 
it originally stood was probably to this effect : — 2 Kings XVIII. 13 


claim a greater credibility for the Books of Kings in respect 
of their chronology in the earlier portion of history which 
would be far less exempt from involuntary errors? We 
463 should be disposed to doubt this * and can only regard 
such doubts as justified in fact and substance, when, in the 
chronological details bearing on the earlier time, we take 
as our guide sources which have been preserved with such 
fulness and completeness for the later period. I refer to 
the monuments in which we possess the additional advantage 
of gaining access to documents which have not, like the 

Now in the fourteenth year of king Hezekiah the king of Assyria, 
came up' [referring to the attack mentioned in Sargon's annals against 
Philistia and Ashdod 711 B. C.]. XX. I — 19 'In those days was king 
Hezekiah sick unto death etc' XVIII. 13 b 'And Sennacherib king of 
Assyria came up against all the fenced cities of Judah, and took them' 
XVIII. 13 b— XIX. 37."— The reader might also consult Geo. Smith's 
Assyr. Eponym Canon p. 171 foil, and the excellent discussion in Canon 
Cheyne's commentary on Isaiah 3*^ ed. (1884) Vol. I, pp. 201 foil, 
(introductory to Is. XXXVI— XXXIX).— Translator.] 

For a criticism of the above theories see Vol. I, p. 303 foil., 
Vol. II, p. 6, Keilinsch. u. Gesch. p. 345 foil, as well as my remarks 
in Zeitsch. der deutsch. morgenland. Gesellsch. XXV (1871) pp. 449 — 
454, XXVI (1872) p. 816; Leipzig. Centralblatt 1873 No. 35 col. 1089 
—91, 1874 No. 47 col. 1545 foil. Theolog. Literatur-Zeitung V Jen. 
1880 No. 12 p. 274 — 277; and comp. H. Gelzer in Jenaer Literatur- 
Zeit. II (1875) No. 3 p. 38 foil.; Ad. Kamphausen in Von Sybel's 
Histor. Zeitsch. 1875 p. 387 foil. 

* In support of this statement we would especially refer to the 
third non-Biblical documentary memorial, which — quite apart from the 
uncertain dates of Aegyptian records — comes in aid of comparative 
chronology in addition to the cuneiform inscriptions and the Ptolemaic 
canon. I refer to the stone of Mesha. Here again the Biblical synchronistic 
scheme is left in the lurch. The stone of Mesha in line 8 assumes 
that the reigns of Omri and Ahab together lasted at least 40 years, 
while the Bible limits them to 34 years. Probably the discrepancy is 
even greater. On this subject see Noldeke's article Masa in Schenkel's 
Bibellexicon IV. 188. 


scriptural writings, notoriously been subjected in the course 
of centuries to numerous alterations *. 

If we cast a glance at these monuments, viz. at the 
'Canon of Rulers' **, the 'List of Governors' ** and lastly 
the 'Babylono-Assyrian tables', and ask the question, what 
is their bearing on scriptural chronology, we arrive at 
the following fixed dates : 

858. SalmanaSSar II's eponym-year ***. 

854. V"' (IV'") year (Dajan-A§ur). War with Ben- 
hadad and Ahab. Battle at Karkar. 

* It is hardly necessary for me to remind the intelligent reader 
that also these monumental statements are not free from error and 
are themselves chargeable with mistakes of various kinds and there- 
fore they too should be employed with discrimination and judgment. 
Further remarks on this subject may be read in my Keilinsch. u. 
Gesch. pp. 42 foil., 299 — 356. [We find copyists vacillating between 
the forms Mu'ab and Ma'ab fer Moab, Arumu, Arimu and Aramu 
for Aram, Samirina and Samiurna for Samaria etc. To these may 
be added such lapsus calami as sarrfitija for §arrfiti§u, see Vol. I, 
p. 184 line 90; the number of slain at the battle of Karkar 25,000 in 
Salmanassar's obelisk inscription but 14,000 in the monolith inscription. 
A further discrepancy in number may be observed in the footnote on 
2 Maccab. I. 13. But while acknowledging the possibility of error on 
the part of the cuneiform scribe, we must regard with considerable 
suspicion any attempt to amend these ancient documents contemporary 
with the events they describe, in order to support an hypothesis. And 
yet this is what we find so sober a scholar as Kamphausen doing 
(Chronologic der Hebraischen Konige p. 43 footnote), when he revives 
a theory that Wellhausen has abandoned viz. that in the description 
of the events of the year 854 in Salmanassar II's monolith-inscription 
'Ahab' stands in line 91 by mistake for Joram. — Translator.] 

** We retain these names as the most concise modes of expression 
though aware of their inadequacy. 

*** This was according to the ancient usage the second complete 
year of the king's reign, who thus in reality ascended the throne in 
the year 860 ; see Keilinsch. u. Geschichtsforschung p. 326 foil. 


464 850. IX*'^ year (HadilibuS). War with Dadidri (Ha- 

849. X'" year (Marduk - alik - pant). War with 

846. XIIP'' year. War with Dadidri. 
842. XVIP year. War with Hazael. Tribute of 

Jehu *son of Omri". 
839. XX**' year. War with Hazael. 

823. Sa.insi*Ra.inniin's eponym-year. 

810. RamiDdQ-nir^ri's eponym-year. 

803. VHP'' year (A§ur-ur-nist). Campaign to the 
sea-coast including Palestine. 

781. SalmanaSSar Ill's eponym-year. 

775. VIP'' year (Nirgall§§i§), Expedition to the cedar- 

771. AsUPdan-il's eponym-year. 

763. IX*'' year (Purilsagali). Eclipse of the sun on 
June 15. 

753. Asur-nirari'S eponym-year. 

745. Tiglath-Pileser II 'S year of accession and first 
of his reign *. 

* From the time of Tiglath-Pileser II (745—727) onwards, we 
constantly find in the eponym-list Canon I, that the year of the king's 
accession is also reckoned as the first year of the new series of epo- 
nyms. The dividing-line now invariably stands before the year of 
the king's accession. Canons II, III and IV vary in their mode of 
reckoning the first year. Sometimes they reckon it as the year of 
the king's accession, the first complete year of his rule, at other times 
the first year is the year in which the king became eponym. Before 
the time of Tiglath-Pileser II (as indicated in a previous footnote) the 
king's accession is to be placed in the second year before the king's 
eponymy. — Keilinschriften u. Gesch. p. 330 foil. 

Campaign to Damascus (Reztn). 

IV 'S accession, 
siege of Samaria (according to the Bible). 


738. VHP year (Rammanbflukin). Tribute of Mena- 
hem of Samaria. His contemporary, according 
to the Bible and the inscriptions, was Azarjah- 

734. XII"' year (Blldanil). Expedition to Palestine 
(Ahaz and Pekah). 

733. XIIP year 

732. XIV*'' „ 

727. Salmanassar IV's accession. 

722. (Adar-malik). SargOU'S accession to the throne, 465 

Conquest of Samaria. 
721. P' year (Nabti-t^ris). Defeat of Merodach- 

720. IP'' year (A§ur-iska(?)-danin). Defeat of Sab'l 

of Aegypt. 
715. VIP'' year (Takkil-ana-Bil). Tribute from Pha- 
raoh king of Aegypt. 
711. XP'' year (Adar-S,lik-pant). Siege and capture 

of Ashdod. 
710. XI P" year. Defeat of Merodach-Baladan. 
709. XIIP'' year. Sargon king of Babylon (Babel). 
705. Sanherib'S (Sennacherib's) accession (Pacharbel). 
704. I'' year (Nabti-din-ibu§). Conquest of Babylon 

702. IIP" year (Nab61i'). Construction of the Bellino- 


701. IV*'' year (Chananu). Campaign against Judaea- 


699. Vr'' year (Btl-§ar-U8ur). First year of the reign 
of ASurn^dinSum, installed by Sanherib as king 
of Babel. 

(Nabliahi§Sl§). Asarhaddon's accession and (?) 
the first year of his reign. 

VHP" (IX'"?) year (Atarilu). The cylinder- 
inscription drawn up. 
The year of Asurbanipal's accession. 

Let us compare with the above the Biblical dates. The 
latter, stated according to the traditional computation, will 
be as follows. 




According to the monuments : 

Ahab :— 854 Battle of 

Jehu : — 842 payment of 

466Azariah (Uzziah) : 742 — 


Menahem : — 738 Payment 
of tribute. 

Pekah :— 734 Defeat by 

Hoshea :— 728 last year 
that Ausi' can have 
paid tribute to Tig- 
lath - Pileser. 722 
Fall of Samaria. 

Hezekiah: — 70 1 Sanherib's 
(Sennacherib's) cam- 

According to the Bible : 
918 — 897 period of his 

884 — 856 period of his 

809 — 758 period of his 

771 — 761 period of his 

758 — 738 (?) period of his 

730—722 period of his 


722 Fall of Samaria. 
714 Sanherib's invasion. 


According to the monuments : According to the Bible : 

ManaSSeh: 681 — 673; 668 696—642 period of his 
(667?); about 647 , reign**, 

revolt of Samrau- 
ghes *. I 

We see from the above comparison that the discrepancy 
in point of time between the Bible and the monuments is 
not throughout the same in extent during the different 
periods, but that it is sometimes more and sometimes less, 
while at the date of the capture of Samaria it seems to 
disappear entirely. Then, again, for the subsequent period 
we observe a discrepancy amounting to 13 years, while in 
the reign of Manasseh both systems of chronology satis- 
factorily harmonize. 

From the character of the discrepancies exhibited in the 467 
preceding pages we can clearly perceive that they do not 
depend on any individual and special error in computation. 

* In the interval between the accession of Asarhaddon (681) and 
the composition of the cylinder-inscription (673 B. C), Manasseh must 
have paid tribute to the above-mentioned Assyrian ruler. The pay- 
ment of tribute to Asurbanipal took place during his first campaign 
(Rassam's cylind. I 52, 69 foil.) and cannot therefore be placed later 
than the year 667 B. C. Respecting the year 647 see above Vol. II, 
p. 54 foil. 

** Attempts to reconcile the two systems of chronology may be 
found in Max Duncker's History of Antiquity 5*'' Germ. ed. (1878') 
p. 270 foil.; Fritz Hommel, Abriss der babylonisch-assyrischen u. is- 
raelitischen Geschichte , Leipzig 1880; V. Floigl, Gesch. des semit. 
Alterthums, mit 6 Tabeilen, Leipzig 1882. Comp. also the essays 
cited above pp. 164 — 166 footnotes. [To these may be added J. E. Konig, 
'Beitrage zur Biblischen Cbronologie' in Zeitsch. fiir kirchliche Wissen- 
schaft 1883 Nos. VI, VIII, IX and XII; and also Kamphausen's Die 
Cbronologie der hebraischen Konige, Bonn 1883. See also the Notes 
and Addenda at the end of this volume — Translator.] 


SO that by removing this error we should obtain the desired 
harmony between the two systems *. 

* As foi- example by assuming a break of 46 or 47 years in the 
lists of eponyms. [This was Prof. Oppert's theory — the gap of 47 years 
occurring between the eponymate of Nirgal-n^sir (B. C. 746 according 
to Eawlinson's, which is now the accepted, chronology) and the follow- 
ing eponymate (which is also marked as the year of Tiglath-Pileser's 
accession). The latter was placed by Oppert in the year 744 ; the 
former in the year 792 B. C. Prof. Oppert's scheme was based upon 
two leading considerations. (1) The eclipse of the sun referred-to in 
the notice attached to the eponymate of Purilsagali Oppert identified 
with that of June 13. 809 B. C. (2) The reign of 'Pul', the problem- 
atical king of Assyria, was introduced by the French Assyriologist 
into this 47 years' gap in the Assyrian canon. Grave objections to 
Oppert's theory were clearly stated in Geo. Smith's Assyrian Eponym 
Canon p. 75 and objections still more serious — indeed fatal— were 
advanced in Schrader's Keilinschriften u. Geschichtsforschung pp. 340, 
346 foil. In fact Prof. Oppert's hypothesis involves fresh difficulties. 
As that hypothesis is adapted to meet the supposition that Pul and 
Tiglath-Pileser, mentioned in 2 Kings XV, were distinct personages, 
and since mention is made, in the inscriptions of Tiglath-Pileser 
(744 — 726 according to Oppert's own chronology), of Menahem of 
Samaria and Azariah of Judah , it became necessary to assume that 
there were two Menahems and two Azariahs, one in each pair 
of namesakes belonging to the time of Pul and the other to that of 
Tiglath-Pileser. The final coup de grace to this entire structure may 
be said to have been given in May 1884, when Mr. Pinches published 
the newly discovered list of Babylonian kings, in which is found the 
name Pulu for the years 728 — 7, while in the recently discovered 
Babylonian chronicle there is recorded the name of Tuklat-abal- 
i§arra (Tiglath-Pileser) as Babylonian ruler for precisely the same 
period (see Vol. I, p. XXXII). In this way the hypothesis that Pul 
= Tiglath-Pileser II, first advanced by Sir H. Rawlinson and subse- 
quently by Lepsius, and supported by Schrader in an overwhelming 
array of arguments (Keilinsch. u. Geschichtsforschung pp. 441 foil. ; 
comp. Vol. I, pp. 219 — 231), becomes an ascertained fact, and 
thereby an indirect confirmation is obtained for the identification of 
the eponymate of Purilsagali with the year 763 B. C. and for the 
continuity of the eponym lists preceding and succeeding that date — 


On the contrary, we must acknowledge the artificial 
character of the Biblical chronological data both for the 
time succeeding as well as for the time preceding the year 
722, On the other hand, the historical record of the Bible, 
apart from these chronological details, is on the whole sustai- 
ned. We have had to note few inaccuracies, comparatively 
speaking, and, at all events, the contemporaneous relation 
of persons and events, required by the circumstances in- 
volved, has been, as a rule, fully demonstrated. See the 
notes on 1 Kings XVI. 29 (Vol. I, pp. 183—190); 
2 Kings IX. 2 (Vol. I, pp. 199 foil.); 2 Kings XV. 1 
(p. 213 foil.); XV. 30. 37 (p. 251 foil.); XVI. 8. 9 
(p. 255 foil.); XVII. 1. 3 foil. (p. 255 foil.); XVIII. 
1 foil. (p. 277 foil.); XIX. 3. 7 (Vol. II, p. 17 foil.); 
XX. 12 (Vol. II, p. 23 foil.) etc. etc. 

Though the chronological system of the Books of Kings, 
as compared with that of the monuments, is shown to be 
untenable, yet in other respects the Bible receives from the 
latter, even in the matter of chronology, satisfactory corro- 

We have thus far endeavoured to exhibit clearly the 
relation of the two systems of chronology, with which we 
are at present concerned. It remains for us to show how 
that system, which we hold to form the basis for compu- 
tation , is to be absolutely fixed and receive throughout 
its requisite chronological adjustment; and what fixed data 
are available for this object. For the Hebrew chronology, 
we have this fixed datum, as all are aware, in the death of 
Herod in the year 4 before the era of Dionysius ; and also 468 
in the Dedication of the Temple on the 25^'' Kislev in the 
year 148 of the Seleucid era i. e. December 164 B. C. 
In both cases we take into consideration the dates of the 


Ptolemaic canon with regard to the length of reign of the 
Babylonian kings from Nebucadnezzar to Nabunit, as well 
as of the Persian kings up to Alexander the Great. For 
Assyrian chronology the fixed point of departure is the 
eclipse of June 15. 763 B. C, which is marked in the 
accompanying List of Governors as occurring in the 
archonship of Purilsagali *. In consequence of this chrono- 
logical determination, with which the data of the Ptolemaic 
canon tally throughout , the first year of Sargon's rule as 
king of Babylon falls in 709 B. C. (see the accompanying 
Canons III and IV), while the year of Tiglath-Pileser II 's 
accession (i. e. the scriptural Tiglath-Pileser) ia 745 B. C, 
that of his successor Salmanassar 72 7, that of Sargon 722, 
that of Sanherib (Sennacherib) 705 , that of Asarhaddon 
681 and that of Asurbanipal 668. Now, we may at the 
present time regard it as certain that the last mentioned 
monarch is identical with the Sardanapallus of Berossus, 
on the one hand, and with the Kineladan of the Ptolemaic 
canon, on the other; we refer the reader to the remarks 
made above, Vol. II, p. 56 footnote. Moreover the reign 
of Kineladan, like that of Sardanapallus, terminated in the 
year 626. Consequently the year 626 B. C. was the date 
of his immediate successor's accession to the throne. This 
successor may have been X-§um-i§kun or A§ur-itil-ili- 

[* The astronomical data for the solar eclipse of June 15. 763 B. C, 
which was nearly a total one for Niniveh and its neighbourhood, may 
be seen in Geo. Smith's Assyrian Eponym Canon p. 83 (according to 
the calculations of Mr. Hind and the Astronomer Royal, Mr. Airy) ; 
compare Schrader's Keilinschriften u. Geschichtsforschung p. 338 foil, 
where substantially the same results are given as calculated by Mr. P. 
Lehmann. Some explanatory remarks on the termini technici occurring 
in the text may be read by the student in the Introductory Preface 
to Vol. I, p. XXVI foil.— Translator.] 


ukiuni; and the Saracus mentioned by Abydenus may be 
identical with the second of these two names or with a still 
unknown third personage (A§ur-ah-iddin II?) whose 
history we are not yet in a position to know. Compare 
the Reports in the Konigl. Sachsische Gesellschaft der 
Wissenschaften 1880 Philol. hist. CI. p. 28 foil. Respec- 
ting the date of the conquest of Samaria according to the 
Assyrian account (viz. 722 B. C.) , see above Vol. I, 
p. 264, Vol. II, p. 163. 

































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II RawL pi. 52. Del. ALSl 92—94. 


1. Obverse. 



Asur-bS,ni-ai-usur] A-na mSt Til(?)-li-[i]. 

Sar-pati-bi'l sa ir Naj-si-bi-na. A-na m^t Za-ra-a-ti. 

Bi'1-ba-lat sa] . . . . nu . A-na ir Di-ri. Ilu rabii a-na ir Di-ri 

Mu-§ik-ni§ ga mat] Kir-ru-ri. A-na m&t Ib(Ah, Uh?)-sa-ua. 
Nirgal ia mat] Sal-lat (?). A-na m^t Kal-di. 
Samas-ku-mu-u-a §a m&t] Arba-ha. A-na B&bilu. 
Bil-kat-sa-bat sa ir] Ma-za-mu-a. I-na mS,t. 



Eamman-nirSri, sar mat] A§§ur. A-na vaki A. A. '). 
Nirgal-raalik avil tur]-ta-nu. A-na ir Gu-za-na. 

Bi'l-dan-ilu av (?)] hikal. A-na mS,t Man-na-ai. 

Sil-Bi'l av. rab]-bi-lub *). A-na m&t Man-na-ai. 

Asur-tak-kil av.] tukultu. A-na m&t Ar-pad-da. 

Ilu . . . avil ga] mat. A-na ir Ha-za-zi. 

Nirgal-issis §a mftt Ra[-sap-pa. A-na ir Ba-'-li. 

Asur-ur-nisi sa mat Ar]ba-ha. A-na ki§ad tiamtiv. Mu-ta-nu. 

Adar-malik sa ir A-[bi nar Zu-hi-na. A-na ir Hu-bu-us-ki-a. 

Ni'r-§ar sa ir Na]-sib-i-na. A-na mSt A. A. 

Ilu . . . . §a ir] A-mi-di. A-na m§,t A. A. 

Mutakkil-. . . ] avil rab-sak-i (PL). Ana mS,t Lu-u-§i-a. 

*) A country which has not yet been definitely ascertained, but 
undoubtedly lying East of Assyria; see "Insc. of Tigl.-Pileser II" p. 26 
note 1. — *) We retain the transcription hitherto adopted since we 
are not in a position to give a better. The meaning also remains a 
matter of uncertainty. 






II Rawl. pi. 52. 


1. Obverse. 

817. Asurbaniaiusur To the land Til[i] 

816. Sarpattbel of Nisibis. To the land Zarati. 

815. Belbalat nu. To the city Diri. The great god entered 

into the town Diri. 

814. Musiknis of Kirruri. To the land Ichsana (Achsana etc.) 

813. Nergal [of\ Sallat C?J. To the land of the Chaldees. 

812. SamasJcumiia of Arhacha. To Babylon. 

811. Bilkatsabat of Mazamua. In the land. 

810. Bammdnnirdr, king of Assyria. To the land A. A. 

809. Nergalmalik, Tartan. To the city Gozan. 

808. Beldanil, captain of the palace-guard *). To the land Man. 

807. Zilbel, Babbilub (?J. To the land Man. 

806. Asurtakkil, Minister. To the land Arpad. 

805. II ... . captain of the land. To the city Chazazi. 

804. Nirgalessis (?) of the land Bezeph. To the city Ba'li. 

803. Asururnisi of Arbacha. To the sea-coast. Pestilence. 

802. Adarmalik of the city on the river Zuchina. To the toion 


801. Nersar of Nisibis. To the land A. A. 

800. Mardukbelusur of Amid. To the land A. A. 

799. Mutakkil- . . ., chief of the captains. To the land Lusia. 

') In the lithographed text (II Rawl. 52) Obverse and Reverse 
are interchanged. On this see Theol. Studien u. Kritiken 1871, p. 681 
footnote. — *) According to Oppert, L'Etalon p. 8 foil, the phrase 
properly means "man of the Sar (= 3600) of the palace". 


482 798. [Bri-tar[(si nalbar?)] sa ir] Kal-hi. A-na mSt Nam-ri. 

797. [Asur-bi'l-[(usur)] sa mS,t] Kir-ru-ri. A-ua ir Man-su-a-ti. 

796. [Marduk-sadua . . .] Sal-lat (?). A-na ir Di-i-ri. 

795. [Ukin-abua sa m&t] Tus-ha-an. A-na ir Di-i-ri. 

794. [Mannu-ki-m&t (?) A§sur sa ir] Gu-za-na. A-na mat A. A. 

793. [Musallim-Adar] sa Til-li-i. A-na m^t A. A. 

792. [Bi'l-basa(gar)ni sa] ir Mi-hi-nis. A-na mat Hu-bu-us-ki-a. 

791. [Ni'r-Samas sa mat] I-sa-na. A-na mat I-tu-'-a. 

790. [Adar-ukin-ah] sa ir Ni-nu-a. A-na m4t A. A. 

789. [RammSn-musammir sa ir] Kak(?)-zi. A-na m4t A. A. 

788. [Sil-Istar sa (. . . .)]-ki. Kar-ru. 

787. [Balatu §a Sibaniba] '). A-na mat A. A. Nabu ana bit NI' 


786. [Rammin-uballit §a ir Ri]-mu-si (?). Ana m4t-Ki . . ki *). 

785. [Marduk-sar-usur ....]. Ana m^t Hu-bu-ui-ki-a. Ilu rabQ 

a-na ir Di-ri [it-ta]-lak. 

784. [Nabii-sar-usur [Mab {?)-ba-] an. A-na mM Hu-bu-us-ki-a. 

783. [Adar-n%ir sa ir] Ma-za-mu-a. Ana mat I-tu-'. 

782. [Nalbar(?)-li' sa ir Nasib-]i-na ^). A-na xaki I-tu'. 

781. [Sulmanu-asaridu sar mat] Assur. A-na mat Ur-ar-ti. 

780. [Samsi-ilujjtur-ta-nu. A-na mat Ur-ar-ti. 

779. [Marduk-lidani] rab-bi-lub. Ana mat Ur-ar-ti. 

778. [Bi'l-[mustisir] rab (?) ikal. Ana m^t Ur-ar-ti. 

777. [Nabfi-pur-ukin] tukulti. A-na mat I-tu-'. 

776. [Pan-Asur-la-habal] §a mat. Ana mat Ur-ar-ti. 

775. [Nirgal-issi§] sa mat Ra-sap-pa. Ana mat i-ri-ni. 

774. [Istar-dur] §a ir Na-si-bi-na. Ana mat Ur-ar-ti, mat Nam-ri. 

773. [Mannu-ki-Ramman sa ir] Sal-lat (?). Ana ir Di-mas-ka. 

772. [Asur-bi'1-usur sa] ir Kal-bi. A-na mat Ha-ta-ri-ka *). 

771. [Asur-dau-ilu (dan?) Sar mat] Assur. Ana ir Ga-na-na-a-ti. 

770. [Samsi-ilu tur]-ta-nu. A-na ir Ma-ra-ad (?) ^). 

*) Tbese words are supplied by Smith. — Whence ? — *) Smith sup- 
plies Kiski (?). — ^) The names of eponyms for the years 782 — 759 
are still preserved on a special fragment of the list of governors. See 
Delitzsch Assyr. Lesestiicke 2»d ed. — *) Here we have the dividing 
line ace. to the photograph lying before me, confirmed by G. Smith 
and Fried. Delitzsch (against II Rawl.) ; Keilin.sch. u. Gesch. p. 309 
footnote 1. — *) So Delitzsch. Comp. Parad. p. 220. 


798. Beltarsinalbar 0) of Kalah. To the land Namri 483 

797. Asubilusur of Kirruri. To Mansuati. 

796. Marduksadua of Sallat (?). To the city Di'ri. 

795. Vkinabua of Tuschan. To the city Di'ri. 

794. Mannuki-Assur of Gozan. To the land A. A. 

793. Musallim-Adar of Tilli. To the land A. A. 

792. Belbasani C?) of Michinis. To the land Chubuskia. 

791. Ner-Samas of Isana. To the land Ttuha. 

790. Adarukinach of Niniveh. To the land A. A. 

789. Rammdnmusammir of Kakffjzi. To the land A. A. 

788. Zil-Istar of . . . ki . . . . 

787. Balai of Sibanibi. To the land A. A. Nebo entered the new f?) 


786. Rammdnuballit of Bimusi. To the land Ki . . . hi. 

785. Marduksarusur. To the land Chubuskia. The great god made 

his entrance into Di'ri. 

784. Nebosarusur Into the land Chubuskia. 

783. Adarnasir of Mazamua. To the land Ituh. 

782. Nalbarlih of Nisibis. To the land Ituh. 

781. Sahnanassar, king of Assyria. To Armenia. 

780. Samsiil, Tartan. To Armenia. 

779. Marduklidanni, Rabbilub. To Armenia. 

778. Belviustesir, commander of the palace. To Armenia. 

777. Nebopurukin, Minister. To the land Ituh. 

776. Fanasurlachabal, commander of the country. To Armenia. 

lib. Nergalesses of Rezeph. To the cedar-country. 

774. Istarduri of Nisibis. To Armenia, the land Namri. 

773. Mannuki-Rammdn of Sallat f^J. To the city Damaskus. 

772. Asurbelusur of Chalali. To the land Hadrach. 

771. AsurdanilffJ, king of Assyria. To the city Oananat. 

770. Samsiil, Tartan. To the city Mar ad '). 

') See footnote 5 on p. 190. 


2. Reverse. 

769. [Bi'l-malik §a mS,t] Arba-ha. A-na m^t I-tu-' *). 

768. [Abalja §a ir Ma]-za-mu-a. In-a mat. 

767. [Kurdi-Asur sa ir a]hi nar Zu-hi-na. A-na mSt Gan-na-na(a)-ti. 

766. [Musallim-Adar sa ir] Til-i. A-na mat A. A. 

765. [Adar-(ukin)-nisi sa] mat Kir-ru-ri. A-na mfit Ha-ta-ri-ka. Mu- 


764. [Si(dki)-ilu ga] m^t Tus-ha-an. I-na m^t. *) 

763. [Pur-(il-sa-gal-i sa ir Gu-za-na. Si-hu ina irLib-zu^). I-na arah 

Sivanu §am§u atala istak-an. 
762. [Tab-Bi'l §a ir A-mi-di. Si-hu ina ir Lib-zu^). 
761. [Adar-[ukin-ah §aj ir Ni-nu-a. Si-hu ina ir Arba-ha. 
760. [Lakibu sa] ir Kak(?)-zi. Si-hu ina ir Arba-ha. 
759. [Pan-A§ur-la-habal sa] ir Arba-ilu. Si-hu ina ir Gu-za-na. 

758. [Bi'1-takkil sa] ir I-sa-na. Ana ir Gu-za-na. Sul-mu ina mat. 
757. [Adar-iddin sa] ir Nati?)-ban. Ina mS,t. 
756. [Bi'l-sadfla §a] ir (Par(?)-nun-na. Ina mSt. 
755. [Kisu sa ir] Mi-hi-ni-is. Ana mat (Var. ir) Ha-ta-ri-ka. 
754. [Adar-§izibani sa ir] Ri-mu-si. A-na mSt (Var. ir) Ar-pad-da. 
Istu ir Asur ta-ai-ar-tav*). 

753. [Asur-nirari sar mat] Assur. I-na mat. 

752. [Samsi-ilu, tur-]ta-nu. I-na mat. 

751. [Marduk-^llimani avil ni'r] ikal. I-na m^t. 

750. [Bi'1-dan-ilu (?), rab] hi lub (?). I-na mat. 

749. [Samas-ittalak sun ('?)], tukultu. A-na mat Nam-ri. 

748. [RammS,n-bi'l-ukin] sa mSt. A-na m&t Nam-ri. 

*) In lines 1 — 9 the corresponding names of the list have been 
subsequently discovered on this very list in a fragment belonging to the 
tablet, as I have personally ascertained on my first visit to London (1875). 
Compare also Delitzsch's Assyr. Lesestiicke 2"<J ed. where it is pub- 
lished. — *) This line is omitted in K. 3403 (Del.). Comp. Keilinsch. 
u. Gesch. p. 310 footnote 2. — ■'') -zu is probably to be read (with 
Rawl.) instead of ir the phonetic value of a closely resembling sign 
which, according to Delitzsch, the tablet exhibits. On the photograph 
of the list, which lies before me, the sign is no longer to be clearly 
distinguished. A town with the name Lib-ir has not been found in any 
other passage. — *) So Delitzsch and the photograph that lies before me. 


2. Reverse. 485 

769. Bel-malih of Arbacha. To the land Ituh. 

768. Ahalja of Mazamua. In the country. 

767. Kurdi-Assur of Achi-Zuchina^). To the land Oanandt. 

766. Musallim-Adar of Tilt. To the river-country. 

765. Adarukinnisi of Kirruri. To the land Eadrach. Mortal disease 


764. ZidJcid of Tushan. In the country. 

763. Purilsagali of Gozan. Disturbances in Libzu^). In the month 

Sivan the Sun .suffered an eclipse. 
762. Tabbel of Amid. Disturbances in Libzu^). 
761. Adarukinach of Niniveh. Disturbances in Arbacha. 
760. Lakib of Kah(?Jzi. Disturbances in the city Arbacha. 
759. Pan-Asur-lachabal of Arbela. Disturbances in Gozan. Mortal 

illness (pestilence). 
758. Beltakhil of Isana. To Gozan. Peace in the country. 
757. Adar-iddin of NatbanC?). In the country. 
756. Belsadua of Parnunna. In the country. 
Ibb. Kisu of Michinis. Into the land Eadrach. 
IbA. Adar-sezibani of Bimusi. Into the land Arpad. 
Return from the city Astir. 

753. Asumirdr, king of Assyria. In the country. 

752. Samsiil, Tartan. In the country. 

751. Marduksallimani, commander of the palace. In the country. 

750. Beldanil, rabbilub In the country C^). 

749. Samasittalak . . ., minister. To the land Namri. 

748. Bammdnbelukin, commander of the country. To the land Namri. 

') See footnote 3 ou p. 195. — *) See footnote on p. 192. 



486 747. [Sin-sallim-ani, §a mat] Ra-sap-pa. I-na rakt. 

746. [Nirgal-nSsir ga ir] Na-si-bi-na. Si-hu ina ir Kal-hi. 

745. [Nabii-bri-usur §a] ir Arba-ha. Ina arah Airu um XIII 

Tuklat-abal-iiarra ina kussi it-tu-sib; 

ina arah TaSritu a-na bi-i'it nari it-ta-lak. 
744. [Bil-dan-ilu sa] ir Kal-hi. A-na m&t Nam-ri. 
743. [Tuklat-abal-isarra] sar mat A§§ur. I-na ir Ar-pad-da. 

[Di-ik-tav §a mat Ur-ar-ti di-kit*). 
742. fNabu-dS,nin-aui] tur-ta-nu. A-na ir Ar-pad-da. 
741. [Bi'I-Harrau-bi'l-usur] avil sar ikal. A-na ir Ar-pad-da. Ana 

III. sanati ka-sid. 
740. [Nabfi-itir-ani] rab-bi-lub. A-na ir Ar-pad-da. 
739. [Sin-takkil] tukultu. Ana mat Ul-lu-ba, ir Bir-tu. Sab-ta-at. 

738. [Ramman-bil-ukin] sa mat. I'r Gul-la-ni ka-Sid. 

737. [Bi'1-imur-ani] §a rakt Ra-sap-pa. A-na m&t A. A. 

736. [Adar-malik] sa Na-si-bi-na. A-na sipa sadi Na-al. 

735. [Aiur-sallim-aniJ sa m&t Arba-ha. Ana m4t Ur-ar-ti. 

734. [Bi'1-dan-ilu] §a ir Kal-ha. A-na mkt Pi-lis-ta. 

733. [Asur-danin-ani] ga ir Ma-za-mu-a. Ana mat Di-mas-ka. 

732. [Nabii-bi'1-usurJ ga ir Si-'-mi-i. Ana mat Di-mas-ka. 

731. [Nirgal-uballit] §a ir a-hi uar Zu-hi-na. Ana ir Sa-pi-ja. 

730. [Bi'l ludari] sa ir Til-i. I-na mat. 

729. [Nap-har-ilu] sa mat Kir-ru-ri. Sarru katS. Bi'l issa-bat. 

728. [DQr-Asur] sa ir'^) 

*) So Sayce correctly reads. — ^) The sign for ir 'town' stands 
on the photographed tablet lying before me. — The dividing line is 
still quite clearly visible as far as §a ir. 


747. Sinsallimani, of Bezeph. In the country. ^gi^ 

746. Nergalnasir of the town Nisibis. Disturbances in Kalah. 

745. Nabubelui^ur of Arbacha. On the thirteenth of IJjar. 

Tiglath-Pileser placed himself on the throne; 

hi the month Tishrt *) he marched to the river. 
744. Beldanil of the town Chalah. To the land Namri. 
743. Tiglath-Pileser, king of Assyria. In the town Arpad. 

The troops of Armenia toere slain. 
742. Nabudaninani, tarta/n. To the city Arpad. 
741. Bel-Charran-usur, commander of the Palace. To the same city. 

In three years he took it. 
740. Nabuitirani, rabbilubf^J. To the city Arpad. 
739. Sintakkil , minister. To the land Ulluba , the city Birtu. 

Conquests ^). 
738. Bammdnbelvkin , Commander of the palace, captures the town 

737. Belemurani of Bezeph. To the land A. A. 
736. Adarmalik of Nisibis. To the foot of the mountain Nal. 
735. Asursallimani of Arbacha. To Armenia. 
734. Beldanil of Chalah. To Philistia. 
733. Asurdaninani of Mazamua. To Damaskus. 
732. Nabubelusur of Simt . To Damaskus. 
731. Nergaluballit of Achi-Zuchina^). To the city Sapija. 
730. Belludari of Tilt. In the country. 

729. Napcharilu of Kirruri. The king takes the hands of Bel. 
728. Dur-Asur of the city 

') That is five months after his accession. — ^) Geo. Smith's 
translation : "the city of Birtu built" is grammatically impossible. 
Comp. also III Rawl. 9, 33 foil. — ') Signifies "(city) on the river 





Fragment copied by the author^). 

732 -i 

731 Zu-hi-na 


sarru kat 

728 -an sairu kat Bil ^) issa-bat ir Di 

727 -na 

-nu (?)-asS.ridu 

726 -di 

725 Ninua 

724 -zi 

723 [mat As§ur]-KI 

a-na mSt^) . 

ina kus[si it-tu-sib] 










II Rawl. 69. Fragm. No. 5. 



rabflti. A-na ir Ku-muh-hi .... 

Sa-Asur-du-ub-bu avil sa-lat ir Tus-ha-[an] . . . 

is-su-uh-ra ikalSti sal-lu 

Arab Ta§ritu iim XXII. ila-ni sa ir Dur-Sarrukin 

Mu-takkil-ASur avil §a-lat ir Gu-za-na. Sarru mu 
Arab Airu <im VI. ir Dur-Sarrukin . . 

Upahbir-Bi'l avil sa-Iat ir A-mi-di 

Bi'l-ka-i§-pa-i(?) avil Ku-lum-ma-ai 

avil tid&ku ma-dak-tav sa gar mat ASsur .... 

Arab Abu fim XII. Sin-ahi-irib [ina kussi it-tu-sib]. 

Nabii-di-ni-ipu-us avil sa-lat ir Ninua 

I'r La-rak (?) ir Sa-rab-a-nu ....... 

I'kal sa ir Kak(?)-zi i-pi-is ka 

rabft bi-ka(?) 

') Comp. G. Smith, Transactions Soc. Bibl. Arch. II, 2, 330 sq.; 
F. Del., Assyrische Lesestiicke 2"^ ed., 94; the author in Jahrbb. f. 
Prot. Theol. 1875 S. 324. — *) In the List of Governors stands the 
dual kata So also Delitzsch. — ') Delitzsch reads ir. — *) The rest 
of the dividing line is still clearly visible. 



B. 489 

Fragment copied by the author. 

732. [Nabuhelumr of Sim]i [To Damaskus] 

731. [Nergaluballit of Achi-] I To [the city Sapija] 

Zuchina. \ 

730. [Belludari of Til]i I In the [country] 

729. [Napcharilu of Kirru]ri \ The king the hand [of Bel seizes] 

728. [Dur-Asur of Tusch[an *). The king the hand of Bel seizes. The 

city IM\ri\ . . 

727. [Bel-Charran-belusnr of 


726. [Merodachbelusur of Ami]d 
725. [Machdt of] Niniveh 
724. [Asur-chalC?) . . . of Kak(?)]zi 
723. [Salmanassar , king of] ^) 

To the country (city?) 

on the thr[one placed himself] 
I[n the .... 
To ... . 
To ... . 
T[o . . . . 

Archonship of 

Archonship of 

Archonship of 
Archonship of 

Archonship of 


II Rawl. 69. Fragm. No. 5. 



great. To the city Kumuchchi . 

Sa-Asur-Dubhu, viceroy of Tushan .... 

The palaces were ransacked C?) 

In the month Tishri, on the 22^^, the gods of Dfir- 

Mutakkil-Asur, viceroy of Gozan, the king . . . 

In the month Ijjar, on the 6'^, Dur-Sarrukin . . . 

Upachchir- Bel, viceroy of Amid 

Belkaispai {?), the Kulummite 

a soldier, the murder (fj of the king of Assyria') [car- 
ried out] 

In the month Ah, the 12^^, Sanherib [ascended the throne] 

Nebo-din-ipus, viceroy of Niniveh, 

The town Larakf?), the town Sarabanu .... 

the palace of the town Kakffjzi If?) built . . . 

great (y 

') These have been"suppliecl. with Smith, in accordance with List A 
as well as the Eponym list. I cannot discover the source of the eponym 
Tizkaru-ikbi assigned by Smith to the year 725. — *) So we should 
translate , as I have done in the text , if this and the preceding line 
are connected together. But if this is not the case, the words must 
be rendered : A man murdered (?) the king of Assyria. Respecting 
the ideogram for the Assyrian dS.ku see Syllab. 339 (Assyr.-Babylon. 
Keilinsch. p. 37) as well as the Inscr. of Asurnasirabal col. II. 41. 


490 in. 


B. C. 

Greek form of the 
kings' names 

Babylono -Assyrian or 

Persian form of the kings' 


Years of 
the reign 

Sum of 












Xivt^iQox' xcd IlwQOV 

Ukin-zi'r. — Pulu 



















'A^aaiX^vrov tiqwxov 







































(? = Asur-bani-abal) 







































/lagslov TtQcoTov 










'Agza^SQ^ov ngrnxov 





/fagfiov SfvzsQOV 
















= "Aqotic 




/iaQsiov tqIxov 




') For the variants and the Babylonian form of the names see 
Assyr.-Babyl. Keil. p. 164 foil, and compare Pinches in Proc. of Soc. 
of Bibl. Arch. 1884 p. 197 sqq. — Regarding 'IXoiXaiog = UlQlai see 
Keil. u. Gesch. p. 336. The other identification , Kineladan = Asur- 
banipal, is an undoubted fact. See above Vol. II p. 56 and footn. Keil- 
insch. u. Gesch. p. 541 and compare Zeitsch. fiir Assyriol. I, 222 foil. 






according to the dated clay tablets (III Rawl. 2. Smith's 
Eponym Canon pp. 84 foil.). 

B. C. 

Ptolemaic Canon 

Archonship of 

Years of Sargon's reign 
according to the tablets 

as king of 

as king of 


















^Agxmvoq 1. 





















NB. The reader will be careful to notice that the numbers in the 
references indicate the page-numbers of the original German edition 
standing in the margin of the present worh. When a numeral immedi- 
ately follows (preceded by a comma), it designates the line of the in- 
scription. Thus 207, 97. 102 signifies page 207 of the German ed. 
and lines 97 and 102 of the inscription quoted. 

Note. Roots beginning with {«j, J^ and j; as well as those with an 
initial jli w^lien the corresponding sound has passed into a mere breath, 
are registered as roots with an initial {<. Moreover roots with ^ or with 
"I as the first radical are respectively cited under ^ and V Also those 
having ^ or "> as their second or third radical are distinguished from 
one another as much as possible. The list likewise contains all the 
proper names occurring in the extracts quoted from the inscriptions, 
with the exception of the names belonging to the Eponym-lists. 

[Fried. Delitzsch and Paul Haupt indicate the origin of {< in their 
Assyrian glossaries by distinguishing an {.{i (= Heb. {<), {<g (= n), 

Ns (= n or ^), X4 (= ^1 i- e. ^) and ^e (= V^ i- e. ^). — Trans- 

{<X I'a, written I'-a name of a deity Ea, Ao, "Aog 12, 56; (Eng. ed.); 
333, 11; 389, 155. 

{«{{i{ (mSt) A. A. Ideogr. designation of an Eastern country 253; 480 
(Text) etc. 

laa, see -jx- 

ND^NN U-ai-ti-', Arabic proper name 208. 

mONN U-as-sur-mi, name of a Tabalaean 253; 257. 

2N (IDN"*) s.hvi father, phonetically written a-bu 174, (Stat, constr.) ; 
Ideogr. 174 (Stat, constr.); 289, 58; 301, 20 (Gen.); 326; 333, 8. — 
abuti Plur. Ideogr. 277, 5(?); 399, 2. — A-bi-ba-'-al , A-bi-ba-al 
Phoenician proper name Abihaal 7^3^3J< (^^3); 355, 10. — A-bi-mil-ki 


Phoenic. proper name Abimelech n'?0^3{< 105. — Abu-Malik Assyr. 523 
proper name 150. 

2ti ib-ba Subst. — ? — 175. 

3X Abu name of a month, Hebr. 2N ^^ > written A-bu (bi) 380. 
Ideogr. 335 (III Rawl. 2 No. 24); 488, C. 11. 

|NDN uban see px- 

2DN abubu Subst. ^ood 79; til a-bu-bi ivater-billow 234, 25; 262, 
15. — a-bu-bis kdi\. just as a water-billow 247, 2; 450, 74. 

w i: 

3UN ibbu pure, comp. 2X) Arab. O) , Syr. ^s] , ^asoi. Plur. 
msc. ib-bu-ti 19, 31. 

n3N comp. "13^, •^'^ 1 iAaC (also in Assyr.). — Ab-du-uh-mu-nu 
Babyl. -Phoenic. proper name liJrnDI/ ^^0. — Ab-d i-li-'-ti Phoenician 
proper name 104 ad fin; 288, 49. — Ab-du-mi-lik Babyl. -Phoenician 
proper name T^OI^i; 430. — Ab-di-nii-il(mil)-ku-ut-ti Phoenician 
proper name Abdmeleketh nD^dDi^ 104. 

-I3X u-ab-bid, see pDN- 

TDK (avil) U-bu-du name of a town 346, 15. 

m2N (avil) I-ba-di-di Arab, name of a tribe 277. 

l^T^ji} (mat) Ab-da-da-na name of a country 213, 8. 

SdN libil etc. see SdV 

SdN 'iblu Subst. son; St. cstr. abal, abbreviated into bal, Akkad. 
ibila, as proper name ^^p] perhaps also passed into Heb. Ideogr. 
44; 45; 91, 55 foil. Phon. ab-lav 413; a-bi-il (with Sufif.) 413, 33. 
— Plur. Ideogr. 153, 63; 289, 60, col. III. 4; 302, 26. — Abal-usur 
Assyr. proper name 329. 

SdN ahull u Subst. city-gate, Talm. nSiZIX 232, 10; Ideogr. 234, 23; 
261, 7; 290, 22. 

'?D(n) [A-]bi-il name of a town (?) = [A]bel-[beth-Maacha]? 

255, 17. 

^DN (avil) U-bu-luv 346, 15. 

pN abnu Subst. stone px; Ideogr. (Sg. and Plur.) 345, 9 etc. 

p3N (pD3> pDn"*) at-ta-bak 1. Ps. Impf. Ift. 1 poured out 48, foot- 
note ff . 

"IDN comp. Hebr. "^3^. — i-bir 1. Ps. Impf. Kal 1 passed over 82, 
105; 156; 193, 82; 202; 203; 207, 97. 102; — 3 Ps. Sg. he crossed 
over 152. — i-pa-ru-n um-m a 3. Ps. Plur. with parag. ma 345, 11. — 
i-ti-bir 1. Ps. Ifte. / crossed over 193, 78. — i-bir-ta-an Subst. Stat. 
constr. crossing 184, 66. 


524 ni^N a-ba-rak-ku Subst.? — 152. 

^1"13X ab-ra-ru-u — ? — 195, 100. Perhaps field; comp. the ad- 
joining word rap-§u. 

K^DN (tyON'')- ~~ ibus, also ibus, 3. Ps. Sg. Kal he made, erected, 
built, written i-bu-su 248 = II Rawl. 67, 4. Ideogr. with phon. com- 
plement = ibu-us 97; 213, 18. — i-bu-su the same 124, 28. — ib-§u-u 
3. Ps. PI. (for i-bu-§u-u) 290, 7; 302, 26. — ibus 1. Ps. Sg. Kal / 
made. Ideogr. with phon. complem. = ibu-us 194, 87; 232, 7; 278. 
— i-pi-is the same 333, 20; 488 C, 14. — u-si-bi§ 1. Ps. Sg. Impft. 
Shaf. / caused to be prepared, built 374, 29. — i-bi§ Part. Stat, constr. 
making, doing [194, 95]; 289, col. III. 4; 291, 41; 302, 26. — ibiSu 
Inf., written i-bi§ (Stat, constr.) 154; 201; 291, 41; 333, 10. 13; 352, 
36; 364, 14; 396, 1 etc. — i-bi-iu Infiu. 124, col. II. 5. 14. — i-ib- 
§i-tu Subst. doing, deed 413, 31; with Suff. 416. 

{j;3{< (= Arab. ^-^.jt?). — ab-§a-a-ni, ab-sa-ni Subst. subjection, 
obedience 189; 287; 289, 64; 398 (151. 1). According to Stan. Guyard 
presents, tribute (?). 

nSN u-ab-bit (so transcribe!) 1. Ps. Sg. Impft. Pa. / cast to the 
ground 232, 9; 234, 25. The root is ultimately identical with Hebr. 
13X- See on this Lotz "The insc. of Tigl.-Pil. I" 169. — in-na-bit, 
in-nab-tav {he took himself of, disappeared) 3. Ps. Impft. Nif (Hpt.) 
255, 20; 288, 37; 301, 19; 345, 7; 353, 37; 397, 2; 398 (Botta 150,7). 

HDN comp. Hebr. ^2V- — ab-ta-a-ti Subst. Plur. firmly bound 
masonry 124, 10 foil. 

J3{< comp. Hebr. JJ^, niH- — ug-g a-tu Subst. displeasure {anger as 
well as trouble) 373, (footn. ** 33). Comp. also Haupt Akk. u. Sum. 
Keilsch. 177, as well as V R. 1, 64: lib-bi i-gug. 

an (ilu) I-gi-gi A name of divine beings, apparently. These in 
other cases are called V. II 213, 1; Phon. 285, 2. A word of unknown 

DiN a-gam-mi Subst. Plur. marshes. Comp. QJN, i^^J 345, 7. 11; 
351, 59. 

inWN (ii") m^t) A-ga-ma-ta-nu, also A-gam-ta-nu Ekbatana Ar&m. 
XnpnN) Old Persic HangmatS,na, New Persic .^I^A*^ -ffamod^ 378. 

UN (aban) ug-na Subst. a species of stone 455. 

yX (nS,r) Ug-ni-i (Uk-ni-i) name of a river 232, 6. 

ON igisu gift (is Hebr. □''DD3 treasures connected?); i-gi-si Subst. 
Plur. 82, 106. 

liX agurru Subst. burnt tile, Arab. r>^> y>-' 121; written a-gu- 
ur-ri 124, col. II. 3. 


^N (from ink) comp. Hebr. inN; Aram. "inCN) — i-'i^ o"« (Ace.) 525 
323 (line 9, fr. below). — i-dis Adv. alone 345, 7; 450, 72. — idinu 
alone Adj. i-di-nu-u§-su he alone 191; 261, 6; 397, footnote * especi- 
ally ad fin. 

■^f} hand, see "|>. 

bND"lN (avil) [I]-di-bi-'-i-lu, I-di-bi-['-]i-lu name of a tribe ^ciSeeZ 
= Hebr. ^{OIN ^48. — Gentile adj. I-di-ba-'-il-[ai] 148. 

j-]';)^^}^ (n&r) I-di-ig-lat (I-d i-ik-lat) name of the river Tigris = 

Hebr. '?pin, Sam. ST'TH) Aram. ^Ixej , Ar. iiJL>0 ; abbreviated into 

Di-ig(ik)-lat 32. Ideogr. 184, 67; 193, 78; 232, 5. 

^^X adi Prep, till, comp. Hebr. -^j;, i^^. The root is perhaps 
ultimately Hebr. Aram. ^-\^, \j^c, \J^(D', Written a-di 2, 1 1 ; 22, 
footn. 83, 15; 184, 67. 69; 194, 97; 201 (line 5 from below); 203. 
Ideogr. 91, 60. — a-di ili Prep, till 213, 10. 13. 

i-»t( (= Hebr. *^"i, Arab. J^Cj ?) — n-ad-di 3. Ps. Sg. Pa. he ap- 
pointed 15, 3. — a-di-i, see ^-jy 

DIN (m^t, ir) U-du-(u)-mu (mi, mi), name of a country Edom 
Hebr. □'ix 149; 213, 12; 355, 3. — (mat) U-du-mu-ai Adj. 257; 
also U-du-um-ma-ai 288, 54. 

]^X idinu Subst. _^eZcZ, Hebr. ]-:w. Phon. and Ideogr. 17; 26. 

IHN u-di-ni HU (latter Ideogr. for 'bird'' = issur), name of a 
bird 385. 

PN A-du-ni(nu)-ba-(')-al (li) Phoenic. proper name = 7_j;3''JlN 
105; 173; 194, 94. Comp. Hebr. IHOIX- 

]1N (ir) A-di-in-nu name of a city 194, 88. — (Bit-) A-di-ni, 
see p^3. 

^^{< i-dur (so read!) he avoided 350, 54; i-du-ru 3. Ps. Plur. Impf. 
Kal they avoided 194, 86. 

"n^K (Determ.) ud-ri Subst. PI. two-humped camel (dromedary) 345, 
8; (Del. Par. 96); 348. 

"I^X Adar name of deity (from Akkad. a -)- tar). Ideogr. 160; 
284; 333, 16; 389, 156; with phon. complement ra 284. — Adav- 
malik Assyr. proper name (and name of deity) Hebr. TlSsi^N 284. 

~l-j{< Adar name of month Adar *nN- Written Ad-da-ru, A-da-ri 
380, 12. Ideogr. 314, footnote. 

li^'^ii renew, comp. Hebr. tt'-jpl- From this issutu (is-su-tu, 
i-§u-ii-tu) renovation. — A-na is-su-ti (ti) anew 97; 338, 15; 398 
(150. 12). 

526 X1N comp. Ar.-Hebr. niH- — a-u , a-iv Subst. breath, wind 25, 

T T 

footn. **. 

7lN (^DN') avilu Subst. man, human being, comp. (Tjl^O^'i'^IN- 
Written a-vi(mi)-lu Syll. 850 in Haupt and Norr. 35. According to 

Stan. Guyard 1. c. p. 22 from ^\, J.^t, ^■^^ = alu town = "inhabi- 
tant", "town-dweller" {?). — Ideogr. 94, footnote *; 323; often as determ. 
Ideogr. PI. (with phon. complement i) 198, 85; without it 195, 100. — 
a-vi-lu-tu humanity, mankind (= tinisi'tuv II R. 24, 24 f. g.) 26, 15. 
— Av(m)il-ap8i(?) Babyl. name of a king 129. — Avil-Marduk 
Babyl. proper name Evil-Merodach = Tjlip h^)ii 365. 

^^•){< (n^r) U-la-ai name of a river Eulaeus i^lX EilaZoq 438. 
p{«{ i-nu Subst. possession, property; comp. Hebr. 1'jx, JiD (oi' Arab. 

9Lj! with Haupt?) 272. — u-nu-ut Subst. Stat, constr. furniture, vessel 

201 ad fin; 203; 345, 9. 

NOIN A-u-si-' Israel, proper name Hoshea j;t£^"jn 255, 28. 

11t{ light, see "i-iK- 

"11X Uru name of a town Ur , Hebr. ^!){i{. Ideogr. 129; 130. — 
U-ru-mil-ki Phoen.-Bybl. proper name = t'jdIIK 185; 288, 50. 

3IX comp. 3]^. — i-zib 1. Ps. Sg. Impf. Kal I left, left behind, 
left remaining 153 (Gen. XLIX. 1); 234, 24; 262, 15(?); 345, 7. 

"l^Tlfi} Iz-du-bar proper name 92. As Accadian the name must be 
thus pronounced. In Assyrian we must transcribe by 1st u bar. 

^){< (= Hebr. ]|^ etc.). — izzu Adj. strong. Phon. iz-zi (Gen.) 
350, 54. Plur. msc. iz-zu-ti 193, 79. — iz-zi-zu? —202. Is the root 
y^ = izizu? — A-zi-ba-(')-al Phoenic. proper name '^^3]^ 105. 

^tN (^JJN?) (mS,t) I-za(sa?)-al-lav name of a country 426, 22. 

[]1N uznu ear, mind, purpose. Phon. u-zu-un 455, 2. — Transl.] 

-1]{< A-zu-ri Philist. proper name (= Hebr. IVIX^?) 162; 898, 6. — 
(ir) A-zu-ru name of a Kanaanite town, perhaps the modern JS,zur 
167; 289, 66. 

1N^"11{< Az-ri-ja-(a-)u Judaean proper name Azarjah -in^l]^ (188) 
218; also Az-ri-a-[u] 217; 219, as well as [A-]su(?)-ri-ja-u 218. 

nX ^^u Subst. brother, Hebr. HN ^^^-^ phon. a-hu 398, 10. Plur. 


ahi Ideogr. 289, 60; 350, 57. — a-ha-vis Adv. brotherly, mutually 
201; 202. — A-hi-ja-ba-b a Mesopotamian proper name == 33>nN 
llO(footn. p. 95Eng. ed.). — A-hi-mil-ki, Ah(i)-mil-ki Phoen.-Philist. 
proper name Achimelech = Hebr. T||?p^n{< ^^5; 163; 355, 12. — 


A-hi-mi-ti Philist. proper name 162; 398, 10. — A-hi-ra-mu Mesopot. 527 
proper name — D"l^n{< 1*0 (Eng. ed. p. 95 footn. *). 

^flN ^"^i prep, near, see ^nV 

3nX A-ha-ab-bu proper name = Hebr. ^NFIN 194, 91. 

]nH comp. 'tnx, A'iH' <^^^ r-l- — ^^-^i l- i's. Sg. Impf. 
Kal I took 213, 19 (20?). — u-sa-hi-iz 1. Ps. Sg. Impft. Shaf. J caused 
to be taken 272. — ta-ha-zu battle, iproperly hand-to-hand fight, second- 
ary formation from the Ifteal, see under ^nfl- — mit-hu-uz-zu Subst. 
battle, see ibid. 

]rHi u-hi-nu Subst. — ? 234, 24. 

~inN abratu (ihratu? — Haupt.) comp. Hebr. IflN > nn.nX the 
future, Stat, constr. ah-rat 153. — (mat) Aharri name of a country 
West country, properly Hinder land comp. Hebr. llnX i- 6. Eanaan 
(Phoenicia-Palestine), written A-har-ri(-i), also ideogr. (m^t MAR.TU) 
90; 91, 59; 157, 86; 213, 11; 288, 55; 301, 19; 370, 35. — (ra^t) 
A-bar-ra-ai Adj. Phoenician, Kanaanite 157, 86. 

niON itii to be dark [comp. Heb. HDy wrap up, Syr. j-Jii*.— Transl.]. 

— iti phonet. i-ti-i Subst. Genit. darkness 455, 4. — itfltu phonet. 
(genit.) i-tu-ti the same 455, 9. Comp. with this under ^HN atalu. 

"HION comp. Hebr. "IIO^/- — i-ti-ir 1. Ps. Sg. Impft. Kal I spared 345, 7. 
^X a i prohibitive particle not, Lat. n e, comp. Eth. ^^ ; Hebr. i{< 
(still preserved in ^pj~''{< Job 22, 30; TJD^-^N 1 Sam. 4, 21 , ^DVN) 
"ni/^N; also in Phoenic. ■>{< cf. Schroder, Phon. Spr. 118. 211). In 
Phoenician and Heb. the part, is an objective negation, while in 
Assyrian it is subjective. Written ai 434, 29. 

SnI^N (ir, vaki) I'-di-'-al, I'-di-'-li name of a town Idalion 355, 13. 

'?D(^)N ikallu Subst. palace, Hebr. 'j^^ri) Arab. Jji>j^ , Ethiop. 
UJBY1A.J (Accad. in origin). Phon. i-kal-luv 354; in Assyr. 
Ideogr. see Hollenf. der Istar 148. Ideogr. written i-gal 123; 212, I; 
213, 21; 291, 38; 302, 32 bis. Plur. ikalati (so read, comp. Tigl. 
Pil. I col. VI, 94 etc. : ikalMi!) 193, 80; 194, 89; 458, footn. 49. 50. 

DODD''N I-ka-sam-su(?) Philist. proper name 355, 7. 

"inWN I'-har-sag-gal-kur-kur-ra, name of a locality 389, 156. 

~I!D{"')N I'-kur name of a temple 213, 3; similarly I-sar-ra 213, 3. 

— Comp. also below pi^. 

"inU'D'N I-ki-iS-tu-ra Cypr. proper name Ikistura 355, 13. 

p{i{ i-nu-ma, from inu = Arab. i-*iP^ + ma, in the sense of the 
Arab, t-yip- = O't the time, when 2, 1. 7; 17, 1 


528 pjij intiv, also inuv, Subst. eye, spring, Hebr. y\y, Arab, .••.xc etc. 
Plur. ini, ini (Dual ina) Ideogr. 160; 218, 6. — t-ni-ilu proper 
uame of a prince of Hamath ^{<J\W 107; 252 (last line); 257. 

Ti{< Airu name of the month Ijjar, Hebr. -^sji}. Phon. Ai-ru(ri) 
380; Ideogr. 193, 78; 333, 11; 405, footnote ***; 486 (B. C. 745); 
488, C, 7. 

\i^i^ ai-si strengthened sep. pron. of the 1. Ps. Sg. /, of me, etc. 
152 ad fill. Comp. j&si under j^i. 

"^2^^ (mat) Akkadi {land) Akkad, written Ak-ka-di 460, footn.; 
II R. 65, 52a and b etc. Comp. ^gx- Ideogr. Akkadi-KI Khors. 3; 
Tigl. Pil. II line 1 etc.; also with m&t prefixed 136, footnote *. — 
335, 4; 346, 14; 351, 65; 369, 29; 373, footn. **; 458, 49 (footn.); 
459, 4 (footn.). — (avil) Akkadim Subst. those of Akkad (adj. of 
relation in plur. from the sing. Akkadfi). Phon. Ak-ka-di-im (Ham- 
mur. Louvre I, 12); Ak-ka-di-i 88. 

1DN (^1") Ak-ku-u name of a town Akkb ■y'^]} 173; 288, 40. 

31DX (^0 Ak-zi-bi name of a town Akzib, Ekdippa 3^]3X ''^0; 
288, 40. 

h^a comp. Hebr. ^3{<{ etc. — i-ku-lu 3. Ps. Sg. Impft. Kal he ate 
145. Ideogr. 19, 30. — ta-ta-ak-ka-al 3. Ps. Sg. Fem. Impft. Ifta. = 

^DDNn 181- 

^3X ikallu, see ^^IN- 

b^ii (hpa comp. J»ac?). — (avil) ak-kil Subst. savant {"i) 277, 4. 

□3X i-kim, i-ki-i-mu 1. Ps. Sg. Impf. Kal / took 195, 102; 201 
(Eng. ed. 192); 203; 209, 52; 286, 13. — i-ki-mu, i-ki-i-mu 3. Ps. 
PI. they took 218, 10; 220, 31. 

N^N comp. Hebr. "^N- — ti-li-'-u Subst. voiv'i — Or should we, 

T T 

on account of the aspirate in the third radical indicated in the script, 
recur to some such form as jT^^Xt ^-i'? 

- T 

^X ill Subst. Ood, Hebr. "JX- Phon. i-lu (i-luv) 11, footnote; 
Ideogr. 176. — Stat, constr. 413, 30. — ili Plur. Ideogr. 2, 7. 9; 17, 
1; 91, 53; 175, bis; 176, bis; 177; 178; 180. — il^ni Plur. Ideogr. 
with phon. complement ni 157, 85 etc. — ilfitu Subst. divinity. 
Written ilu-u-ti (Gen.) 434, 27. — I-lu-bi-'-di Syr. proper name 23. 

^X ul Adv. not, Hebr. "jx 19, 30 etc. 

K^ID^N (m^t) Al-lab-ri-a name of a country 213, 8. 

n^JX see i^v 

^^X comp. n^i^j "^^1 J^ ^^^- — ^'^^ ^- ^^' ^S- ^^1 ^^ ^^°^ himself 


oj^" 209, 53. — Mi 1. Ps. Sg. / ascended, marched up 157, 85. — 529 
i-li-u 3. Ps. PI. they took themselves of 203 (end of the passage). — 
u-iil-la-a 1. Ps. Sg. Impft. Pa. / set up, raised 124, col. II. I5d. — u- 
u-iil-la-a 3. Ps. Sg. Impft. Pa. he set up, raised 124, col. I. 30. — u- 
ul-lu-u Inf. Pa. setting up 124, 15. — ut-li-i 1. Ps. Sg. Impft. Ifte. I 
raised up and carried forth 213, 20. — mut-tal-li Part. Ifta. (Gen.) 
exalted 333, 13. — u-ii-li 1. Ps. Impft. Shaf. Iraised, lifted up 232, 10; 
261, 8. — ilii Adj. high, upper (of rivers, also of the sea) e. g. Z4bu 
ilfi the upper Zah (see map). From this is derived ilitu Adj. fem. 
same in meaning, written i-lit 333, 18. — Ideogr. 203. — i-lis, 
i-li-is above 2, 1; also in high degree 413, 32. — mi'lu Subst. 
high flood = n'^i^O^ — See under f^'pj^. — ul-lu Adj.; Plur. masc. 
lil-lu-ti (with collective um; or abstr. = ullutu? — ) reaching far 
up or back, previous 124, 15c. — ili Prep, upon, Hebr. ^_j;, i^j;, Arab. 

^},c^. Phon. i-li 290, 27; 302, 30. Ideogr. 195, 98; 220, 32; in con- 
nection with other prepositions adi ili until, to 213, 10. 13. — istu 
in from . . to 213, 11. 

"l^N 5'° comp. Hebr. TJ^n. — il-lik, il-li-ku, with cop. il-li-kam- 
ma 3. Ps. Sg. Impft. Kal he went, marched 338, 7; 353, 39; 399, 4. — 
il-lik-am-ma 235, 26. — a-lik 1. Ps. Sg. Impft. Kal 207, 102 foil.; 
210, 55. 61. — al-lik the same 288, col. II. 34; 301, 18; 326, footn. * ; 
364, 14; 398 (150. 5). Ideogr. (DU) the same 91, 61. — il-li-ku 
3. Ps. Plur. Impft. Kal 289, 75; 450, 73. — illi-ku-ni the same, Ideogr. 
with phonetic complement 82. — it-ta-lak 3. Ps. Sg. Impft. Ifta. he 
marched 480, B. C. 815; 482 B. C. 785; 486 B. C. 745. — ittala-ku 
(ittalla-ku) the same, he went. Ideogi*. with compl. ku 213, 4; 247, 
8. — aiik Partic. act. Kal, phon. a-lik 97; 194, 96. — al^ku Subst. 
the advance, stat. constr. a-lak 152; 350, 51; 398 (150. 5). — malaku 
Subst. with same signif., Stat, constr. m a-lak march 450, 73. 

77N comp. 'j'^[1> i3^' — iHu Adj. bright, gleaming, exalted, also 
precious. Phon. i-il-lu 426, 22. Ideogr. 213, 3; Plur. iliati 232, 16. 
i-il-li-tuv(tiv) Fem. Sg. 13. — mui-ti-lil Part. Ifte. illuminating, 
gleaming (?) 388. 

^Sx U-lu-lu name of the month Elul, Hebr. 'p^'^X 380. — Ulul-ai 
proper name Elulaeus ^IXovXaioq, properly man of Elul 490, footn. 1. 
Comp. Keilinsch. u. Gesch. 336 footn. 

Zh^ illamu Prep, before (Is Hebr. Q^!)t< to be connected with it?). 
With Suff. il-la-mu-u-a 289, 77; 332, 18. 

□•pX (m^t) I'-lam-tu(ti), I-lam-mat, name of the country Elam, 
Hebr. □'jij; 111; 353, 33. 37. Ideogr. Ill; 345, 6. — (avil) I'-la- 
mu-u Adj. the Elamite 111; 136. Ideogr. 351, 62. 


530 n'ux alpu Subst. ox, Hebr. rh^. Plur. alpi; Ideogr. 290, 18; 346, 
17 etc. 

n^{< ilippu Subst. ship, Aram, ja'^ 52, footn. *. Ideogr. PI. 184; 
193, 82; 350, 55. 

pi^X (mat) ri-li-pi name of a country 213, 6. 

J-j'jN ultu Prep, out of, from collat. form of istu (q. v.). Written 
ul-tu 124, 31 ; 140 (Asarh. 1. 7); also ul-tav 204. Ideogr. 184 (above). 

n'?{< illatu Subst. might. With Suff. il-lat-su 338, 9; 350, 53; 
450, 71; 452, 68. Akkad. in origin (Lotz 124)? — 

pn^N (^0 Al-ta-ku-u name of a town, Eltekeh npn^N 171; 289, 
76. 82; 301, 24. 

Din'^K (^1') Il-H-ta-ar-bi name of a town 220, 30. 

□{< ammu Fem. ammatu Pron. demonstr. that, that yonder. — 
am-ma-[ti] (so read! — see Keil. u. Gesch. 141**. The photograph 
of the original that lies before me leaves no doubt as to the correct- 
ness of the conjecture) 156. Ace. to the photograph there seems to 
have stood in the following line nisi-i or rather avili-i as we find 
also in the monolith of Karch, see Keil. u. Gesch. 140*. — 193, 82. 85 
(am-ma-ti). — um-ma Adv. thus 332, 25. 

□{^ AM Akkad. word, i. e. Ideogr. for rimu QN"1> s®® DN1- — 
AM. SI i. e. homed or provided ivith teeth AM, name of the elephant 
(in Assyr. piru, see Lotz Tigl. Pil. I 163 foil.). Comp. 187 (I Ki. X. 
22) and footn. *. 

'^NDiiX Am-mi-ba-'-la Mesopot. proper name =: '5_j;2>23^ 110 (Eng. 
ed. p. 95 footn.). 

Jon i-im-ga, im-ga Adj. exalted. Syn. of gitmalu perfect 420; 421. 
Is it of Akkadian origin (IM-GA) or Semitic? (root pO_j;) ? — 421. 

IDX comp. Hebr. 1J3^. — i-mid l.Ps. Sg. Impft. Kal I appointed, 
I imposed 272; 273, 4; 287; 289, 64; the same 189. The signification 
redigere assumed on p. 189 is unnecessary ; translate : — "on the 
land Juda (and) on Hezekiah , its king, I imposed obedience". We 
have an abbreviation of imid absani in the phrase imid (without 
absani) used in the same sense (288, 37; 301, 19 etc.). — Ni-mi-it- 
ti-Bil name of a rampart of Babylon, interpreted by Delitzsch as 
meaning "Foundation of Bel". Comp. under n{«{}3. 

IDN (^'^) A-mi-di name of the town Amid-Didrbehr, lA^i, ^] 106, 
(footn. **); 480, B. C. 800; 484, B. C. 762; 488 C, 6. 

^■]QX (m^t) Amadai, written A-ma-da-ai name of a country and 
people 80. 


^OX (""O^) comp. Syr. jla^ , jiicoio (Hpt); also Hebr. rilSn? — 
li-ta-mu-u 3. Ps. PI. Volunt. Ifte. {that) they might command 373, 35 
(footn. **). — amStu Subst. saying, command. Stat, constr. a-m&t531 
333, 9, also a-ma-a-ta 373, 35 (footn. **) and a-ma-tuv 455, 13 (Eng. 
ed. p. 156). — mamitu Subst. mandate, divine command, Stat, constr. 
ma-mit 262, 16; 289, 70. 

1DDN A-muk-ka-a-ni proper name 234 ,23; also written A-muk-a-ni 
232, 11. 

•JISX amilu, see ^y^. 

nSoN Am-mu-la-di-in, name of a Kedarene king 148. 

DDC< ummu Subst. mother, Arab. •«!, Hebr. □{«{, Aram. )ie) , Eth. 
^f?^J Pbon. um-mu 175. Ideogr. 175; Stat, constr. 175. 

DDX comp. Hebr. (qi^j;) Q]}- Or ought we to assume a special 
root jDi;, as extension of QDJ?? — um-m§.nu, Subst. PI. umman^ti 
(Stat, constr. umma-na-at) host, troops. Pbon. 195, 99; 209, 43 foil. ; 
323; 345, 10. Ideogr. 152; 203 (6is); 398 (150. 1). Plur. Stat, constr. 
301, 23. 

□}3{< umS,mu Subst. beasts, especially with the meaning large ani- 
mals = Hebr. mOHS- Phon. Stat, constr. u-[ma-am] 17, 4. 

DDN ammatu Subst. yard {"i cubit), Hebr. HSN- Ideogr. 124, 29. 

- s 
]DN comp. Hebr. VQ^, Arab, rj^^^ , Ethiop. ^^^ J ^ — timinu 

Subst. foundation-stone, foundation (secondary formation from the Ifte.), 
written ti-mi-in-(§a) 124, 7. 

ION (m&t, ir) Bit-Am-ma-nu name of the country Ammon, Hebr. 
)"iSi'i written Am-ma-na(ni), Am-ma-a-[na] 141; 355, 11. — (ir 
m^t) B it-Am-ma-na-ai Adj. he of Ammon 257; 288, 52. — (m^t) 
A-ma-na-ai Adj. the same 194, 95. — (Sad) Am-ma-na name of a 
mountain (= Amanus ?) 220, 27. 

DON [A-ma]-a(?)-su Egypt, proper name Amasis (^) 364, 4. 

DDK comp. pQ^ etc. — imflku Subst. properly depth, then power, 
might 421. Written i-mu-ku comp. H R. 36, 55. Stat, const, i-muk 
326, footn. *; 346, 12. — imuki, written i-mu-ki, the same, PI. 
military forces 289, 75; 301, 24. — raa-muk-tav Subst. depth of wis- 
dom{^), npDj/D (^) 346, 14. — For i-im-ga, im-ga see above JDK- 

ppDN (^0 Am-kar-ru-na name of the town Ekron, lilpjt?, ^Axxd- 
QU)V 164; 289, 69. col. III. 1; 290, 25; 301, 22; 302, 25. 30; 355, 7. 

"lOK comp. Eth. /^/\^^^' (Hpt.). — i-mur 1. Ps. Sg. Impft. 
Kal / saw 261, 14. — i-mu-ru 3. Ps. PI. 332, 21. — im-ma-ru (for 



i-ma-ru) 3. Ps. PI. Pres. they see 455, 9; 456 (Notes and lUust.). — 
in-na-mir 3. Ps. Impft. Nif. he was seen 345, 11; 397, 2. — amUru 
532 Inf. seeing. Written a-ma-ri (Gen.) 389, footn. *. — ta-mir-tu Subst. 
look, then circle of vision (Eng. 'sight') 289, 76; 301, 20. 24; 345, 6. — 
ta-mar-tu Subst. object of display, present 288, 56. 

*lt3N imiru Subst. ass, Arab. .L^.*- , Hebr. "liDH > Aram. )i.^4*. 

Ideogr. = i-mi-ri III Rawl. 2, 45 (XX, 3). Ideogr. Plur. 290, 18; 345, 
8; 374, 25. 

niSX (mat) A-ma-(at)-ti name of a country, prob. Eamdth 105; 
194, 88. 91; 281; 323 {ter). Comp. non- — (m^t) A-mat-(ta-)ai 
Adj. 201; 202; also A-ma-ta-ai 203; 323. 

IX ana Pr^ep. towards, to, Ideogr. 48, footn. ff. Phon. a-na 18; 
26, 15; 82, 105; 124, 5 etc. 

|j< ina Prep. in. Ideogr. 82, 104. 105; 91, 52. Phon. i-na 17, 1; 
124, 8. 13 etc. 

|J5 annu Pron. dem. this, written an-nu-u 332, 25; 459, 4. — 
annutu Pron. Fern, of the above ; an-nu-u-tuv 79. — an-nu-ti Plur. 
msc. these 194, 95. 

|{i{ (ir) U-nu name of a town in Upper Aegypt 152. 

1}^ comp, Hebr. [T'^ti]^^. — Anu name of a deity (= Oannes?). — 
It is perhaps the Semitized Akkad. ana "Heaven", then "deity"; comp. 
also AN.TA = iia. — A-nu 2, 14; A-nuv 160 (Deut. XXXII. 10); 
284; 411. — *Anu-malik proper name Anammelech ?]7SJ3_j; 284. 

^WJ< I'-ni-ilu, Hamathite proper name = Phoen. '?{j{J''_j; 107 (read 
I'-ni-ilu!); 252. 

jWN AN. AN Akkad. designation of the supreme God (= AN) 127. 

N^nJN (mSt) An-di-u (also An-di-a) name of a country 213, 9. 

^JX comp. Hebr. HJl?) T\IV' — ^"°^ ^* ^^' ^S- Impft. Kal 1 injured 
124, 7. 

ri^^ i-na-ah 3. Ps. Sg. Impft. Kal it fell to ruins, became waste, 
perhaps a collateral form of ni3 ^7. 

njX anaku Subst. lead, Hebr. njj^. Ideogr. 208, footn. *. Plur. 
pieces of lead, Ideogr. 157, 87; 193, 84; 208. 

1D3N anaku(ka?) Pron. 1. Pers. Sg. I. Hebr. s^Jf^ etc, Phon, 
a-na-ku 335 (I Rawl. 48 No. 5. 1) ; 363, 6. Ideogr. with phon. com- 
plement ana-ku 91, 55; 459, 5. 

IJN (rUN"*) — annu Subst. ill, evil, badness. Written an-ni 289; 
302 (col. III. 4). — root HJI^'' — «' njll) 1-*^ *end. — Ace. to 

QL0S8ABY. 211 

Haupt Gloss, under nj{> ^* stands for arnu, which, however, would 533 
still have been a collateral use and signification. 

P{i{ annu this, see J{{. 

'3Jj{i{ (ilu) A-nun-na-ki name of a deity of the subterranean waters 
Eng. ed. Vol. I p. 57 (read Anunnaki); 174; 285. 

nJJK (i^'^) A-nu-ni-tuv name of a deity Annnit 280. 

DJDJN U-na-sa-gu-su Cypr. proper name 355, 21. 

pJN (m&t) Un-ki name of a country 249, footn. f. 

U^JX assatu woman, wife, comp. Hebr. ntJ-'N) i^^flTT"!' c'^^ 

IZUf. — Comp. below i^'J. — Ideogr. 12, footn. f; 289, 60; 345, 10; 

398, 9; 452, 67. Plur. as§ati Ideogr. 291, 39; 302, 32. — ti-ni-si-i- 
tu Subst. mcmkind, men 333, 11 (= avilutuv II R. 24, 24 f. g.). 

pj{( atta (for anta) pers. pron. thou, comp. HDN > 2J] ; o-j', 
^■J'J';. Written at-ta 413, 32. 

nnON (^J"? ra^t) As-du-du(di) name of a town, Ashdod, Hebr. 
nilK^N '62; 290, 24; 302, 29; 323; 355, 12; 398 (149, 6; 150, 8). — 
(ir) As-du-da-ai Adj. he of Ashdod 288, 51. — As-du-di-im-mu, see 

DDDDN as-kup-pa-tuv Subst. threshold, JAAamc) 384. 

I^tJDN (avil) I-sa-am-mi-' name of a North-Arabian tribe {■= Ishmael 

"lODX asmaru Subst. spear (NR. 28). PI. as-ma-ri-i 261, 5. 

n3DN (m^t) U(?)-sa-na-ta-ai Adj. he of U{?)sanat 194, 93. 

|7pDX (^1") mSt) Is-ka-lu-na, Is-ka-al-lu-na name of a town 
Ashkelon, Hebr. li^PtJ^N 165; 289, 58. 63; 301, 20. 21; 302, 29; 355, 
6. — (m&t) As-ka-1 u-na-ai Adj. 257. 

1DN comp. Hebr. "iQN, Syr. jif, At.j^\, Eth. Afl/.'. iAUJ/,'.) 
— i-sir 1. Ps. Sg. Impft. Kal 1 shut in 209, 54; 213, 16; 234, 23; 
261, 9; 289, 72; 290, 21; 301, 23; 302, 29. 

1DX comp. Hebr. lij;y , New Hebr. -^D^ etc. — misratu Subst. 
decad, comp. "lij^^tJ 15, 3. Thence comes the denomin. verb : u-ma- 
as-sir 3. Ps. Sg. Impft. Pa. he divided into tens 15, 3 and Notes andlllust. 

•^QN comp. Hebr. "iQn- ~ it-ta-pi-ik 3. Ps. Sg. Impft. Ifte. he over- 
powered 399, 3. — apiktu Subst. subjugation, defeat Id. 194, 97; 201 
(Eng. ed. p. 191 last line); 202; 203; 209, 48; 289, 79 (read apikta- 
§u-un); 326, footnote*; 349, 52. 

DOX apsfi, the Sumer.-Akk. zu-ab Subst. Sea, Ocean, ideogr. 2, 3. 



pDN from which is derived tupku, see pOH- 
534 pQ{^ (ir) Ap-ku name of the town Aphek pF^ 204. 

"IDN ipru Subst. dust, 10_i;, ^ac, ]^^ 455, 8. 11. Stat, constr. 
i-par 235, 27; 450, Rev. 1 ; 456 (Job XXVIII. 6). 

"IDN appartu Subst. reed (Del.), rush, morass? — PI. ap-pa-ra- 
(a)-ti 345, 7. 11; 351, 59. Comp. Taig.-Talm. -iQ{<, NION- 

Y^ is, issu (on the latter form see Keilinsch. und Geschichtsfor- 
schung p. 109 footnote) Subst. wood, tree, Hebr. WW, Ethiop. 0^> 

Arab. \jac (Homm.) and also aUiac, Aram. y^. As determinative 

183 (1 Kings V. 13); 184 ad init. etc. etc. — Plur. (si comp. Hebr. 
Q^VJj; written i-si. See Hal^vy-Sayce in Journ. Asiat. VII. 1 (1876) 
p. 353. 

-latOSN see -lantN. 

J O J 

1JJN issiiru Subst. bird, comp. ._j.a^ac, Phon. is-su-ru(ri) 255, 
23; 426; Stat, constr. issur. Ideogr. (for this comp. II R. 40, 17 e. f) 
261, 9; 290, 20; (302, 28); 383, ad fin.; 455, 10. - is-su-ri§ Adv. 
'^like a bird" 350, 57. 

Dni3XlJiN (ilu) U-sur-a-mat-sa epithet of Nanaea "guard her 
saying V 457; comp. below "ly^. 

3p{< ikkibu (for ikkibu) Subst. heel, comp. spy, ) «-'«\ v.^c, 
with Suff. ik-ki-bu-ug 290, 23. 

DpN (^J") A-ka-ba name of a town Akaba, 370, 30. 

hpa ik-lu Subst. field, Aram. '^Dfi, \]nL, J-25> 27. 

Fjpx u-ku-pi. Subst. Plur. apes (comp. Hebr. nip):* — 450, Rev. 3. 

PpN (root Vp^?) iksu Adj. strong, powerful; from which ik-su- 
[ti] Plur. msc. 17, 2. 

•^X iru (i'ru?) Subst. town, Hebr. -^ly. Synon. Slu. Ideogr. 79, 
footnote*; 93 (Eng. ed. p. 76 footn.) ; 97 and footn.; 156; 193, 80. 81 
etc. Plur. ira-ni 193, 78; 194, 87. 

•"li^? — Ur — ? proper name Uruk{7) 94. 

Q''\H urumu Subst. tree-stem (? — Rad. Q^-) ?) [u-]ru-mi Plur. 17, 2. 

K'NIN I'-ri-i-su Cypr. proper name 355, 17. 

^•It^ comp. Aram. ,.sj^ (Hebr. 31_j;, Ar. v_J^?). — iru-ub (written 
TU.ub), with Cop. i-ru-um-ma (for i-ru-ub-ma) 1. Ps. and 3. Ps. Sg. 
Impft. Kal 7, he entered 193, 80; 261, 7; 345, 7. 9; 450, 72. — u-Si- 
ri-ib(bi) 3. and 1. Ps. Sg. Impft. Shaf I, he brought in 373, 33. 34 
(footn. **).— u-gi-ri-bu do. 3. Ps. sing, he had brought in 290, 33; 299 


(Notes & Illust.); 302, 31. — i-ta-rab 3. Ps. Sg. Impft. Ifte. he entered 
482, B. C. 787. — [lu-ru-ba precat. (or voluntat.) / will assuredly 
enter 455, 15, see under ^^ or ^^. — Transl.]. — ^ribu Part. act. Kal 
Ideogr. (Gen.) 178; 179. — i-ri-bu Subst. entrance, of the sun setting. 
With suflf. 455, 5. 7. Stat, constr. i-rib 140; 184, 69. 

^•^f^ (m&t) A-ri-bu, A-ri-bi , name of the country Arabia (North 

Arabia), comp. 21Vj Vj^ 253: 255, 30; 262, 15; 397, 3; 414. — av. 

Ur-bi name of a tribe 290, 31; 302, 31; 346, 13. — (mat) Ar-ba-ai 
Adj. the Arbaite 194, 94; 277, 4. 

KD1N see n^-]. 

^NDIN i^^) Arba-ilu, Ar-ba-'-il name of the town Arbela, Pers. 
Arbird 118, footnote *; 333, 16; 484, B. C. 759. — Arba-ilu proper 
name of Istar as goddess of Arbela 36. — A r ba-ilu-asi-ra t proper 
name, Aram. "Id'^D^X 36. 

^3^N (''■) Arba-ha, Ar-rap-ha name of a city or country Arrha- 
pachitis, Albdq 112; 480, B. C. 812. 803; 484, B. C. 769; 486, B. C. 745. 

{<73"1{< Ur-bal-la-a, name of a Tuchanaean 253; 257. 

P~l{< (ir) Ir-ba-an name of a town 815, probably the modern Arbftn 

...Ij-c on the Ch&bQr, where Layard discovered Assyrian remains. 

)3^X (m&t) A-ra-ba-nuv name of a country 426, 24. 

]DJ^N ar-ga-man-nu Subst. red purple, Hebr. ]0-nx ^^5- 

]J"IN (i^ Ar-ga-na-a name of a town 194, 88. 89. 

1DT1N Ur-da-raa-ni-i Aegypt. proper name 450, 72; 452, 67. 

ni^N {^^) Ar-va-da, also A-ru-a-di, A-ru-a-da, A-ru-da(-ai), name 
of a town Arados 104; 157, 86; 355, 9. — (ir) Ar-va-da-ai Adj. 
Arvadite 194, 93; 257. — (m§,t) Ar-va-da-a-ja Adj. do. 184. — (ir) 
A-ru-da-ai Adj. do. 288, 49. 

tC^T^lN (m§.t) A-ra-zi-ag name of a country 213, 6. 

pnX (''■) A-ra-zi-ki name of a town Arazik, ^EQayit,a, Talm. {>{^^J"1X 
184 (and footn. **). 

n"nfc{ urhu Subst. way, Hebr. n~lx. Plur. ur-hi 450, 73. 

niN (Rad. ?) a r-h i s Adv. at the right time (?) 289, 68. 

IT^X arhu Subst. month, see n~lV 

?N'?mK Ir-hu-li-(i)-ni(ua) Hamathite proper name (V];"^ni^?) l^'! 
194, 88. 91; 201. 

piniX (nar) Arahti, written A-ra-ah-ti, name of a river or canal 31. 

"]NnN I'ri-Aku, name of an old Babyl. king = Hebr. TjInN '^^5 ^^^- 


■|*1{«{ to be long, comp. Hebr. TI^X- — ur-ri-ku 3. Ps. PI. Impft. Kal 
they became long 2, 13. — a-ra-ku Subst. (stat. constr.) length 373 
(footn. **). 

H*l{>{ urku Subst. battle-array, comp. Hebr. HD'iy.D- ^^at. constr. 
u-ru-uk 345, 8. 

-]-1X arki, see -ji"). 

n^{< Arka, also Uruk, name of a town Erech- Wa/rka, Hebr. Tl^lf^ 
13; 94; 346, 13. — Arkaitu Adj. Fem. she of Erech 94, written 
Ar ka-ai-i-tu, Var. A r-k a-a i-i-t a v Sm. Assurb. 250, o) 457. 
536 "inN U-ri-ik(-ki) proper name of a Kuaean 252; 257. 

^'^a (mSt, §ad) Aralu, written A-ra-al-lu(li), A-ra-lu. Name of 
a locality, especially of a mountain, at the same time an Assyr. term 
for the Lower World 389, 156 and footnote. 

□"^X arammu Subst. bulwark, rampart, comp. j»-c 290, 15. 

Q"l{< A-ra-mu, A-ru-mu, A-ri-mu(mi), name of a race, Aramaean, 
Hebi". nnN 115 and footnotes. — (mS,t) A-ru(ra)-mu name of the country 
Aramaea 116; 232, 5. 13; 369, 29. — (mSt) Ar-ma-a-ja race-adject. 
Aramaean 116. — A-ra-mi, proper name of a North-Syrian king 193, 83. 

DIN U-ri-im-mi, name of a prince 253. 

T^OIN U-ru-mil-ki, see under "nj^. 

'j"1f< arnu Subst. sin. With Suff. a-ra-an-su-nu 290, 6. — Deriva- 
tion uncertain. — Comp. also under i^N- 

pN (is) i-i* i-n u V (n i) Subst. cedar, comp. Hebr. J~f{< 411; 412; — 
388; Plur. irini Ideogr. 184; shortened ir-ni 412. 

ni^X (d^O A-ra-an-tu name of the river Orontes 195, 101. Comp. 
Aegypt. Anurtha, Arnutha (Chabas : Arantd). 

D/DIN (i^) Ur-sa-li-im-mu (ma) name of the ciij Jerusalem ^h^^YW 

" T : 

>a2Xk,»o) 161; 290, 8. 20. 32; 302, 27. 29. 31. 

nOIN (ir, m§,t) Ar-pad-da name of the town Arpad HQIK > ^^^ 
modern Tell-ErfM 323 (Khorsab. 33 foil.); 324; 328; 480, B. C. 806; 
484, B. C. 754; 486, B. C. 743—40. 

y]H irsituv Subst. earth, comp. VIXj ^^- (J-»j') Aram. jL?) . Phon. 
ir-si-tiv (Gen.) 123; 124, 27; 178. — Written irsi-tiv ibid. 177. 

r)^{i{ arku Adj., see piv 

p'nX (ir) Ar-ka-(a) name of a town, Arkd, Hebr. {i)p1]} , Greek 
\4pxa, Lat. Area 104. 

Q3p~l{< ((mat) I r-k a-n a-t a-a i Adj. man of the land Irkanat 194, 92. 


~n{i{ urru Subst. light, comp. Arab. .1, Hebr. '^"j{«{, written ixr-ru 
53, footn. * (Eng. ed. p. 54) (to be pronounced firu? — ) 53, 30. — 
U-ru-mil-ki, see under "Tij*}. 

"1"1{< arratu Subst. curse. Stat, constr. arrat Ideogr. 47. Hebr. 1*1 J<- 
lOniN U-r a-ar-tu(ti) name of the country Armenia, comp. the Bibl. 
tO"nN (52) 83; 482, B. C. 781 foil.; 486, B. C. 743. 735. 

I^^X irsu (not irsu!). Subst. bed, couch, comp. t£'"1^> J-sOf^, (_,i*yC 537 
Ideogr. 213, 19; Plur. 290, 36; 299. 

jj;^{< mar§itu, see ^'Tl- 

^^ as-su properly to that (we may suppose it to be compounded 
from ana-gu, see Assyr. Babyl. Keil. (1872) p. 296), transitional or 
illative particle accordingly 398 (Botta 149, 8); Prep, to (bef. Infin. in 
the sense of in order to) 353, 36. 

tt'N isatu Subst. yire ]l}^ , /^"^^ I (l^^^i)- Phon. i-sa-tuv 180. 
PI. isatu. Phon. i-sa-a-ti (Gen.) 182. Ideogr. 181 ; 194, 89. 90. 

tJ^X i§§(itu, see tJ^IX- 

315>X iSbu Subst. vegetable Z'WV- Written is-bi 397, 3. 

ItCN ('!■) U-su-u name of a town 288, 40; 301, 20. Accord, to 
Delitzsch = Hebr. f^U^^N (?). 

intJ'N (sad) As-ha-ni name of a mountain 220, 29. 

nriK'N Us-hi-it-ti, name of a Tunaean 253; 257. 

Dtd< u§-ma-ni Subst. Plur. stores, comp. Hebr. DDJ^, Aram. JON 
209, 51. — sabi u§-ma-ni baggage servants (!) 261, 8. 

P)tfX a-§i-pu Subst. one who employs conjurations F^tS'N) |»sa-^l ^^^ 
(on Dan. II. 2). 

nti'N i§-ka-ti Subst. Plur. fem. bonds, fetters (root T^li)^, oi,**«.c ?) 

Itt'N aSru Subst. place, comp. Ar. SI, Aram. |j^| , "inN- — a§-ru, 

with Suff. a-§a-ar-§u(§a) 124, 7. — a-§ar-su 188; 213,9; 345, 11 {ad 
fin.)', 397, 2; 398 (150, 8; 151, 10 line 2). Stat, constr. a-gar 288, 
41; 389 (footn. *); 455, 8 (Eng. ed. p. 156). Gen. with Suflf. (a-na) 
a§-ri-§u-nu 458 (footn. *. 50). — i§ritu Subst. holy place, temple. 
Plur. i§-ri-i-ti 136 (footn. * p. 122 Eng. ed.), i§-ri-ti 389, 156. 

^^X a§§,ru to be good, hind; comp. "itt^i. — §u-ti-Su-ru Inf. Istaph. 
management, regulation 124 (col. 1. 32). — §,§ir Part, good, kind; Fem. 
a§irat. Ideogr. with phon. complement rat 36. — * as fir {sic\) Adj. 
masc. Awid 36. — mu-sar(sar)-i see 1DD- 

"ItCN ASur name of the god Asur, written A-§ur 35. Ideogr. 91, 52; 
153; 194, 96; 201 etc. — Asur-ah-iddin a proper name Asarhaddon 


Hebr. lliniDK) Grr. 'AaagiSivog = Axerdls (35); 326, footn, *; 333, 
44. 8; 335 (line 1 bis); 337, 6; 374, 30. — Agur-bani-ab al "Asur 
the creator of the son" proper name Sardanapalus 335, bis. — Asur-i- 
til-ili-iikinni "Asur, the exalted among the gods, made me", proper 
name 359. — A§ur-na-din-§um "Asur gives the name", proper name 
Gr. \4.occQavd6iog (written ^Anagai'dSiog) 35; 351, 63. — Asur-n^sir- 
abal "Asur protects the son", proper name 184, 63. — A s u r-r i' §-i-§ i 
"Asur, exalt the headl" proper name 91, 56. 
^^^ lU'N (ir) Asur name of the town (comp. the name of the god) Asur, 
written A-sur 35; 97; 193, 85. — (mS,t) A§§ur (Asur) comp. Hebr. 
TltS'N ) ^y- JoZ) name of the country Assyria. Phon. As-§ur and 
A-§ur 35. Ideogr. 91, 52. 56. 57; 97; 117; 156; 180; 184, 63. 64 
etc. — A§-§u-ri-tuv Adj. Fem. Assyrian 35. 

Tltt'N a-sa-ri-du Adj. chief, princely 266 footn. * P. S.; 413; of un- 
certain origin. [Ace. to Fr. Delitzsch, Assyr. Lesest. 3 ^^ ed. from 
aSar (airu) 'place' and idu 'one'. — Transl.]. Occurs frequently in 
the Assyrian royal name Su ImSnu-asSr idu, see below under Q^J^r. 

(B^)t5'N = CIN fj^om ty-|n = Hebr. Jjfin^ ~ i-i^-^i-is Adv. from 
the Adj. iSsu new, meaning anew 124, l5b. — i§sfltu Suhst. newness. 
Phon. (ana) i§-§u-ti, is-§u-u-ti i. e. in newly founding, anew 97; 249 
(Eng. ed. p. 241 footn. f). 

nii^N iitu Prep, from, out of (of what etymology?). Phon. is-tu 
184, 69. Ideogr. 91, 58; 179, bis; 184, 66. Comp. also nSX- 

ntJ^f? a§§atu, see tfJN- 

intfN istin, comp. Hebr. ("iJS'i/) ^Pl^i/- Written isti-in 234, 24. 
— i§-ti-nis (so I'ead!) Adv. in one, with one another 2, 5. Comp. 
Aram. Nnn3 (^Pt-); Hebr. "iriNS etc. 

-J3P{j;{{(?) (Ir) Is(Mil)-tu-an-da-ai Adj. the Istvmdaean 253; 257. 

"intJ'N Istar comp. jAjlc, (|£t.^) >2\^ , H'intt'y name of the goddess 
Istar-Astarte , written Ig-tar 176; 177. — i§-ta-ri-tuv goddess 177. 
Ideogr. 13; 178; 326, footn. *; 333, 15 etc. — iStarSti goddesses, 
written istar^-ti 177; i§-tar-at 180; Stat. cstr. i§tar-at 177 (179); 
180. — I§tar-dar-ka-li proper name = hp']l\i/i} 1'^. 

nX itti Prep, with, comp. Hebr. pj< and (Del.) Assyr. ittu "side". 
Phon. it-ti 26, 16; 140; 194, 97; 201; 203; 289, 78; 290, 34; 301, 24; 
302, 31 etc. Ideogr. (= KI) passim. 

PJi^ atta Pron. 2. pers. thou, see nJN- 

NDN (avil) I-tu-' name of a tribe 232, 5. 

^f^{< itii Subst. boundary. Gen. i-ti-i 398 (150. 6). Masculine form 
of the feminine form ittu, Plur. it§.ti? — on this comp. Del. in Lotz 
Insch. Tigl. Pileser I 115 foil. 


"niNIDN I-tu-u-an-da-a r Cypr. proper name Itvandar = ^ExeFav- 
SpoQ 355: 16. 

IHN utukku Subst. Oenius, Demon 39; 160. 
TnN v'lu) I-tak name of a god 283. 

l'?nN atalu Subst. overshadowing, eclipse (see III Rawl. 58 No. 8 
line 50). Ideogr. AN.MI 484 B. C. 763 ^ Should we compare Arab. 
JJac, Hebr. ^^]Q^'i 

ION ('0 A-ti-in-ni name of a town 220, 30. 

PDN (mat) At-na-na name of a country, Cyprus 86, see also pn^- ^''^ 

pDN comp. pnV' p^ni^M- — i-ti-ik 3. Ps. Sg. Impft. Kal he received 
(I Rawl. 7 No. J. 3) 287, 28. — ti-ti-ku 3. Ps. Sg. fern. Impft. Ifte she 
went 262, 16. — in-n i-it-k a-am-ma 3. Ps. Sg. Impft. Nif. with Cop. 
he was carried away 277 (I Rawl. 36. 20). — mi-ti-ku Subst. march, 
401; Stat, constr. m i-ti-ik 218, 2; 289, 65; also m i-ti-ik 301, 22. 

"IHN (ilu) A-tar name of a god*e«5, Adar, comp. "n^j^T^j^, properly 
father of decision, father of destiny 179; 443. 

IPN (il") A-tar-sa-ma-(ai)-in Syr.-Arab. deity = pj3D "inyi i- ®- 
li}35^ "^ Athar {Astarte) of heaven 110 (footn. * Eng. ed. p. 94); 148; 
414 (Jer. VII. 18). 


1ND (ilu) B au name of a god, written Ba-ii (:= Hebr. ihs?) 14. 

b{<D baiu to rule = Hebr. "jpn etc. From it we get i-bi-lu, i-pi- 
lu, i-bi-il 3. Ps. Sg. Impft. Kal he ruled, obtained possession of 248, 
4; 326, footn. *: 338, 12; a-bil 1. Ps. Sg. / took possession of 232, 6. 
14. — bi'lu Subst. lord, Hebr. ^^3 (^^3 is in Hebr. a foreign word); 
Stat, constr. bi'l. Ideogr. 124, Col. II. 5; 174; 193, 79 ad fin.; 194, 
96 etc. Written bi-lu 174; Stat, constr. bi'l 174 and passim; bi'l 
kussi one who has a right to the throne 323 (Khorsab. 33 ad init.); 
398, 11; bi'l narkabti charioteer 261, 3; bi'l lisS,ni interpreter 400 
(Eng. ed. p. 91 Notes and Illust.); bil adi' etc. 289, 70; bi'l hitti 
323 (line 4 fr. below Eng. ed.) ; 346, 13. — bi'li' Subst. Plur., written 
bi-i-li-i with Sutf. 174; Ideogr. 91, 54. — bi'ltuv Subst. mistress. 
From this we get Stat, constr. bil it, bi-i-li-it, bl-lit Mb, passim; 176; 
177, passim; 178, passim; 232, 16. — bi'lu tu Subst. dominion, written 
bi'lu-ti-(ja) (Gen.) 193, 79; 286. — bi-lu-ti-(ja) 288, 36; 301, 18; 
338, 17 etc.; with Suff. 3. Ps. bi-lut-su 398, 9. — tab-bi-lu-tu 
Subst. dominion, government 345, 10. — Bi'lu name of the god Bel, 
Ideogr. 123; 160; 173, bis; 174, passim; 177, ad fin. — Bi'ltu, Bi'lit 
name of the goddess Beltis, written Bi'-Iit 178. Ideogr. 175. — Bi'l- 


a b u-u-a proper name 150, footn. — Bi'1-imur-a-ni proper name 314, 
and footn. *. — Bi'l-ibus proper name Belibus , written Bi'l-ibuS, 
Bil-ibu-us, Bi'l-i-bu-u§ 176 and footn.*; 346, 14 (Bi'l-ibni; see 349 
Notes and Illust.). — Bi'l-lu-da-ri proper name 166. — Bil^ar-usur 
proper name Belshazzar ~i^{<ti''?2 176; 433 and footn.**; 434, 24. — 
Ba-'-lu(li), Tyr. proper name = "ji/^ 170 and footn.**; 173; 355, 1. 
Ba-'-al-ha-nu-nu Pboen. proper name i. e. ?jnSyD ^05. — Ba-'-al- 
ja-su-pu Phoen. proper name i. e. Kanaanite nD^^l?3 105. — Ba-'-al- 
ma-lu-ku Phoen. proper name i. e. Kanaanite "l^obyD 105. — (m §, t) 
(§ad?) Ba-'-li-sa-bu(pu)-na name of a country or mountain 154; 
220, 27. — (§ad) Ba-'-li-r a-si name of a mountain ^ Hebr. 'hyz 
tJ^jvl 210, 60; 211 (Notes and Illust.). 
540 1N3 uban Subst. (Stat, constr.) thumb, then summit, comp. Hebr. 
"02^ ^i**^- (•'4?'- Ideogr. 209, 45; 211 (Notes and Illust.). 

DJO Ba-'-sa Ammonite royal name Baasha = Hebr. Xt^'^S 141 

(Gen. XIX. 38); 189; 194, 95. 

e - 
33 b 4 b u door , gate-way comp. Arab. >*jLj, Ai-am. {<33 ; written 

• * T T 

ba-a-bu Syll. 365. Ideogr. 129; 455, 12. 

•^33 (for ^{^"33) (ir) Babilu (B§,bilu?) name of the town ^oi^/Zon 
= Hebr. '?33, written Ba-bi-lu, Ba-bi-i-lu, BS,b-ilu etc. (seep. 128) 
11 (footn.); ^128; 247, 1; 276; 278; 335 (I Rawl. 48 No. 5.3); 363,2. 
6; 480, B.C. 812 etc. — (ir) Babilai Gentile adj. Babylonian, writ- 
ten Babila-ai 128 (footnote ***). — (m^t) Bftb-ilu land of Babel, 
Babylonia 129. — (ir) B§.b-dur name of a town, properly ^ra^e-wa?/ o/ 
the fortress 129. — (i r) Bab-sa-li-mi-ti name of a town 370, 30. 

T(1)D (m&t) Ba-a-zu name of a country, comp. Hebr. ]!)3 141 (Gen. 
XXII. 21). 

^^3 comp. Hebr. (TjO) Tli33 (Arab. viJb). — a-bu-ka 1. Ps. Sg. 
Impft. Kal I carried away 374, 26 ; 375 (Notes and Illust.). 

7Q bul Subst, probably to be connected with ^3^ = produce, pro- 
duction, also applied to animals, written bu-ul 17, 4. 

^HD bi t-hal-lu (la) Subst. horsemen, cavalry 194, 101; 195. 

inD see -ino- 

)D3 (i?) butnu name of the plant Pistacio, comp. Hebr. J^3 (Gen. 

43, 11), Ar. qI3J. Written bu-ut-nu Asurn. Stand-Inscr. 18; his 
Obelisk inscr. I R. 28 col. II, 15; Sargon's Khors. 159 etc. 

n^3 bitu Subst. house, Hebr. f)i3, Arab. c^aJ etc. — Bit-ZI.DA 


name of a Babylonian building 123; 363, 4. — Bit(l')-P ar-r a name 
of a temple 280. — Bit-Sag-ga-tu (I'-sag-ila) name of a temple 122; 
363, 3. — B it-rid u-[u-]ti' name of a palace 335, 8. — (m&t) Bit- 
A-di-ni name of the country Hi^Tl^? l'^; 327 bis. — {mki) Bit- 
Am-ma-na(nu) name of the country Ammon, I'i'Q^, see below JDN- — 
(ir) Bit-Da-kan(gan)-na name of the town Beih-Ddgbn 167; Josh. 
XV. 41 ; 289, 65. — (ir) Bit-zi-it-ti name of a town = n^m^S 288, 
39. — (m§.t) Bit-Hu-um-ri-i name of a country Omriland, see ilj^pl- 
— (m&t) Bit-Ja-ki-ni, Bit-Ja-kin name of a country Ja^irt's^ajid (in 
Babylonia) 247, 3; 350, 50; 351, 59. — (mat) Bit-Ku-ba-ti v, name 
of a country 426, 25. — (m§,t) Bit-Sa-'-al-li name of a country 234, 
25. — (mS,t) Bit-Si-la-a-ui name of a country 232, 8; 234, 25. 

1D2 (§ad) Bi-ik-ni name of a mountain 247, 3. 

"133 comp. Tj-na, «i)^lj, Q^YII- — lit-tib-ka-ru 3. Ps. PI. Volunt. 541 
Ifte. (from a quadril. "]33X^) '"^^V '^^2/ ^'es« 373 (footnote ** 35). 

nbs (n4r) Ba-li-hi name of a river Bellas., Belich ^jJLJI 134. 

^•^3 baiatu to live, u-bal-lit 3. Sing. masc. Imperf. Pael he pre- 
sented alive esp. in proper names Ramm &n-u-bal-lit Bammdn preserved 
alive 472 (Can. Ill B. C. 786). Sometimes abbreviated to ball it as 
in Sin-ballit (Hebr. t0^2iD) ^^d Nabii-bal-lit-an-ni 382 (Neh. II. 
10). — baiatu Subst. life. Stat, constr. bal-[lat] 195, 100. — b a- 
lat Asurb. Cyl. Rass. IV, 95 (see under tJ-'DJ)- — baltiitu Subst. the 
being alive, life with Suff. bal-tu-us-su-nu them . . . alive 261, 7; 
289, 81; 302, 25. — bul-lu-tu Inf. Pa. summoning to life 26, 16. — 
Baiat-su-usu r or BalSta-Su-usur proper name Belteshazzar, Hebr. 
"1JJNtj'lD^2 429. 

■^0^3 Ba-la-su, Ba-la-si-i Babyl. proper name ^e^es^s Biktavq 2ZA, 
26; 236, Notes and Illust. 

J^^3 biltu, Stat, constr. bilat, see under ^3^. 

DiD3 1^0 Bu-ma-mi name of a town 220, 30. 

1J3 banu build, Hebr. p)J3, Arab. ^aJ, Aram. }.1c. — ab-ni 1. Ps. 
Sg. Impft. Kal I built 97. — ib-nu-u 3. Ps. Sg. and PI. masc. Impft. 
Kal he made 26, 15; they made 17, 1. — ba-ni Part. PI. doing, making 
289, col. Ill 6. — ib-ba-nu-u 3. Ps. PI. Impft. Nif. they were made 2, 
9. — ba-nu-u-(a) Part, or Subst. creator, producer 174; 326 (footnote); 
333, 8; 337, 6; ba-ni-(ja) 413. — bin-bin Subst. (comp. Hebr. n etc.) 
son's son, grandson 46. — bintu Subst. Fem. (comp. Hebr. ^3 etc.) 
daughter 46; Stat, constr. banat(?) 179; Plur. banlti Ideogr. 289, 60; 
291,38; 302, 32. — binfiti &\xh^t. production. Stat, constr. bi-nu-ut 
235, 28. — nab-nitu Subst. sprout. Gen. nab-ni-ti 175, ad Jin. 


p"13S23 (ir) Ba-na-ai-bar-ka name of a Phoen.-Philist. town -^J3 
p-13 167 (Josh. XV. 41); 172; 289, 66. 

•"I^ (m&t) Ba-ri name of a country 277, Botta 75, 4. Or, with 
Delitzsch, are we to take it as an appellative = &§ibut madbari 
'^inhabitant of the desert'''' comp. Khors. 124 : sa-ab si'ri '^people of the 
steppe'''"} — 

X^3 mu-us-ta-bar-ru-u Part. Istafa. creating 413. 

J13 (ir) Bar-ga-a (Mas-ga-a?) name of a town 194, 88. 

^■l"13 Bir-da-ad-da (Smith's Assurb. 271, 106), also written (Var.) 
(Bir-(ilu) Dadda (AN.IM), Syr. proper name = ^^^"'^^ i- «• 
Hebr. inn""]3 148; 206. 

1"1D i-ba-ru-u 3. Ps. Pres. Kal he draws forth 169. 

miD bu-ru-hi Subst. (Gen.) spear, comp. Hebr. n^'Q 209, footn. *; 
bu-ru-ha-ti Plur. 208. 

^|-13 birku Subst. knee, Hebr. Q^3"12, Eth. 'OC^^ Syr. ijoj^, 
comp. Chald. N3!)3*1X- Phon. PI. bir-ki with Suff. 351, 64. 
542 DHD bir-mi Subst. a clothing material = Berom DioilS? — 213, 
19; 216 (footn. ***); 235, 28; 255, 25; 450, Rev. 2. 

iyy2 B u-r a-n u-n u Akkad. river-great {■=■ Euphrates) 34, comp. n*1D- 

PlD"n3 Barsap, Barsip, Barzipav etc. name of a town, Borsippa, 
written Bdr-sap (so read!) 124, Col. I. 27; 278. For the other ways 
of writing the name see 1 24 footn. *. 

p-\2 comp. p-)3, dji, ^-fS, nZ,^', — bir-ku(ki) lightning 
205. — (ilu) Bar-ku (for Ba-ri-ku!) tightener, name of a god 205. 
— (ilu) Bir-ku lightning 206. 


dS (ir) bu-ra-Su name of a plant cypress 2^113, |/o^ 388. 
Ideogr. 388. 

1^3 properly to bind {corap. biritu chain"}). — birtu Subst. wmon. 
Stat, constr. bi-rit between, also in a, ana bi-rit <o or in the neigh- 
bourhood of 486, B. C. 745 c. 

p-|3 bi-ri-tu (= biritu root s-j^? — ) Subst. chain 289, 71; 301, 
23; 371 (399, 5). 

^"13 Burattuv name of the river Euphrates, Hebr. n"lD» Arab. 0)^9. 
Phon. Bu-rat-tuv 34. Ideogr. with phon. complement rat 82, 104; 
156; 193, 82. 

KTnD name of a country (Bit)-Bu-ru-t a-as 83. 

115^3 basfi properly in eo sc. est, then he, it is from ba 4" su comp. 
Eth. £\[, see Assyr. Babyl. Keil. 304; W. Wright in Transs. Soc. 


Bibl. Arch. Ill, 109. — ba-su-u 26, 16. Frequently combined with 
mala = mala-basu so many of them as there were, see under X'^O- 

— u-§ab-su-u 3. Ps. PI. Impf. Shaf. they realized, executed, practised 
289, col. III. 2; 302, 26. 

^^2 baSlu Adj. written ba-a§-lu ripe, comp. Aram. ^^'2- Substan- 
tival 19, 30. 

2jj,'3 to be beautiful, glorious, comp. Hebr. nKQi Aram. ^ojas. — 
u-ba-as-sim 3. Ps. Sg. masc. Impf. Pa. he raised up gloriously 15, 1. 

— u-ba-as-si-mu 3. Ps. Plur. 17, 2. 

pfl3 (THD'' — comp. Hebr. pn3, Arab. i^*S). — ab-t uk (ab-tuk) 
1. Ps. Sg. Impft. Kal. / cut of 290, 24; 302, 29. 
nn2 (niS,t) Bi-ta-a-tiv name of a country 426, 25. 

DW Gi-am-mu proper name 193, 79 his. 

33 gab with ana Prep, opposite, comp. Talm. 33, 133 194, 96; 201. 
(Eng. ed. p. 191); 203; 396, 1; 397 (footn. * 2). 

^3J (ir, rakt) Gu-ub-li name of a town or city Byhlos S3!| 185 ; 543 
355, 8. — (ir) Gu-ub-la-ai Adj. Byblian 185; 252, ad fin.; 257; 288, 
49. — Gu-bal-ai Adj. 157, 86; 185; 207 (Lay. pi. 92. 102 foil.). 

13J Ga-ba-ri proper name 193, 83. 

W2i gi-bis (Stat, constr.) mass, crowd, comp. Arab. |tf^*>- , Hebr. 
]l}'^'2l 209, 42; 398 (150. 1). — gab§u Adj. in a mass, complete. Fem. 
Plur. gab-ga-ti 218, 8; gab-§a-a-ti 323. 

XI3 Gu-ai Adj. the Guaean i. e. one of the land Gu'i or Ku'i (Keil. 
u. Gesch. 121. 236 foil.; 257 foil.) 194, 92. 

JJ Gu-gu, Gu-ug-gu proper name Gyges , Pvytjg (= Hebr. Ji-j?) 
427 (Ezek. XXXVIII. 2). — Ga-gi, Ga-a-gi proper name 427, ibid. 

D^J Gu-si, also Gu-u-si (Asurn. Ill, 77; proper name 193, 83. 

|DTJ (m^t) Gu-zu-um-ma-n i name of a country 345, 7. 11. 

n;i (ir) Gu-za-na name of a town Gozan 275; 480 (B. C. 809); 482 
(B. C. 794); 484 (B. C. 763. 759. 758); 488 C, 6. 

■jnj guhlu Subst. Phon. gu-uh-li 290, 35. 

■jnj Gu-ha-an + DI (Assyr. Guhanu?) 31 (Gen. II. 13). Not im- 
probably = I'jn^I 

^) (ilu) Gu-la name of a deity, the goddess Quia, properly the 
mighty, majestic comp. Akkad. GAL. Phon. 333, 12. 

. . . '^J (Ir) Ga-al-[ad?] name of a town Gile[ad'i] 2bb, 17. 


^^J gullatu Subst. region (Syn. of subtu) comp. Hebr. ^"h^, Th'h^^ 
see Haupt Sumer. Familiengesetze 28 and comp. Asurn. Stand. 4 da- 
a-is gul-lat n&kiri "■treading down the region of the enemy^\ as well 
as the passage cited in 456 ad fin. belonging to the Salmanassar-inscr. ; 
but this meaning is ill-suited to the passage Cyrus Cyl. 34 (above 
p. 373, footn. **). Ought we to assume the existence of two completely 
distinct words? — Comp. below ^3. 

hZ'Ol (avil) Gam-bu-lu name of a tribe 346, 16. 

□JDJ (mat) Gam-gu-ma-ai Adj. he of Gamgum 193, 84; 253; 257. 

boj comp. 'pi3!|, "p^^Ali J^^i liiaJ- ~ gammal Subst. camel, 
phon. gam-raa-lu 194, 94. — gam-mal 397, 3; Plur. gam-mal 
(with sign for Plural) 290, 18; 345, 8; 346, 17. 

"l^J comp. Hebr. IJJJ, Aram. ^V/' — gimru Subst. the total, whole 

2, 4. — Stat, constr. gi-mir 83, adinit.; 174; 234, 24; 332, 18. With 
Suff. gim-ri-(su, sa etc.) Gen. 213, 9. 10; 249 (Eng. ed. p. 241 footn. f). 

— gi-mir-tu (same meaning) 220, 27. 29 {bis). — git-mu-ru (Gen. 
ri) 333, 15. 

"lOj (m^t, avil) Gi-mir-ra-ai Adj. the Kimmerian , comp. Hebr. 

IDi, KiixfxEQLOi 80; 84. 
544 "■' . . 

DIIDNTIDJ (^O Gi-im-tu-As-du-di-im-mu name of a Phoenician 

town, perhaps = Q^lipx Pi (Hal.)? — 166; 398, 8. 

■ ''■ ■ Os . 

P ginfl garden, written gi-nu-u, comp. lij, Ai'ab. iCL>, Aram. 

|Ll^, "Ji^', (Akkad. ga-na) 27 foil. 

NDnjJ Gi-in-di-bu-' proper name Oindibuh 194, 24. 

nj3JJj (mS.t) Gi-nun-bu-un-da name of a country 213, 7. 

"lOi giparu Subst. darkness, gloom, Akkad. in origin; gi-pa-ra 2, 6. 

"TJI GAR.GA, [these readings have been meanwhile shown 
to be incorrect. With Delitzsch, Assyr. Lesest. d^^ ed. p. XVI, read 
§a-ga §a-§u as is shown by the variant to Taylor cyl. col. II 56 §a- 
a-su; comp. Dr. Schrader's note on p. 348 (Eng. ed. Vol. II p. 33). 

— Transl.]. Ideograms of essentially similar meaning viz. property, 
wealth, baggage and also stores, provisions 193, 81 ; 194, 88. 89; 213, 20; 
232, 10. 11; 255, 21; 289, 56; 295. 

10N~lJ (mat) Gar(Sa)-imiri-su name of a country Syria- Damaskus 
138; 202; 213, 15; 262, 15; abbreviated (mUt) Imiri-su 138; 201; 
203; 207, bis; 209, 41; 213, 15. - (m^t) Gar-imiri-§u-ai Adj. Syrian 
252. Comp. under "1DX imiru. 

DDJ"1j (ir> mat) Gar-ga-mis name of the town Karkemish, Hebr. 
K'"'P3"13) written Gar-ga-mis 314 (Eng. ed. Vol. I p. 308 footn. *); 
384, ad fin. ; also Kar-ga-mis 384, ad fin. — (ir, m&t) Gar-ga-mis-ai 


Adj. he of Karkemish 193, 83; 252, ad fin.; 323 (Botta 40. 20). See 
also DOpD under l^- 

i^j conip. i5y>-- — girii Subst. campaign, written gir-ri (Gen.) 
288, 34; 289, 65; 301, 18. 22; 326, footn. *; 332, 19; 350, 52; 398, 
(150. 5). — gi-ri 294 (Notes and Illust.). 

□"IJ (avil) Gu-ru-ma name of a tribe 346, 15. 

^-|Q^j Gir-pa-ru-da (so read!) proper name 193, 84 bis. — Gar- 
pa-ru-un-da the same 197, Notes and Illust. 

-)Ij>jgusuru Subst. beam, comp. _«aO«-, |^ ■«■ ^ — Ideogr. Plur. 

184, ad init. (Targ. and Talm. XIK^^^ (comp. Syr. and Arab.) means 
'bridge' as well as 'beam'. Fried. Delitzsch, Assyr. Lesest. 3^^ ed., 
cites the adject, gasru or gisru fern, gisirtu strong, powerful. — 

nj ga-tu (Babylon.) Subst. hand, comp. Assyr. ka-tu (for the ety- 
mology see Assyr. Babyl. Keil. p. 194) 124. Dual kata 370, 31. 36. 

^njj ^^sf" ^np (inp) Cruti, Kuti(ii) name of a race 137 (=r qi^ 
Gen. XIV, 1?), written Gu-ti-(i), Gu-ti-um, Ku-ti-i 370, 34; 425 
(Ezek. XXIII. 23). 

"J 545 

"lt<T (lO Du-'-ru name of a town Dor -\^% TJ?j 168 (Josh. XVII. 1 1). 

2T (ir) Du-ba (Gub-ba?) name of a town 232, 4. 

D31 id-bu-ub 3. Ps. Impft. Kal he plotted, devised plans 151 (Gen. 
XXX VI I. 2). — da-bi-ib Part. Stat, constr. 398, 11. — da-bab Subst. 
stat. constr. plan 151. 

1DDT dup-sar-ru, dip-sar tablet-writer, Hebraized as "IDOIO ^^4, 
Exod. V. 6; 413; 424. — Compounded of Akkad. dup, dip tablet and 
Akkad. sar (sar) write and then Semitized by the vocalic ending. — 
— dup-sar-ru-t u Subst. the inscribing of tablets [II R. 27, 27 (so 
read!)] 424; Gen. dup-sar-r u-ti (II R. 60, 34 e) 413. 

'■]2f du-bu-ri-(su-nu) Subst. — ?— 195, 100. 

-)3T mad-ba-ri(?) Subst. Gen. (?) desert, Hebr. 121P 277, footn.**. 
So Del. Comp. below "^3. 

7^1 dagalu to behold, comp. Hebr. ^2r\ flag, banner (at which one 
gazes Del.). — da-gil Part. (Stat, constr.) beholding 370, 31. — u-sad- 
gi-la, u-sad-gil 1. Ps. Impft. Shaf. I caused to look (at me), made 
submissive, subject to me 261, 8; 351, 65; 353, 41. 

n'?n ("^r) Di-ig-lat, see n'?J"lN- 

Pl (ilu) Da-gan-ni (sic!) name of a god, Dagon; Hebr. 'fyy:\ 181, 
comp. pn. 


^■J Da-ad-da, equivalent of (ilu) IM = Rammdnu, comp. ^nn, 
Syr. name of the god Hadad (Sm. Assurb. 271, 106) 454. — Keil. und 
Gesch. 538 foil. 

~nXn (ilii) Dad-'-id-ri, also Dad-id-ri = "nNlT i. e. "nyilH 
Syr. proper name Hadadezer = Hebr. -||{;q-|n HO, footn. *: 200: 201 
passim; 202; 203, ad ink. Comp. m"13. 

^Nn Da-di-i-lu proper name of a prince of Kaski (= ^{"{"T^l 
"Hadad is god", comp. Dad-'-idri "nK'nCn) i* ? — ) 253. 

W^ Du-u-zi, Du-'-u-zi 1) name of the deity Tammva, Hebr. tlSH "^25 
(from Akkad. d (i "son" and z i "life") ; — 2) name of the month Tavi- 
muz 380; comp. also ]Q^. 

n")T comp. Hebr. HDl- "" a-duk 1. Ps. Impft. Kal I slew 209 foot- 
note *; 234, 23. 24; 289, col, HI. 2; 302, 26. — i-du-uk, i-duk 3. Ps. 
Impf. Kal he slew 184. — i-du-ku 3. Ps. Plur. they slew 193, 80. — 
diktu Subst. warrior, combatant, military force. Written di-ik-tav 
(Nom.) 486, B.C. 743; di-ik-ta (Ace.) 234, 23. — diku, Fem. dikit 
Adj. killed. Written di-kit 486, B. C. 743. — t i-du-ku (pronounce 
tidaku) the same 488 C. 10. Plur. ti-du-ki 194, 98; 201, ad fin.; 
209, 49. j^ 

\'y\1 (pt3n) (ilu) Dav-ki-na name of a ^oA- Daukina, Javxrj 12, 
also footn. f. 
546 Til <i ^ r Subst rampart, then a place or fortress surrounded with 
a rampart. Comp. Hebr. "ji^ circuit, Arab. .tO. Ideogr. PI., 
written dura-ni 288, 41; 346, 12; or duri 290, 13; 302, 28. — (ir) 
Duru name of a town Ideogr. 430, comp. i^Ti^ Dan. Ill, 1. — (ir) 


Dfir-ku-ri-gal-zi name of a town 231, 4. — (ir) Dur-Sarrukin 
name of a town Sargonsfort 101, passim; 389, 157; 405 (B. C. 707 
and footn. ***); 488 C, 7. 

n*7 di-hi, di-ih Subst. Stat, constr. properly contact, proximity, then 
Prep, near to 83; 234, 24. Koot and etymology? — dah-hi Subst. 
the same 346, 14. 

m (mat) D u-u h-a name of a country Ducha 83. 

«"j Dajan-Asur proper name 193, 78. 

^^'^ comp. t^fn, tS^^T, u*'*^ , *-^'- ~ a-di-is 1. Ps. Sg. Impft. Kal 
I trod down 232, 11; 456, ad fin. — da-ai-as-tu(ti) treading down, 
threshing 232, 11. 

■•DT id-ka, id-ka-a 3. Ps. Sg. Impft. Kal he called together, summoned 
209, 44; 350, 55. — ad-ki, ad-ki-i 1. Ps. Sg. Impft. Kal I summoned 
203, ad init.; 323; 354, 11. — id-ku-ni 3. Ps. Plur. they summoned 203. 
— The root is rather ])p% see Delitzsch, Ass. Lesest. 3''^ ed. p. 139. 


pT (ilu) Dakan name of the goA Bagon, Hebr. pjT^. Phon. Da- 
kan(gan) 160 (Deut. XXXII. 10); 181; 411; see also p^' 

^3"] Dak-ku(i-)-ri Babyl. proper name, after which a land (mSt) 
Bit-Dak kurri was named 234, 26; 236 (237). 

PI^St (ilu) I)il-hat name of a deity Dilbat /je^.scpar 178; 389, ad init. 

^^T da-la-ni Suhst. Plur. pitchers, jugs, comp. Hebr. i^r|, Arab. 

Oo- ' '' 

Jo 208 (insc. and footn. ff). 

fl'p^ da-al-tuv Subst. folding door, root ^^"j comp. Hebr. hSt 
II Rawl. 23, 1. 20 c. d. 

D1DT Da-mu-u-si(su) Cypr. proper name, perhaps Z^amj/sws z/«/^rcJ05 
355, 20. 

^Q"l Du-mu-zi, original form of the name Du-u-zi or Du-'-u-zi 
= TliSFl V E. 23, 21 c (du = dumu) see 425, Ezek. VIII. 14, comp. 
above under yy^. 

IDT (avil) Da-mu-nu name of a tribe 346, 15. 

DJ3T Da-raa-su Cypr. proper name Damasus Jdf/aoog 355, 18. 

pi3T [dam&ku to be exalted; to be kind, gracious. — mudammik 
Pael partic. treating with favour e. g. in proper names Bi'1-mudammik 
'Bel treats with favour' 471, Can. I B. C. 870 &c. — Transl.] — damku 
(danku) Adj. exalted, favoiorably disposed, also faithful, devoted. Ideogr. 
39, bis. Plur. damkuti Ideogr. 290, 31; 302, 31. — dunku Stat, constr- 
dumuk Subst. power, reputation; written dun-ki (Gen.) 373 (footn.** 35). 

p^lDl (ir, mat) Dimas k i(ka), also Dimmaska, name of the town 547 

Damaskus, Hebr. pJt'JS^, Arab. ^JiJi^fi^. Phon. Di-ma-as-ki etc. 138; 

209, 54; 213, 16, 21 etc.; — 482, B. C. 773; 486, B. C. 733. 732. 

J^T Dun-gi(?) Babyl. name of a king 94; 129. 

"IJ^T Dingirra Subst. Akkad. God, written Dingir-ra; so for 
example in the name of Babylon KA-AN. RA = Ka-Dingir-ra; from 
which comes Dingirri Subst. Akk. goddess, written Dingir-ri 95. 

n^T du-un-ki see under poT- 

P~I u-dan-ni-nu 3. Pers. Plur. Impft. Kal they strengthened 218, 10. 
— dun-uu-un Inf. Pa. defence 290, 32. — da-na-an Subst. stat. constr. 
power 326, footn.*; 399, 3. — dan-nu(ni) Adj. strong, powerful 184, 
63. 64. 65; 212, 1; 332, 21. — dannftti Plur. Ideogr. 194, 96. Phon. 
dan-nu-ti 288, 41; 290, 13; 302, 28; 452, 68. — dan-natu Subst. 
strong place, castle. With Suff. dan-na-su-nu (for dan-nat-su-nu) 
385, ad fin. — dannfitu Subst. j)ower, strength, written dan-nu-tu(ti) 
85; 152, ad init.; 209, 46. 

n^pl (nar) Diklat, see under n'^JTX- 



7)7)11 comp. T>'0'^i iJJO, r?<J><J>I- — u-dak-ki-ku(ik) 3. Ps. Sg. 
Impft. Pa. 1 crushed 232, 8; 247, 2. 

J"n comp. Arab. -»• jO- — da-ra-gu Subst. (mounting) path, then 
way in general = Hebr. T]")^ 401 (Notes and Illust.). — du-ur-gi 
Subst. Plur. loays Tigl. Pil. I col. IV, 56. 


D^T disbu Subst. honey, comp. Hebr. ^^t] , Arab. (j*JO , Syr. 
{.▲£9. Written di-is-pa 426. 


^ u Conj. and, Hebr. 1, Arab. _j etc. 123, ad init.; 124, col. H, 1 ; 
374, 25. 28 (serves to connect nouns). 

^2) comp. Hebr. (^2^) '^^Diri) Aram. \Vo| (also Arab. Jo^). — 
u-bil, u-bil-lu 3. Ps. Sg. Impft. Kal he carried away, removed 207, 
ad fin; 458, footn. 49. — ub-la (for ubila) 1. Ps. I brought 193, 81. 

— u-bi-lu-ni 3. Ps. Plur. 301, 20. — u-bi-lu-num-ma the same with 
Cop. 369, footn. ad init. — u-si-bi-lam-ma 1. Ps. Sg. Shaf. with Cop. 
I caused to be brought 291, 40; 302, 32. — biltu, Stat, constr.' bilat 
Subst. offering, then tribute (see p. 215 footn. *), also talent, comp. 
Hebr. "i^2 377. — bil-ti (so read!) (Gen.) 154 (Exod. IX. 7); 398, 6. 

548— bi-lat Stat, constr. 115, footn. **; 232, 15; 277, 5. Ideogr. 213, 
18. 19 bis; 272, ad init.; 288, 45; 290, 27; 302, 30.— bi-la-a-ti Plur. 
payments (in money), espec. payment of soldiers 290, 33 (302, 31). 

^Tl comp. (D^P;, l5^3, HT- — i-<iu(?) 1. Ps. Sg. Impft. Kal I 
threio 194, 89. [Read with Dr. Craig, Hebraica July 1887 (confirmed 
by Pinches), ad-di / lay, set (fire to etc.); see under mi- — Transl.]. 

— a-di-(i) Subst. Plur. (?) (Gen.) agreements, comp. Hebr. HTIH 289, 
70; 301, 23; 369, 28 (literally '^who did not keep my agreements"). 

1^ ahu Subst. side, bamk, Arab, c^^^ ^^^^ prepositionally at, by. 
Written a-lii, also a-ah, 220, 31; 232, 6; 350, 58; 354, 12; 374, 28; 
480, B. C. 802; 486, B. C. 731. — a-hat the same 201. 

-|^^ comp. Arab. 0^1^ , Eth. Q) Ar^ ', ' Hebr. i^i , Aram, ^'s, — 
Perf. '-al-du (3. Ps. PI.) they are born 389, 156. — aiidu Part. act. 
Kal, aiidtu Fern, giving birth to, with Sufl'. a-lid-ti-ja 175, ad fin. — 
mu-al-li-da-at Part. Pa. in the Stat, constr. producing, mother 2, 4. — 
ta-lid-tu Subst. birth 176, ad init. 

^^T u-lil-lu 1. Ps. Impft. Kal 1 summoned to battle, comp. Arab. 
^^3^, Aram. ^^S^), Hebr. ('^'pi) ^^)^'r\ 157, 85. 

*i2^231 comp. Hebr. ]i'yQ- — at-tu-mu§ 1. Ps. Sg. Impft. Ifte. / left, 


took my departure 193, 78. 81; 194, 86. 87. 89 [construed usually 

with istu, (>©efl*kmaHjt--sstkb--4M?#et-^a«c»9atwe. — Transl.]. trr tLu^ l.^-cZ^ ^S-Lz^ 

I1D1 u-sah I carried away 156, doubtful in origin, perhaps Impft. V. '^'^-^•*,'^; ^.i 
Kal of the root nOl) ^ collateral form of nD> 

X^T comp. Eth. (D/^Al' Hebr. x^i , Aram, j^^ (Impft. u-si-a, 
US-si, see Salm. Monol. 11, 66; Sargon Botta 151, no. 10, line 114, comp. 
above 151 footnote *), go out, arise (of the sun). — asu Part. Kal. 
Ideogr. Sg. 178; 179, ad init. — asu Subst. exit 455, 5. PI. written a-si-i 
290, 22. — u-si-sa-a(am-ma) 1. Ps. 8g. Impft. Shaf. / carried forth or 
away 194, 89; 290, 9. 19; 302, 27; 345, 10; 346, 13 etc. — us-si-si 
(from us-si-si ^ uSisi comp. Assyr.-Babyl. Keil. 203 footn.) 459 (footn. 
p. 163 Eng. ed.). — a-si-su-num-ma 3. Ps. Plur. Impft. Shaf. with ma 
450, Rev. 4. — situ Inf., then Subst. comp. Hebr. HNii; ^^at. constr. 
si-it 1) sprout 335, 9; 434, 26; 2) rising (of the sun) 140 (Gen. XIX. 
23); 184, 69; 374, 32; 455 (Ps. XIX. 7). — sus^ Subst. sprout, Ethiop. 
^^^^ ■ , Hebr. QINiiNJi ! su-sa-a 2, 6. — musii, Plur. musi', 
written mu-si-i Subst., comp. Hebr. {^JilQ, outjioio, ca/)ial 124, 32. 

"lp"| comp. .iSj, -)p"», I r, . — ak-ru Adj. precious = Hebr. ^ni; — 
450; Rev. 1. — a-kar-tu Adj. fem. 345, 9. 

f^lT u-ra-a 1. Ps. Impft. Kal I removed, carried away 232, 12; 255, 
28. — With Suff. u-ra-a§-su, [u-ra]-as-su-nu 255,30; 289,61; 301,21. 

1"^ comp. Arab. O,^, Eth. (DZ,J^',, Hebr. IT. — [ur]-du (so 549 
read!) 3. Ps. Sg. Impft. Kal he descended, tcent down 338, 7 (for the 
form urdu see Tigl. Pil. I, col. I, 69; III, 71 (ur-du-ni). — at-ta- 
rad (so read!) 1. Ps. Impft. Ifte. 1 marched doivn 82, 105. — at-rad 
the same contracted 202. — ridu, ridu Subst. servant, apprentice, PI. 
ri-[du-]u-ti 335, 8 {ad fin.). — ri-du-ut Subst. (st. const.) subjection 
358, 41. — ardu Subst. servant. Ideogr. (in the Plur.) 338, 16; 370, 
31. — ardutu Subst. obedience, submission. Phon. ar-du-ti (Ace!) 
213, 18. Ideogr. with phon. complement ardu-u-ti 353, 36. 

fT^^ arhu, Stat, constr. arab, Subst. month, CDC!'^«' H®^^- ^~l^ 
jlj,!*. Phon. ar-hu 380; a-ra-ah 380. Ideogr. 47; 124, 8; 193, 78; 
333, 11; Plur. 15, 4. 

nrw arku ^-ahst. what is subsequent, comp. ^ ,*i, ^^i, DDT) D^DD"!^- 

Stat, constr. arak Ideogr. 153 (Gen. XLIX. 1). — arki(ka) Prep. 
after. Ideogr. 79, ad init.; 81, footn. **; 209, 53; 291, 40; 450, 73. 
— ar-ku(ka) Adv. behind 135, ad init.; 207, ad fin. — ark ft Adj. 
later. Written arku-u (Ideogr. with phon. complem.) 392. — ar-ka- 
nu Adv. subsequently. Ideogr. with phon. complem. 333, 20. — ma- 



ak-ru(? — for ma-ar-ku? — ) Subst. that which is subsequent {!) 381, 
and footn. **. 

t^y\ comp. O,^, G)i^l*l ', tt'T', 2|-i. — marSitu Subst. posses- 
sion, property, comp. Hebr. ni^liO- Pbon. Gen. mar-§i-ti 261, 10; 276. 

T T 

2W^ comp. (Arab. >_aS») Hebr. 3^1, Aram. ^£)£u. — u-sib 3. Ps. 
Impft. Kal he placed himself sat, abode 287, II, 2; 452, 67. — u-si-sib 3. 
and l.Ps.Sg. Sbaf. he for I) established, or assigned abodes 208, ad init.; 
273, 3; 276; 286 etc.; also in the sense oi changed 351, 61. — u-gi-§i-ib 
the same 373, footn.** 34; 374, 33. — it-tu-sib 3. Ps. Sg. Ifte. he set 
himself 333, ad init.; [477 (B. C. 705 III)]; 478 (B. C. 681); 486 (B. C. 
745). — a-sib Partic. Stat constr. dioelling 272, ad init.; 273, 1; 458, 
footn. * 48. — a-si-bat ditto Fem. 175. — a-si-bu-ut Plur. msc. stat. 
constr. 83; 277, 4; also a-si*)-bu-ti 180. — sub at Subst. dwelling, 
written su-ba-at (Stat, constr.) 123, ad init.; 373, footn. ** 34; 455, 4. 

— mu-sab Subst. abode Stat, constr. 335, 7; 455, 4 (Var. see footn. **). 

— as-ba Kal 3 fem. sing, (or plur.) Permansive they dwell ^bb, 9. 

33} Za-bi-bi-i name of an Arabian queen ^ '».f.j^\ 253; 414 (Jer. 

XXV. 24). 
550 /DT z aba In honour, esteem highly, comp. Hebr. ^3} (149, Gen. XXX. 
20). — u-sa-az-bil 1. (3.) Ps. Impft. Shaf. / or he caused to be esteemed 
highly (?) 219. 17. — Bit-zabal name of a temple: house of exaltation 
185 (1 Kings VIII. 13). 

TIT (tit) comp. Hebr. |^}. — ta-zi-iz 3. Ps. Fem. Sg. she raised 332, 
23. — us-zi-iz 3. Ps. Sg. Impft. Shaf. of the Pael he caused to come 
forth 15, 2. 4; 124, 11. 

-|i| comp. Arab. .IJ, Hebr. "I^J **). — i-zi-ru 3. Ps. Plur. Impf. Kal 
they despised, rejected 398, 11. — zi-ra-a-ti Subst. Plur. Fem. summons 
to rebellion 398. 8. 

* So we should read with Oppert against his own published text. 
The half-obliterated phonogram is to be completed into the sign for si. 
** To regard these and similar roots as those with a middle X = 
-|{i{7, with Lotz, Die Insch. Tigl. Pil. I p. 182, because the Part. act. 
Kal is formed in S-'i e. g. zS,-'i-ru, da-'i-Ju (root Jj'^l) ^t^. , appears 
to me extremely questionable. Probably the truth is that the forma- 
tion dai§ is the regular and original one, out of which the collateral 
one kjinu etc. arises by contraction, just as asbu from asibu. 


II zukku Subst. cell (Del.). Plur. zuk-ki 389, 157. Comp. 390, 
footn. *. 

"131 comp. Hebr. -13|. — 1) zak-rat 3. Ps. Fern. Perf. Kal she 
named 2, 2. — zuk-kii-ru 3. Ps. PI. Perf. Kal they named 2, 8. — 
iz-zak-kar (for iz-ta-kar) Ifteal Impft. 3. Ps. Sing. masc. (for fern.) 
he [she] announced, addressed 455, 13. — za-kur Adj. mentioned, re- 
ported {'i) 460, footn. — zikru Subst. name, invocation, Stat, constr. 
zi-kir 153 (Gen. XLIX. 1); 247, 3; 397 (footn. * 2). — 2) u-za-ak- 
ki-ru 3. Ps. Plur. Impft. Pa. they raised, comp. Syr. ]jj> 124 (col.I. 29). 

"l^f zikuratu suvimit. Stat, constr. zi-ku-ra-at 124 (col. I. 27). 
Should we comp. jj^?? — Haupt in his Glossary gives a form zikku- 
ratu summit under a root "ipj zakaru to be high. 

")3y comp. Hebr. I^T, Arab. So, Aram. I^r] {ram), lij?- — 
zikaru Adj. male, manly. Phon. zi-ka-ru 17, Gen. I. 27; Fem. zi- 
ka-rat 179. We find also zik-ru (Var. zi-kar) 17, Gen. I. 27; 346, 
17. Ideogr. 290, 17. 

^^1 iz-lal 3. Ps. Impft. Kal lie became ruined, destroyed, comp. Arab.jJ, 
Hebr. ^Sj 97. 

" T 

[riDT zamu shut in or shut out. — zu-um-mu-u (so read) Pael 
Infin. (?) shutting out = devoid of 455, 7. — Transl.] 

Vy\ comp. Eth. J-J^^^^ [zanknvi to rain. — usazniu Shaf. Imperf. 
1 Sing. 1 caused to rain phonet. u-sa-az-nin (so read with Dr. Craig 
confii-med by Mr. Pinches in a letter to me) instead of u-sa-as-su-u in 
Salmanassar's monolith col. II 98. Vol. I p. 185. — Transl.]. — zunnu 
Subst. rain, Eth. "J^^f^^ ' (Hebr. □-)!?). Ideogr. 47; phon. zu-un- 
nuv 124, col. II. 1. 

P) za-nin Part. (Stat, constr.) preserver, keeper, perhaps protector, 
comp. Hebr. pj^. It may, however, be objected to the latter significa- 
tion , that, as is shown by the Subst. zi-in-na-a-ti East. Ind. House 
Ipso. I, 12 the first radical is not Ji but ]. — 213, 3; 363, 3 and 
Notes and Illust. 

pj zu-ku-ut Subst. Stat, constr. ladle, comp. Hebr. T)T)], p^^ , pJi^E-, 
208 (Eng. ed. p. 199 and footn. ***). 

npl comp. p|p|, ■ q nv — zakipu Subst. pointed stake, comp. {.a^ai 

Moreover, we should expect under these circumstances, e. g. in the 
Imperf., to meet with the orthography with modified i in the middle 
syllable ^= i-zi-i-ru, which is not exhibited either in this case, or, so 
far as my observation extends, in the other roots of this class. 


crux. Written za-ki-pu(pi) 232, 10; 379 and footn. ** ; Plur. za-ki- 
pa-a-ni 261, 8. 

^r)] zi-ki-kis Adv. — ?— 247, 2. 

XIT comp. Hebr. y^^, Arab. c.yS etc. — zi'ru Hebr. seed yi| etc. 
Wi-itten zi-i-ru 364 (Eng. ed. p. 51 footn.). Ideogr. 350, 57. — za-ru- 
(su-un) Part. act. begetting, begetter 2, 3; stands as j;")| for z^riu, as 
as-bu Descent of 1st. obv. 9 for ^gibu; comp. Assyr.-Bab. Keil. 889. — 
Zir-b^ni-tuv(ti) name of a deity properly she who bestoios seed 175; 
232, 15; 282. — Zar-pa-ni-tuv the same 19, 28; 175; 282. 

DiDIT (n^DIT) Zirbanitu, Zarpanituv, see {^-jj. 

-)-|| za-rar(?)-ti Subst. throwing qf{?) 221, 31; 398, 11. Reading 
not certain. 

]T\t (^0 Zi-ta-a-nu name of a city 220, 30. 


T3n (n^r) Ha-bur name of a river Chdbbr Ti^Hi \y^^ ^'^ ^^^ 
footn. **. 

niDn ih-ta-nab-ba-ta 3. Ps. Sg, Impft. Iftana. he carried away (as 
booty). Sm. Assurb. 258, 113. — ih-ta-nab-ba-tu the same 3. Ps. 
PI. ibid. 79, 9 etc. (see 375, Notes and Illustr.). — hu-bu-ut Subst. 
Stat, constr. carrying-off, spoil 374, 31. 

"I^n (^•vil) Ha-ga-ra-nu name of a tribe 346, 16. 

i^n comp. nnri' !»-»»• — ha-di§ Adv. joyous 345, 9. 

T T f 

"m-j hirtu, hirtuv Subst. tuife. Written hi-ir-tu 414, Notes and 
Illust.; Stat, constr. hi-rat 177; also hi-ir-ti 175; Plur. hirati, writ- 
ten hi-ra-ti with Suff. 389, 156. 

|-)^p (m§.t, ir) Ha-u-r a-(a-)ni, Ha-u-ri-na, name of a mountain or 
country Hauran pip 210, 55: 428 (Ezek. XLVII. 16). 

jpl (mSt) Ha-zu (so read!) name of a country 220, 28. — Ortho- 
graphy and presumable position show that the country is distinct from 
the lin mentioned below. 

^{<|)-j Ha-za-'-ilu Syriac and Syro-Arabic prop, name, Hazael, Hebr. 
i?N(n)Tn 148; 207; also Ha-za-ilu 207 ad fin.; 208. 

•);p) (mfit) Ha-zu-u name of a country, comp. Hebr. "i^pi 141, Gen. 

xxn. 21. 

Tin 0^) Ha-za-zi name of a town Amz ;lic 480, B. C. 805. Comp. 
Keil. u. Gesch. 217 footn. **. 
552 inVTH H a-za-ki-ja-u, also Ha-za-ki-a-u proper name S?zKa (Heze- 
kiahj, ^n'pTn 161 (Josh. X. 1); 189; 285 (2 Kings XVIII. 1); 286, ad 
Jin.; 290, 11. 29; 301, 23; 302, 27. 30. 


p^n (ir, also mat) Ha-zi-ti, Ha-az-zu-tu, Ha-(az)-za-at-(tu), name 

of a town Gaza HIV > ^j^ ^^^j ^^ init.; 161, ad fin.; 162, acZ Mn"<.; 
255, 20; 290, 26; 302, 30; 355, 5; 396, 1; 397, 2. — Ha-za-at-ai Adj. 
man of Gaza 257, ad fin. — Ha-az-za-at-ta-ai the same 255, 20. 

NtOn comp Hebr. xt^rii ^^^ etc. — hi-it-tu(ti) Subst. «m, /m</i- 

re«oZ< 289, col. III. 6 (Ace); 802, 25 (Ace); hi-it-ti (Gen.) 
220, 31; 323; 346, 13. — hititu Subst. the same. Written hi-ti-ti 
289 col. III. 6; 434, 30. 

lion hu-tar-tii Subst. staff, comp. Hebr. "Itiri) Syr. |i_^a- 208, 5 
(2 Ki. IX. 2); 209, footn. fff. 

pp) Ha-ja-ni proper name 193, 83. 

n^n (avil) Ha-ja-pa-a name of an Arab, tribe Chajapd, Hebr. mD^J^ 
146, Gen. XXV. 4: 277, bis, comp. Keil. u. Gesch. 263, 17. — (ir) 
Ha-ai-ap-pa-ai Adj. the inhabitant of Chajapd, comp. Keil. u. Gesch. 
261, 8. 

psii comp. Hebr. p^Hi Arab, vjj^-^ — i-hi-ku-u 3. Ps. Plur. Impft. 
Kal they embraced 2, 5. 

□"I^n Hi-ru-um-mu Syrian proper name Hiram, Hebr. Qll^n, DI^H 
170, ad init.; 252, ad fin. 

3^p tahlubu Subst. roofing, written ta-ah-lu-bu 127, footn. *. — 
tahluptu Subst. the same written ta-ah-lu-up-tu (Gen. ti) 124, col. 
11. 3. 9. 

p'?n (mat) Hi-il-bu-nuv , also Hul(Hil? *)-bu-nu v , name of a 
country Helbbn y\'20'r\ ^26, passim. 

n'^n (ii") Ha-lah-hu name of a town Chalach (n'?n') 275 ad fin. 

"I'jp (m^t) Hi-la k-ku(ki) proper name Cilicia (inscr. "J^n) ^^) ^^** 

Vchn (^O Hal-man name of a town 1) Holwdn imUJ^ 197, Notes 
and Illust. — 2) Haleb v_>^.Jb* 194, 86. 87 (Keil. u. Gesch. 229**). 

ri'pn comp. Hebr. n^H » v_aA.3». — hi-it-lu-pa-tuv Subst. change- 
garment, dress 153 (Gen. XLV. 22). Comp. nD^Sri- — na-ah-lap-tuv 
the same 153 (Gen. XLV. 22). — D. G. Lyon in his Cylinderinschr. 
Sargons 11, Lpz. 1882, p. 14 derives these words from the root 3~in 
to cover. 

v>^pl halsu Subst. /briress , bulwark, rampart, castle, PI. hal-sU553 
(with sign for plurality) 290, 21; 302, 29. 

*) The sign hul probably also possesses the phonetic value hil. 


pSn- Ace. to Haupt its fundamental meaning is to flee, escape (?). — 
ah-li-ik / divided {'i) 195, 100. — lu-hal-li-ku 3. Ps. PI. Prec. Pa. 
may they destroy 459, footu. 3. 

nSn bul-tuv Subst. liuiiishment, revenge, of obscure origin, perhaps 
Akkadian (HUL = limnu!) 398, 8. 

NDH bimitu Subst. cream, Hebr. HNDn ^'^^• 

lOn (i^) Ha-mi-di-i name of a town Amid-Didrbekr (?) 106, foot- 
note **. Comp. above "JJ^X- 

DOn ba-ma-mi Subst. Plm-. Ideogr. lights 124 (col. I. 27); 125 
{Notes and Illust). 

IJSn (sad) Ha-ma-nu name of a mountain Amanus 388, footn. *. 

DIDPI Ha-am-mu-ra-bi proper name 427. 

^ItSn Hu-um-ri-i Israelite proper name Omri, Hebr. l"}Oy 188 (1 Ki. 
XII. 19); 189 (1 Ki. XVI. 23); 190, passim; 208 (2 Ki. IX. 2); 210, 
65. — mat (Bit) Hu-um-ri-i(i-a) name of a country Omriland, 
Samaria 150, ad fin.; 188; 189 (1 Ki. XVI. 23); 191, passim; 213, 12; 
255, 17. 26; 277, ad init. 

IIDH (^•vil) Ha-am-ra-(a)-nu name of a tribe 346, 16. 

ntsn (^'') ™ ^t) Ha-ma-(at)-ti , Ila-am-ma-t i, Ha-am-m a-at-ti, 
name of a town or country Eamdth, Hebr. nOH '0^' (I'd fin.; 106; 
220, 31. — See under PDN- — (^i") Ha-am-ma-ta-ai Adj. Hamathite 
253, ad init. ; 257. 

DDn (^'') Ha-ma-a-tav Hammoth-Dor (?) "IJv^ niiSH ^'^2 (Josh. 
XXI. 32), 

non i^^') Hu-mut name of a town 232, 6. 

jpl (sad) Ha-na name of a mountain 388, footn. *. 

pQ^j^p (?) (m&t) Ha-ni-gal-mit (pronunciation dubious), name of 
a country region in South-Eastern Cappadocia 332, 18. 

"n^n (avil) Hi-in-da-ru name of a tribe 346, 16. 

pp Ha-nu-nu, Ha-a-nu-(u)-nu, Philist. proper name Hanno, Hebr. 
|!)in 162; 255, 19; 257, ad fin.; 396, 1; 397, 2. 

Diin (^0 Hi-ni-in-si name of a town Chdnes (Heracleopolis), Egypt. 
Hachnensu, Hebr. DJp]- 410 (Is. XXX. 4). 

" T 

"imn (™^t) Har-har name of a country 213, 6. 

iryn (^'^■) Har-ra-na(ni name of a town Harran 134, Gen. XI. 31. 

pp barrSnu Subst. way, see below T^H- 

D^DpDin (^^') Har-sak-ka-la-ma '^summit of the ivorld" name of a 
city Gharsalckalama 232, 16; 346, 13. 

nin harpu Subst. autumn, Hebr. F|~fn, written ha-ar-pu 53 (Eng. 
ed. p. 54 footn. *). 


Scin har-pa-lu(?) Subst. — ?— 195, 99; 198 (Notes and Illust.). 

w-ii"] har4su (hui-asn?), comp. Hebr. V^-|n- ^"^^st- ^'oZd, written 554 
hu-ra-su 134, ad fin. Ideogr. 193, 84. Plur. Ideogr. 157, 87. 

-lip ha r-ra-nu (ni), ha-ra-nu, Subst. ira?/, campavjn (comp. Ethiop. 
|i\^;?) 218, 2; 350, 50; 399, 4; 452, 69. — For the signific. see 
401, Notes and Illust. 

■^J^-^p hursu Subst. wood., forest, Hebr. ti'~l"n' — hur-sa-ni Plur. 83. 

iD^n (') Hu-iim(rik)-na-ai Adj the Chusimnaean (?) 253. 

J^ll (m^t) Hat-ti, Ha-at-ti(ti) , Ha-at-ti-i, Ha-ti-i, name of the 
country Chattiland or land of the Hittites 107; 115, footn. **; 117; 
201; 202; 213, 11; 262; 276; 288, col. IT. 34; 301, 18; 323 (Botta 40, 
20) (here Ha-at-ti-i); 354, 11; 374, 27 (read Hat-ti); 398, 11 etc. — 
(mat) Ha-at-ta-ai Adj. Chattaean 107; 156; 193, 85. 

]nn ta-ta-nu Subst. son-in-law. Hebr. ipp 140 (Gen. XIX. 14); 
Stat, constr. ha-tau 140 (Gen. XIX. 14). 

~iinn (™^t) also ir) Ha-ta-rik-ka , Ha-ta-ri-ka, Ha-ta-rak-ka 
name of a country Hadrach "Ijlin 220, 28; 453 (Zech. IX. 1); 482, 
B. C. 772; 484, B. C. 765. 755. 

nnn comp. Hebr. flDri' — ha-at-tav Subst. terror 399, 3. 

HDtD Ti-bi-tuv, Ti-bi-i-tav name of a month Tebeth HjIO 380. 

3113 comp. ^IL> (F. i.), 3"i{3, v_sa^, — u-tib-bu 3. Ps. Plur. Sg. 
Impf. Pa. they made good {he made good 'i) 213, 2. — t^bu good, from 
which comes the Adv. ta-bi§ 389, 157. — ti-ib (Subst. constr.) the 
good, best 455, (Ps. II. 12). — tu-ub Subst. good, gladness, joy 373, 34. 

T153 comp. 0,h, y^, — ta-rid Part. (Stat, constr.) repulsing 352, 32. 

,o , 

ri-jj^ (is) tarpi' name of the tree Tamarisk, Arab. ?L5,Jo, written tar- 
pi-' Asurn. Stand. Inscr. 18 in connection with (i,s) butni |J^3 (see 
]132)- Comp. Berl. Monatsberr. 1881 p. 419. 

t<i (mat) J a-' name of a country Jah 86. 

X1J<i Ja-u-a Israel, proper name .Jehti, Hebr. ^fp^^ 189 (1 Ki. XVI. 
23); 208 (2 Ki. IX. 2); 210, 64. 

INSIN"" Ja-u-bi-'-di Syr. proper name 23; 106, ad fin.; 323, Botta 
145. 2, 9. 

T)}{1 (m4t, ir) Jaudu name of the country Juda, Hebr. rn^H''' 


Phon. Ja-u-du(di) 188 (1 Ki. XIV. 21); 189; 218, 4; 286, ad Jin.; 
555 355, 2. — (m&t) Ja-u-da-ai Adj. Jevnsh , Judaean, Jew 188 (1 Ki. 
XIV. 21); 189 passim; 218, 3; 257, ad Jin; 289, 72; 290, 12; 301, 23; 
302, 27. 

TH^N^ Ja-u-ha-zi Jewish proper name Joachaz [= Ahaz (Achaz)], 
Hebr. THNIm'' '88 (1 Ki. XIV. 21); 257, ad Jin. 

DniN^ Ja-u-ta-' (= U-ai-ti-'?) Kedarene royal name 148, ad init. 
(Keil. u. Gesch. 54); 208. 

X^N^ Ja-'-lu-', also Ja-'-lu-u, proper name 25, footn *; 208, adinit., 
contracted from Ja-u-i-lu = ^XV^ — 

T13^ (ir) Ja-ab-ru-du name of a town 183, footn. *. 

■^i idu Subst., comp. Arab. vAj, Ethiop. /^.P* J, Hebr. "^i, Samarit. 
^^, Aram. ]f^], properly hand, then arm (f), lastly strength, power; 

from which we have id^i Du. and idi Plur. Ideogi-. 194, 96; 201 (Eng. 
ed. p. 191); 202. Phon. with suffix ai = i-da-ai 332, 23; Ideogr. 
with phon. complement 398, 150, 4. 

{<^> comp. Eth. (/i.)^J^U I' Hebr. y-ji, Aram. ■^j^. — i-du-(u) 

3. Ps. Sg. Impft. Kal he kneiv, was acquainted ivith 277, 4; 398, 12. — 
mu-du-u Subst. knowledge = J^TlJi comp. y^^Q. — Respecting a-di-i 
Subst. recognition, submission, see under ^T). 

p^^ (avil) Ja-dak-ku name of a tribe 346, 15. 

fn> (ir) Ja-da(ta)-bi name of a town 220, 29. 

3P u-si-zi-bu 3. Ps. Sg. Impft. Shaf. he rescued, Aram. ^V't', 
.^lOA. 353, 34. — su-zu-ub Inf. Shaf. Stat, constr. 203 {msc. ad Jin.) ; 

209, 52; 261, 6. 


□V umu, Hebr. □"ji day, Arab. |»j.j etc. Ideogr. 19, 28. 29; 53 
(Eng. ed. p. 54 footn. *); Stat, constr. 19, 28; 124, 8; written u-um 
124, 31. — fimi or iimi', Plur. Ideogr. 2, 13; 153 (Gen. LXIX. 1). 
Ideogr. with phon. complement 82; 153 (Gen. XLIX. 1); 157, 84 
(written UD.mi) etc. — Ina iimi'(mi)-su-ma = in his i. e. those 
days, then {happened this or that) 201 (Layard pi. 90. 59); 203, adinit. 
— immu (pronounce imu!) Subst. ditto, written im-mu 53 (Eng. ed. 
p. 54 footn. *). — im-ma Adv. ever, comp. (Haupt) Syr. ).SnSD.«| 277, 
(Botta 75. 4). 

ni (m&t, ir) Javanu name of a country Greece, written Ja-a-va-nu 
81. Ja-va-nu 81, ad Jin. — (m&t) Ja-av-na-ai Adj. Greek, Ionian 
81; 169. 


P^ Ja-ki-ni, Ja-kin Babylon, proper name 235, 26; 350, 50; 351, 
59. Comp. also above under pi^. 

l'?JD^ Ja-ki-in-lu-u Arvado-Phoenic. proper name 25, footu. *; 105, 
ad init.; 355, 9 (Asurbanipal). 

IQi ira-nu comp. ppi, .-y^.J etc. Adj. and Adv. on the right, also 
right (moral.), on the right hand side 123; 135 (Gen. XIII. 9); 363, 
Notes and Illust. 

mi Ja-ma-ni Ashdodite proper name 398 (149. 11, 150. 5). 556 

NS"" = l;D^ see ^r^]^}. 

ID^ (ir) Ja-(ap-)pu-u name of the city Joppa, 'jQs 172 (Josh. XIX. 
46); 289, 66. 

{ij"l> comp. f^-^^. — i-rim-ma 3. Ps. Sg. Impft. Kal with Cop. he 


feared 397, 2. 

{<'^l (n§,r) Ja-ru-'-u name of the river Nile, Hebr. "iji^i, Kopt. J^po 
J^pCU 152, ad init. 

~)~]i (sad) Ja-ra-ku name of a mountain {= "the green mountain" 
comp. n"li green?) 220, 29. 

^1 ja-a-si, intensive pers. Pron. /, of me etc. 152, ad Jin. A similar 
intensive pronoun is fi^ = jati. Comp. also Assyr.-Bab. Keil. 253 foil. 
See also under ^1X- 

^1 isu properly Subst. being, comp. Hebr. \^h, Aram it^j, then as a 
Vb. he is, or he has ; in the latter case the verb is construed with the 
accusat. (like basfi, ib§u) 159 (Deut. XVI. 10). Phon. i-§u-u 290, 14; 
302, 28. Ideogr. with phon. complement 159 (Deut. XVI. 10). — 
i-sa-a ditto 374, 24. 

"lONH^ It-'-am-a-ra proper name Jathd amir, Himj. HOJ^yn^ 146, ad 
init.; 397, 3; 404, footn. *. 

]Dm (m^t) Ja-at-na-na name of a country Cyprus 86 (Gen. X. 4). 
See also IJPX Atnana. 

DXD kiSm Adv. accordingly, comp. Hebr. ^Q 140, Gen. XVII. 17. 
33 (mS.t) Kib name of a country 213, 6. 

333 comp. ^_^, YlOn. I' I ^^^ — ka-ba-bi Subst. PI. shields 
261, 5. 

n3- ik-bu-ud 3. Ps. Impft. Kal it was obstinate [their heart — • 
comp. Hebr. 133'] 154, Exod. IX. 7 bis; 323; 398, 7. — ka-bid-tu(tav) 
Adj. Fem. heavy, rich 288, 56; 291, 37; 301, 19; 345, 9; 346, 9. — 


kab-ta (for kabd-ta?) Adj. (Fem.?) ditto 139, Gen. XV. 5. — Should 
■we with Lotz assume a root HDD ^ — 

ODD comp. Hebr. D33 , also the allied form . a o>, ^ as well as the 

• T 

Arab. ^jh^jS . — ak-bu-us 1. Ps. Sg. Impft. Kal I trod down, subjugated, 
V Rawl. 4, 103. — ka-bi-is Part. Kal treading dovm, subjugating 83. 

— §uk-bu-us Inf. Pa. (Stat, coustr.) defeat 290, 15. 

"I3D kib-ra-a-ti, also written kib-rat, Subst. Plur. fem. tracts, 
regions, countries, comp. Hebr. m^J 213, 4; 247, 1; 377, ad fin. 
Ideogr. UB.DA II R. 35. 39. 40. 

N^IDD (avil) Kib-ri-i name of a tribe 346, 15. 

Go - 
^^^ li'DD kablu Subst. lamb, ji'ns, (ji^^^, j»^ii£. Plur. kab-§i-i 

193. 82. 

nSD (mat) Bit-Ku-ba-tiv see pi^. 

p3 comp. Ethiop. Ylr^? ."• — ik-ta-din 3. Ps. Sg. Impft. Ifte. he 
ivas concealed, disappeared 459, footu. 4. 

TI3 Ku-du-ur-Ma-bu-uk(ug) proper name of a Babylon, king 129, 
(Gen. XI. 28); 136. — Ku-du-ur-(La-ga-mar) assumed to be the 
original form of the Hebr. ■ini/^"n3 1^7. — Ku-dur-(ilu)Na-bu-un- 
di, also Kudur-(ilu)Nan-hu-un-di, name of an Elamite king 136. 

biD see ^SD- 

P^ comp. Hebr. |)|3, prri' Arab. .-.LS', "OJ \ (Aram, "as etc.). — 
u-kin (pronounce ukiu) 1. and 3. Ps. Sg. Impft. Pa. I or he set, placed 
or laid 213, 14; 232, 15; 288, 46; 301, 19 etc. — ki-i-nu(nuY) Adj. 
fi.rm, faithful 363, Notes and lllust.; 369, 28; also ki-i-nuv 413, 33; 
414, Notes and lllust. — ki-nis Adv. 389, 156. — mikittu Subst. sub- 
structure {'i) (for mikintu). Ace. mi-ki-it-ta-(sa) 124, col. II. 11; 127 
{Notes and lllust.). — na-kan-tu Subst. treasure-chamber C^) 193, 81. 

— Ukin-zi'r proper name Xiy'C,tji>oc, XirL,iQoq 234. 23. 

D^3 Kusu name of a country Aethiopia, or Upper- Aegypt , Hebr. 
tJ-'IS) Egypt. Kes, written Ku-u-su(si) 86 (Gen. X. 6); 205, footn. *; 
326, footn. *; also Ku-su(si) 86 (Gen. X. 6); 335 (I Rawl. 48 no. 5. 
5); 338, 10; 387. Comp. also under ]^^y 

Y'l'j a-ku-us (so read!) 1. Ps. Impft. Kal I drew off (sc. the skin) 323, 
ad fin. For the sibilant comp. the variants in Asurn. I, 110: a-ku-su 
(0pp.). Probably y)p, V^p a^re etymologically connected; in respect of the 
change of meaning we should perhaps compare Ethiop. {Xl'fl.Alfl) • 
Cf^yj^ ' he drew off' (properly slaughtered) from him his hide. 

^^3 Kiisu name of a country Aethiopia or Upiper- Aegypt, Hebr. 
1^13, Egypt. Kes 86 (Gen. X. 6). Comp. above ^'Q- 

DID ("•) Kuti, see ^HD- 


13 ki CoDJ. as = Hebr. 3. Written ki 255, 23; 276 (translate : 
according to the non-agreement of ivill of the gods i. e. against the will of 
the gods). — ki-i ^n just as comp. Hebr. -i^<X3 21^, 6; 219, 24; 273, 4. 

|V2 Ka-ai-va-nu, name of the planet Saturn, Hebr. IVD > Aram. 

Jjo-il, Arab, j-jij.-^^ (Am. V, 26) 443. 

VJ (VO') (i^at) Ka-i-za(?)-ai Adj. Kaizaean{?) 157, 86. 

□^3 (kimu) kimtu Sahst family. Written ki-im-ti (Gen.) 301, 20. 
[Fried. Delitzsch prefers to connect with this Assyrian word the Hebr. 
nD^3 (the Hebr. and Aramaic name for Pleiades in Amos V. 8, Job 

IX. 9, XXX Vni. 31) instead of combining the latter with the Arabic 

M^ 'heap'; see his 'Heb. Lang, and Assyrian Research' p. 69 and 

comp. also below under Q^ Assyr. kummu. — Transl.]. 

C^n Ki-i-su Cypr. proper name Kisu 355, 15. grg 

1^3 kiru Subst. of doubtful etymology 48, footn. ff : (ana) ki- 

i-ri. By the contrasted phrase : ana libbi we are led to infer the 

meaning "■inner side''\ comp. Gen. VI. 14 : V^nOI n"*3D- Haupt 

(under "l^p) understands the word to mean a covering of pitch, comp. 

Aramaic | : ^^ 

-]2 kakku (for karku, root -|-13 , comp. Aram. "]~13?). — Subst. 

weapon (properly equipment?), comp. Hebr. and Aram, nil^f)- Ideogr. 

Plur. 193, 79; 194, 96; 195, 99; 201 ad fin.; 202, footn. f (277, 

foot. t). 

nn ki-ku Subst., some kind of receptacle 350, 55; 352. 

O - o - 

DDD kakkabu Subst. star, Hebr. '2'2'Q, Arab. \.^ y^ etc. Ideogr. 
Plur. 15, 2. 4; 139 (Gen. XV. 5). — ka-ak-ka-bi-is Adv. like stars 
139 (Eng. ed. p. 125 footn. *). 

jJ^br Kul-unu-KI name of a Babylonian town, perhaps Kalneh 
no'PD Am. VI. 2, or nj'jS Gen. X. 10 (also ^^^3 Is. X. 9?) 96; 444. 

"1^3 (mat) Kal-du(di) Subst. Chaldaea , Hebr. Qi^ifS > Greek 
XccXdaiot 115, footn. **; 131, bis; 232, 14; 346, 12; 369, 29; 480, 
B. C. 813. — (avil) Kal-du gent, name Chaldaean 133; 346, 13 

jiSd (lO Kalhu name of a town, Kalah, Hebr. nSS) written Kal- 
hu(ha, hi) 97; 482, B. C 798. 772; 486, B. C. 744. 

t)^3 comp. ^^2, J-i', 'Cs, YIAA."- - u-sak-li-il, u-sak-lil 
1. Ps. Sg. Impft. Shaf / completed, comp. Aram. 'Ji'^J^jJ,' , V V'^ a. 


335, 10. — kalu (kala, kali) Subst. entirety, comp. ^3, ^ etc. 
(Haupt sub voce assumes a root ^13). Phon. ka-Ii (Gen., also Nom. 
and Ace. with SuflF.) 154 (Exod. XXI. 8); 184, 68; 288, 55; 301, 19; 
354, 12; 374, 28. — ka-la with following Gen. 191 (1 Kings XVI. 23). 
— Ideogr. 178, ad init.; 232, 5. — ka-la-ma Pron. indef. what, who- 
ever, of all kinds. Ideogr. with phonetic complem. ma 235, 28. — 
kul-la-tu Subst. entirety 247, 2; 373, footnote ** 34. Comp. however 
under ^^J. — ki-lal-lu Subst. totality 220, 28.— mu-kal Subst. total 
315 (root 'J^T?). 

□^j ka-la-ma Subst. world, earth 413. Comp. the kalama of the 
preceding article. 

P3 Kulunu name of a town, written Kul-unu, see IX^D- 

□3 (?) kummu Subst. mass, chief portion, written ku-um-mu 124, 
(Col. II. 4). The word is probably connected with kimtu family. 

□3 ki-ma, comp. Hebr. )^2 ^t^- — Prep, or Conj. just as 124, 15 a. 
15c; 169. Ideogr. 139 (Gen. XV. 5); 195, 98 etc. — ki-ma sa just 
as 124, 15 c. Comp. above under '3. 

i]303 Ka-am-bu-zi-ja, also Kam-bu-zi-ja Pers. proper name = 
Kambuj'ija 373 (footn. ** 35). 

102 ak-mu 1. Ps. Sg. Impft. Kal burnt down 323 (Eng. ed. Vol. II. 

p. 7, 5 lines fr. below). 

559 nOD (m&t, ir) Kum-mu-hi, Ku-muh-hi name of a land or city 

Kommagene 323 (Botta 40, 20); 405 (footn. *). — (ir, mat) Ku- 

(um-)mu-ha-ai, Ku-muh-ai Adj. he of K. 193, 83; 252, 50; 257, 57. 

D1JDDD K am-m u-su-na-ad-b i Moab. proper name Kamosnadab 
D13DDD = DlJti^DD C'*') "'^ init.); 288, 53. Comp. the Hebr. tt^lQ^ 
Chembsh and Hebr. 3"7^ ou the one hand, and the name "][j]"^tDD ^^ 

- T 

the stone of Mesha line 1 on the other. [But Smeud and Socin in 
their recent work 'Die Inschrift des Konigs Mesa' (1886) read the 
name as 'h'Q'^'Q^ Chemosh-melech. — Transl.] — Ka-(ma?)-as(?)- 
hal-ta(?) Moab. proper name 141 (Gen. XIX. 37). 

P|^-jjn Ku-un-da-as-pi proper name 193, 83. 

-]J3 kunukku Subst. seal. Ideogr. 155 (Exod. XXVIII. 19): 459, 
footn. 4; 460, footn. Derivation obscure. 

N^^3D (^^') Ki-na-li-a name of a town 249, footn. ff 11. 

nj3 kappu Subst. wing, comp. r]33 , ^Xf, }.ais, ^Q^^^T — 
Plur. kap-pi 383, ad Jin. 

^2D (= Hebr. j;33?) ik-nu-su 3. Ps. Sg. and Plur. Impft. Kal he 
(they) submitted 288, 43; 289, 59. 68; 301, 20. — u-sak-ui-§a(§u), 
also u-§ak-nis 1. and 3. Ps. Impft. Shaf. / (or he) subjugated 184, 70. 


— u-sik-ni-su ditto 213, 5. — u-sik-nis ditto 213, 14; 232, 13. — 
kit-nu-su 3. Ps. PI. Perf. Ifte. they had submitted Tayl. Cyl. Ill, 70. 

— mu-§ak-nis Part. Shaf. 188, ad Jin. — kan-§u Adj. submissive 
346, 16. 

^33 (= Aram. ^'^"2, Hebr. QJ^) kissatu Subst. entirety, host. 
Phon. Stat, constr. kis-sat, ki-is-sa-at 10; 413.— Ideogr. 184, 63. 64. 
65; 212, 1. 

NDD kussu Subst. throne, comp. {<D3, |..*jfl?aa , i5"**j^' ^^rd of 

Akkadian origin (386, Is. VI. 1). Ideogr. 208, ad ink.; 213, 3; 286, 
ad fin. etc. etc. Ideogr. PI. 290, 36. — On the length of the final a, 
see Syll. II K. 46, 50" : ku-us-su-u. 

30^ kasbu Subst. double-league, Akkadian in origin, written kas- 
bu 204 (1 Kings XX, 26). 

"IDD (^1'' mat) Kas-ki name of a country or race Kash 83, ad init. 

— (ir, mat) Kas-ka-ai Adj. the Kaslaean 253. Regarding the name 
comp. the Greek Ko/.yoi, Ko).xi<?- 

l'?DD Ki-si-li-vu, Ki-is-li-vu name of the month Kislev, Hebr. I'^DD 

nD3 kaspu comp. Hebr. r|p3, Syr. ].sJO.s silver (134, Gen. XIII. . 
2), written ka-as-pu. Ideogr. 142, ad init.; 193, 84. Plur. Ideogr. 
157, 87. 

P|3 kap-pi, see Pjj^. 

XD2(?) ik-ti-pa 3. Ps. Sg. Impf. Ift. bound, ruled {?) 16 (and also 560 
footn. **). 

"IDD kupru , kupur Subst. bitumen, asphalt. Hebr. "1PJ3. Phon. 
ku-up-ru 48 (footn. ff); 121 (sub "lon)- 

13 kar-ru Subst. 482, B. C. 788. Perhaps we ought to read 

a> 6 5- ^ ^ 

kar-ru signifying cold, frost -jn, 'i, »,i, jjaa, 4^C •■ 

13 (ir) Kar-ba-ui-ti name of a town 175, footn. *. — (ir) Kar- 
Asur, name of a town 232, 7. — (mat) Kar-du-ni-as, Kar-dun-ja-as 
42 (footn. *); 232, 14; 345, 6; 458, footn.; Kar-du-ni-§i 460, footn.; 
also (mat) Kar-du 459, footn. 2. — (ir) Kar-Sul-ma-nu-asaridu 
name of a town 193, 81. — (ir) Kar-Sarrukin, new name bestowed 
on Karkar, Khors. 63, 61. — (ir) Kar-RammSn (K.-Dadda) name 
of a town 220, 27. — (ir, mat) Kar-ga-mis, more softly pronounced 
Gar-ga-mis, name of a town Karkemish, Hebr. ^^">13313 384 (Is. X. 9). 
See also DDJIJ- 

-13 KUR.RA Ideogr. for the conception East, Assyr. sadu 397, 3. 


9 ^- •» 

\rO comp. Hebr. J?-13 (Syr. j^jj , Arab. cLi'). — kitrd Subst. 
obedience^ submission. Gen. kit-ri-i 289, 64. 

3-|3 kirubu(?) Subst., written ki-ru-bu(?) Cherub, Hebr. 3>|"13 
39, ad fin. 

^-)3 kirfi Subst. plantation. Ideogr. 210, 55; plur. 234, 24; 261, 9. 

"IPD (ir) Kir-za-u(?) name of a city 194, 97. 

i")2 (ir, mat) Ku-ri-i name of a Cyprian town Curium 355, 18. 

□^3 kar-mi Subst. Plur. orchard, vineyard, comp. Hebr. m^ 234, 
25; 351, 61. — Comp. also 448 (Mic. I. 6). 

p3 karanuv Subst. wine, written ka-ra-nav(nu) 426. 

^"13 karasu Subst. baggage, property, comp. Hebr. ^13"1. Written 
ka-ra-si (Ace.) 398 (Botta 150. 2). Ideogr. KI.MAS with suffix = 
kar^s-su (for karas-Su) 345, 7; comp. 348 (Notes and Illust.). 

^■^3 Kuras, also in one place Kurus, Persian proper name Cyrus, 
Hebr. g/ij , Pers. K'ur'us 372 (Ezra I. 1) and footn. * (Eng. ed. 
p. 60); 373, footn. ** 35. 

j^3 (m^t) Kassu gentile adj. the Kassian, written Ka-a§-su-u, Ka- 
as-si-i, also Kas-§i-i 88; 132, ad fin. 

;^3 Kis(KI) name of a town 345, 6; 346, 13. 

■J^3 kasSdu to reach, arrive-at, capture.—- kasSdu gonit. kasadi 
arrival 455, 12. — ak-sud I obtained possession of, I captured 1 Ps. 
Impft. Kal 195, 101; 261, 12; 272, ad init.; 346, 12. 16 [ak-§ud-ud]. 
Ideogr. with phonet. complem. ud 194, 88; 202, bis; 207. — ik-su-du 
3. Ps. Sg. he captured, seized 338, 10; the same with Suflf. ^ ik-su- 
561 su-nu-ti 458, footn. * (III Rawl. 14, 48). — ik-gu-du 3. Ps. Plur. 450, 
74. — ik-su-da (for ik-su-du — 3. Ps. Plur. or Dual?) 289, 82; 345, 
8. — ka-sid Part. Kal conquering, conqueror 91, 58; 184, 66; 213, 
5; 277, ad init.; 486, B. C. 738. 741 ''. Ideogr. with phon. complement 
ti ^ kasid-ti i. e. kisi-ti (for kasi-di) the same 459, footn. 2. — 
ki§ad Subst. bank. Ideogr. 480, B. C. 803. — kisidtu Subst. cap- 
ture, conquest, spoil. Stat, constr. kisidti, written ki-sid-ti 232, 7; 
273, ad fin ; 398, Botta 150, 13. 

"I^D kisudu Subst. neck, more often kisadu = Eth. ^ftf'ljP'I 
83 : ki-su-di in the phrase ka-bi-is ki-§u-di, comp. Asui'n. Stand. 
Inscr. mu-kab-bi-is kisad ai-bi-su "treading on the neck of his 
enemy"; see also the accompanying figured representations on the 
royal relief as well as on the monument of Darius at Behistun. 

-)^3 (Hebr. "1IJ,'3?). — i-ik-§i-ir 1. Ps. Sg. Impft. Kal I set straight, 
set upright, improved 124, col. II. 10. 

IV^D Ki-Sar name of a deity Kiaadgriq 2, 12; I '2, 4. 


f)^>3 (?) (nar) Kas-§a-tu(?) name of a river 193, 79. 

— kissatu, see under ^J^. 

r)^f|^3 Ku-us-ta-a§-pi proper name of a prince of Kummuch 252 
jinning of inscr.); 257 (beg. of inscr.). 

^riD (^1") Ku-ti-i name of a town Kutha, Hebr. (n)niD ^^^ ! ^^^> ^^• 

brO ku-tal-lu Subst. wall, Hebr. bCi'Z > Aram. ^03' J^^H^ ^57 
(Song of Sol. II. 9). 

bbD'D (ii') Kit-la-la name of a town 193, 80. 81. 

DDD comp. ^'XX, (>o£^) {IdZoa. — ik-tu-mu 3. Ps. Sg. Impft. Kal 
he overpoivered (properly he covered) 399, 3. 

IDD ki-tir-ru Subst. Gen. wreath, crown, comp. Hebr. "103 , niri3 
124 (col. II. 13). 

inD ki-[it-]ri Subst. Gen. 397 footn. * 1, a word whose form and 
meaning are uncertain. It is doubtful whether it should be completed 
according to the form kitru because the corresponding Assyr. word 
should probably be read sihru "alliance". 

DinD (^'"> ni^t) Ki-it-ru-si name of a Cyprian town Chytros 355, 14. 


iilb la, also la-a, Adv. not, Hebr. i^b^ Arab. ^ 2, 1. 2; 124, col. I, 
30. 32; 139 (Gen. XV. 5); 159, Deut. XVI. 10. — The particle combines 
with the following substantive to form a kind of compound e, g. la 
libbi 276; la bi'l kussi etc. 

{^^ 1 i-' Ad}, fresh, cheerful, then successful, victorious 169 {not li-ih!). ^g2 

")J^^ la '-a-ri phrase with some such meaning as desert, wilderness 
398 (151, 10. 2). Etymology unknown; but comp. Strassmaier, 
Assyrisches Worterverzeichniss No. 694. 4738. 

^ND^^b (avil) L i-'-ta-(a)-u name of a tribe 232, 12; 346, 16. 

2b libbu Subst. heart, mind, 3'p, v_^j, ].^^, ^'{\l- Phon. li-ib- 
bu 124 (col. II. 5). — lib-ba 154 (Exod. IX. 7) (Norn.!); 289, 73 (ditto). 
Geu. lib-bi 20; 48, footn. ff (Eng. ed. p. 48); with Sufi". 140 (Gen. 
XVII. 17); 272, ad init.; 273, 1; 434, 28 (lib-bu-u§ !). — Ideogr. 154 
(Exod. IX. 7); 175, ad fin.; 272, ad init. (273, ad fin.). — Ace. lib- 
ba(bi) Prep, over, at, to 152 (Gen. XLIII. 28); 398, 150. 10. 1; 458, 
footn. *. With Prepos. a-d i lib-bi as far as 220, 30. — ina lib-(bi) 
Prep, at, in 175; also an Adv. there 193, 86; 210, 62; 374, 33. —lib 
lib great-grandson, descendant 393. 

3^ lub(?) Subst. harem? 291, 38. 39; 300 (Notes and 111.) ; 302, 32. 
— Others think avil LUB and asSati LUB mean men-singers and 



p^ al-bi-in 1. Ps. Sg. Impft. Kal I stamped bricks 121 (Gen. XI. 3). 
— u-§al-bi-na 1. Ps. Sg. Impft. Shaf. I caused bricks to be stamped 
121. — libittu Subst. (air-dried) brick, Syr. ]2i^^, Hebr. Di?^ > 
written li-bit-tu 121 (Gen. XI. 3); li-bi-it-tu(ti) (collect.) 124, col. 
II 2. 4. 9; Stat, constr. libnat 121 (Gen. XI. 8). Plur. libnati 
Ideogr. 121 (Gen. XI. 3). — lib(?)-ban-na-ti (?) Subst. Gen. treading 
down, pressing fiat (?) 290, 16. 

r^ (ilu) La-ban name of a deity (= Laban?) 149 (Gen. 
XXVII. 43). 

]!33^ (§ad) Labnanu proper name Lebanon, Hebr. j'^i^p. Written 
Lab-na-na 157, 84; 183 (1 Kings V. 13); 184, ad init. and 67; 220, 
27; Lab-na-nu 388, footn. *; Lab-na-a-ni 183 (1 Kings V. 13); 184; 
La-ab-na-nuv 183 (1 Kings V. 13). 

"13^ la-bi-ri-im-ma Adv. anciently, formerly 124, col. II. I5a. 

]i;2b comp. I2,'5^, , >nS, g^, A'flAl lab-su 3. Ps. PI. Perf. 

Kal they had put on , were clothed luith 383, ad fin. ; 456 (Notes and 
lUust.). — lubu§tu, lubultu, Subst. apparel, dress. Ideogr. 19. 
Phon. lu-bu-u§-tav II R. 9, 49; lu-bul-ti 213, 19; 235, 28; 255, 25; 
450, Rev. 2. 

nsb u-sa 1-bit 1. Ps. Sg. Impft. Sbaf. I imposed 286, ad fin. 

P^ la-du-nu (with determinat. ideogr. SIM (or RIK) Subst. Lada- 
num. Greek ?,j]davov, Xddavov, Hebr. ^^ 151 (Gen. XXXI. 25). 

T^^ (ir, m&t) Li-di-ir name of a Cyprian town Ledra, AedQa, 
AsSQai {AsSqcov) 355, 21. 

yy lu, lu-u, particle of asseveration, truly, yea, of unknown origin. 
We ought scarcely to connect it with the Ethiop. /^ * , Arab. J 

appearing in voluntative clauses, originally indicating direction — 157, 
84. 85; — 194, 87; 213, 16; 278; 288, 34; 301, 18. 
563 "I^^ (mi,t) Lu-ud-di name of the country Lydia 114. 

^)b comp. ii")^, |a^. — al-vl 1. Ps. Sg. Impft. Kal I besieged 261, 
12; 272, ad init.; 289, 68; 290, 17; 302, 28. — li-vi-ti Subst. boun- 
dary, frontier district 290, 14; 302, 28; 346, 12; 398, 7. 9. 

f^ (ilu) La-az name of a deity 232, 15. 

□pi^ Lah-mu name of a deity 2, 10. — La-ha-mu name of a deity 
2, 10. 

DD^ (ir) La-ki-su name of the town Lakish, Hebr. ti^'iD^? 287, 3. 

^^ Lal-li proper name 193, 83. 

"I^^ (ir) Lal-li(?)-da-ai Adj. he of LallidiJ) 193, 83. 

^^^ Lu-li-i Phoenician proper name Lull, Elulaeus = Phoenic. 


^^l'!5J< ) 'IkovXaioq i. e. "he of the month Elul" (= Assyr. Ululai) 

103 (Gen. X. 15); 286, ad Jin.; 288, 35; 301, 18. 

□^ limu Subst. Archonship. Written li-mu, lim-mu 315; 335, ad 
init.; Gen. li-mi 193, 78. 

p^ limnu Adj. evil, bad. Phon. lim-nu 19, 29; 323. PI. msc. 
lim-nu-ti 323. 

DD^ lamassu Subst. image of the sun-god (?) 39. 

"VDDb lam-ti-i-ri (?) 195, 101. [Dr. Craig: kiraa ti-i-ri. — Tr.] 

i^pb comp. Hebr. npS — il-ku 3. Ps. Sg. Impft. Kal had taken, 
458, footn. * 49. — il-ka-a ditto (histor. pres. ?) he took (these 12 
princes to help him), brought them up 194, 95. — al-ka-a 1. Ps. Sg. 
376, ad Jin. — il-ku-ni 3. Ps. Plur. Impft. they took 458, 48. 

(D)D"1/ Larsa, Larsam(v) name of an ancient Babyl. town, pro- 
bably if not certainly the Biblical ID^N 1^5. Written La-ar-sa and 

T T V 

L a-a r-sa-am(av), followed by KI. 

m^ lisanu Subst. tongue, speech, comp. ]"jJ2.*^, ^1^!:^, ,m'-^) A.'*l'5l- 

Ideogr. (comp. II R. 17, 32 a. b.) 400 (Notes and lUust.). Phon. li-Sa- 
nu Xerxes C, a. 6; C, b. 7. 10 etc. Stat, constr. li-sa-an II R. 17, 
32"; Khors. 161; Plur. 1 i-s a-n a-a-t a Darius O, 16. 


^ ma Conj. 1) connective enclitic particle appended to a word, and. 
Sometimes with adversative meaning 2, 5 ; passim , connects sentences 
together. 2) Emphasizing particle, not infrequently lending stress to 
the following clause which it introduces, like the Hebr. 1 consec. 2, 9 
(here placed after the verb to be emphasized) comp. 2, 3; 82, 105. 

3KD Ma-'-bu, Ma-'-ab, Ma-'-a-ab, Mu-'-a-ba, Ma-'-ba name of a 
country Moab, Hebr. 3ij>jO 140 (Gen. XIX. 37); 257; 355, 4. — [Ma]- 
'-ba-ai Adj. Moabite 288, 53. 

"{H,^ comp. Hebr. 1}^p. — ma'du Adj. much, many. Ideogr. 236,564 
28; ma'-diitu PI. Ideogr. ma-at-tu Fern. Sg. 234, 22. — ma-'-dis Adv. 
much. A-n a ma-'-dis in large numbers 209, 44. — mu'du Subst. crowd, 
Hebr. "iJ^p 18. — (aua) mu-'-di-i 450, Rev. 4. — ni-mi-du powerful, 
exalted 287, 27; 290, 36. — Ni-mi-it-ti-Bil, name of an encircling 
wall of Babylon 185 (1 Kings VII. 21). But see also under IDX- 

D(N)D (mat) Mi-su name of a country 213, 7. 

1ND u-ma-'-ir 3. and 1. Ps. Sg. Impft. Pa. he (or I) despatched, 
summoned 345, 11; 354, 13; 452, 67. 



"IIJD (ii*) Ma-gi(ga)-du-u name of a town Megiddo njD 168 (Josh. 
XVII. 11) ad fin. 

PD (mSt) MS,gan name of a country, written Ma-gan-na, Ma-gan 
89, footn. *; 205 (Eng. ed. 195 footn.); 326, footn. 

"i;)Q im-gur 3. Ps. Sg. Impftc. Kal he is willing, inclined, favourable. 
— su-um-gi-ri Shaf. Impft. Sg. msc. shoio thyself gracious 416, ad fin. 
Comp. the proper name iDi~"lJDD ==^ Sumgir-Nabfi 416. — magiru 
FsLTt. favourable , willing, obedient. Phon. Plur. ma-gi-ri 247, 2. — 
magSru Subst. grace, favour. Ideogr. 19, 28; 124, col. II. 8; 333,12. — 
Im-gur-Bi'l name of an encircling wall of Babylon 185, 1 Ki. VII. 21. 

"nQ (mat) Madai, written Ma-da-ai name of the country Media. 
Hebr. liQ 80; 213, 7. 

• T 

^1Q comp. tJ^IO}^, Arab, ^jt*^^ on the one hand, Arab. tLs**^, Ethiop. 
^Oj*|j"^J on the other. — musu Subst. night, written mu-§u 53 
(Eng. ed. p. 54 footn. *) ; mu-§a Ace. 16. 

n*lD comp. (n^) niD. "^^j ^VA^ , ^'t';. — mu-ta-nu Subst. 
properly death, then mortal disease, pestilence 480, B. C 803; 484, 
B. C. 765. 739 ^ 

PIQ muh-(hi) Akkad., Prepos. imported into Assyr. upon, over 
232, 7. 

J11f3 ma-ha-zu Subst. /or^ress , town, place, comp. Targ. i^nnD ^^■ 
ma-ha-zi 207; 373 (footn. ** 34). 

D^riD (^J") Ma-hal-li-ba name of a town = ^^pli^, HS^H '' ^'^^' 
288, 39. 

n^riD (m&t) Ma-hal-la-ta-ai Adj. Machallataean 157, 86. 

yr\D comp. Hebr. VnD- — am-ha-as, am-has 1. Ps. Sg. Impft. 
Kal I broke to pieces, then struck 396, 2; 397, footn. * 2. — Written 
am-ta-hi-is, also am-t(d) ah-hi-i s 1. Ps. Sg. Impft. Ift. I fought 194, 
97; 198, Notes and lllust.; 201; 203; 209, 47; 289, 79 (am-da-hi-is); 
565 301, 24 (similarly written). — mun-dah-hi-si, [mun]-tahsi properly 
Part. PI. Ift., then Subst. combatants 261, 4; 323 (Eng. ed. Vol. II 
p. 7 line 6 fr. below); 345, 11. — mit-hu-su Inf. Hte. fighting, battle 
290, 16. 

VriD raah-su Adj. bitter, comp. Hebr. VDH* ^^^ under HID mar- 

•^PQ am-hur 1. Ps. Impft. Kal. I received 82, ad fin. (Obelisk-insc. 
109); 157, 87; 193, 86; 194, 87; 207, 102 foil.; 208 (2 Kings IX. 2); 
210, 65; 213, 21 etc. — am-tah-har 1. Ps. Impft. Ifta. I received 82, 
106. — muh-hu-ur Inf. Pa. {hostile) encounter 332, 21. — mahrfi 


Adj. earlier (ancient), written mah-ru-u(ra-a), also ma-ah-ru(ri, ri-i) 
97 (Stand, insc. 14) ; 124, col. I. 28; 272; 289, 62; 301, 21; 326, footn. 
{ad init.); 350, 52. — mahritu the same Fem. Sg. Written mah- 
ri-ti (Gen.) 290, 27; 302, 30. — mah-ru-u-ti the same Plur. msc. 
338, 14. — mah-ri Prep, before, with a-di before, to, unto 289, 57; 
301, 21; 369, footn. adinit.; also ma-har 373, footn. ** 35; also a-na 
ma-har 235, 26; with Suflf. ma-ha-ar-(§u) 287, II. — mi-ih-rit Prep. 
before 232, 10. — tam-ha-ru Subst. (hostile) encounter, struggle 169; 
195, 101 ; 289, 82; 345, 7. 

^^ mi Subst. Plm*. water, corap. Hebr. Qif^ etc. Ideogr. 2, 5. 
Phon. mi-i (Gen.) 124, col. I. 32; mi-i 195, 99. 

I^IQ ma-ai-al, ma-ai-al-tuv Subst. couch J.a^ 216, footn. f. 
TD (pD'') (mat) Ma-i-za (?)-ai Adj. Maizaean(^) 157, 86. 
^3Q mu-kal, see ^^3- 

"n^Q? — ma-ak-ru Adj. — ?— Combined with arhu 380, 13. 
^'Q mflu Subst. high flood (root J^^JO ?). Written (ina) mi-li-(ga) 
193, 82; also (ina) mi-li-(sa) 203, ad init. Comp., however, under 

}^^Q comp. Hebr. J^^Q, Aram. jTlkLo, Arab. Xe, ^Lo. — u-mal-lu-u 

3. Ps. Sg. Impf. Pa. he filled 213, 2. — u-mal-la-a 1. Ps. Sg. 234, 
24. — u-sam-li 1. Ps. Sg. Impft. Shaf. 195, 99. — ma-la Pron. ivho- 
soever, properly Ace. Subst. /wZnesa of . . . . , in connection with ba- 
§u(-u) (q. V.) as many of them as there are or were 232, 13; 345, 10. 
— milu Subst. high flood. See the sections under ^Q and comp. under 
ii^i^. — matlfi, PI. matluti Adj. entire 288, 56 (mat-lu-ti). 

"1^0 (ir, mat) Mi-lid-da-ai Adj. he of Melid i. e. Melitene 253; 

p^^ Miluhhu name of the land Upper- Aegypt or Nubia, written 
Mi-luh-hi, Mi-luh-hi, Mi-luh-hi-i and also Mi-luh-ha 87, ad init. 
(205, footn.); 289, 74, 81; 301, 24; 302, 25; 326, footn.; 370,35; 398, 
(Botta 150, 7; 151, 10, 1). 

n^D (avil) Ma-li-hu name of a tribe 346, 15. 

'h]2 malku Subst. prince, Hebr. TJ^D, Arab. bi5vL«. Phon. ma-lik 

23, footn. **. — mal-ki, ma-li-ki Plur. 23, footn. **; 115, footn. **; 
213, 4; 323 (Botta 40, 20). — ma-li-kat Subst. fem. Stat, constr. 
princess II R. 66, 4. — mal-kut Subst. Stat, constr. rule 213, 1. — 
(ilu) Ma-lik name of the Ae'xij Moloch ("i) 150 (text and footn.*); 155, 
(Lev. XVIII. 1). — Malik-ram-mu name of an Edomite king 150, 
(Eng. ed. p. 136); 288, 54. — Mil-ki-a-sa-pa Phoenico-Bybl. proper 
name 185 (I Kings V. 32); 355, 8. 



□^Q milammu Subst. majesty, splendour. Is it of Akkadian origin? 

— mi-lam-mi (Gen.) 213, 17; 235, 27; 288, 35; 290, 30; 301, 18; 
302, 30 etc. 

WDD mummu Subst. watering, wave (:= ra^mi? — ); written mu- 
um-mu 2, 4. 

"'DD mS'ini Subst. Plur. water, waters, comp. Hebr. IQIQ, written 
ma-a-mi (Var. ma-mi-ja) 116. 

rT'DD mamitu Subst. declaration, oath, see "iQJ^. 

]DD mamma n, see QJ^. 

^1212 (^J") Mi-im-pi, also Mi-im-pi name of the town Memphis, Hebr. 
Vp and rj3, Egypt. Men-neffer, Kopt. JULGJULSe , JULGJULCJI 357 
(2 Ki. XXIII. 29) ; 391 (Is. XIX. 13). 

fliO mannu (manu) interog. pron. ^whoT, comp. yi>A (,.^^), Aram. 
^ — Man-nu-ki-RammSn who is like Ramman'i 478, B. C. 683, 
comp. 429 (Eng. ed. Vol. II p. 126). — Transl] 

yQ ma-na Subst. Mina, Hebr. niD> Arab. Li/e, Aram. ).aJL^, word 
of Sumero-Akkad. origin 143, ad init. 

P (mS,t) Mu-un-na name of a country (= ^3^?) 213, 8. — (m§,t) 
Man-na-ai, Ma-an-na-ai Adj. 423, ad fin.; 480, B. C. 808. 807; Hebr. 
■'JDt Greek Mivvdq. 

)^'{2 comp. niQ> Aram, jiy, Arab. LLo, ^Xa. — am-nu 1. Ps. Sg. 
Impft. Kal I counted 255, 22; 289, col. III. 4; 290, 20; 302, 26. 28; 
345, 10; 398 (Botta 150, 12). — im-nu-u 3. Ps. Sg. and Plur. 247, 2; 
450, Eev. 4. — ma-ni Subst. counting, reckoning (Gen.) 202, bis; 203; 
210, 57; 213, 21 etc. — mi-ni Subst. (Gen.) with same meaning 338, 
11; also mi-ni 450, Rev. 4. — minfitu Subst. reckoning, number Ace. 
(NB!) mi-nu-ta 159 (Deut. XVI, 10) (for the Ace. see under jj,'^ isii). 
Ideogr. (MIS) 159. — ma-na Subst. mina, see under 1^. 

DnJD MI-ni-hi-(im-)mi Menahem, name of a king of Samaria, Hebr. 
DHiP 191 (1 Ki. XVI. 24); 223, ad j^n. ; 252. — Mi-in-bi-ira-mu 
ditto, name of a king of Samsimurun 288, 47; comp. 192. 

D^D manaman, manman, mamman whosoever, any one 235,26. 

— ma-na-ma the same 2, 7. [See above under ^^Q. — Transl.] 
^DiD Mi-na-si-i Jewish proper name Manas seh , Hebr. HtS'iD 1^9 

(1 Kings XIV. 21); 355, 2". — Mi-in-si-i the same 189 (1 Ki'. XIV. 
21); 355, 2^ 
567 HDiJiD (nDTJD'*) (avil) man-sa(za)-as-pa-ui Subst. Plur. a name 
of a person of rank 345, 10. 


Q^ rnis-ta Subst. number'} — Furthei* particulars may be seen about 
this assumed word in 159 (Deut. XVI. 10). 

J^DD (avil) Mas-'-ai, Ma-as-'-ai Adj. he of Mas' a i. e. {^tJ/Q 148, 
ad fin. 

TDD (m^t) Mu-us-ki, Hebr. IV^^ (perhaps we ought to point it 
ng^Q?), Greek name of a people Mbayoi , LXX Moaox, land of the 
Moschi 84. Comp. also under "n^;^- 

"1DD mu-sar-i Subst. PI. lines comp. Akkad. SAR ^ Assyr. sataru 
-113^ 315. 

IPDD (i?) nju-suk-kan-ni name of a tree, palm (name of Akkad. 
origin) 234, 24. 

"12iD i-mi-is-sir? — 195, 100. [Dr. Craig, Hebraica July 1887, 
confirmed by Pinches, reads i-mi-is siri; see "Corrections and Additions" 
to Vol. n. — Transl.] 

liJD misru Subst. region (= Aram. "^Jilp, Syr. ]»^, Arab, ya^ 

bowndaryt). Phon. mi-sir Stat, constr. \\l,adfin.; 220, 32; 255, 18; 
338, 13. 

"IJiD (mat) Musur, Musru name of the country Aegypt, Hebr. 
Ql^j^Q, written Mu-sur, Mu-su-ru(ri) , Mu-us-ri 89, ad init.; 153 
(Exod. I. 11); 158 (Numb. XXXIV. 5); 205, footn.; 247, 4; 255, 20; 
289, 73; 301, 23; 326, footu. *; 335 (I Rawl. 48 No. 5. 4); 387 (Is. 
XI. 11); 396, 1; 397, 3; 398 (150, 6). — (mSt) Mi-sir the same 
(Babylon.) 89; 364, ad init. — (mSt) Mu-su-ra-ai Adj. Aegyptian 289, 
73; 302, 25 (likewise with determ. mSt). — (m§,t) Mu-us-ra-ai Adj. 
probably the same 194, 92. — Comp. Keil. u. Gesch. p. 256. — Mu- 
su-ri Moab. proper name 355, 4. 

DpD comp. Arab, c^'fi/o. — u-sam-kit 1. Ps. Sg. Impft. Shaf. J 
overthrew, destroyed 195, 98; 201, ad fin.; 209, 50; 277, 5. 

J^ID maru Subst. son, comp. Arab. S .^ ; from which is derived 
martuv, Stat, const, marat daughter Ideogr. 46; 97 (footn. *); 179. 
— mi-ra-a-nu Subst. puppy 346, 14 (comp. II R. 6, 13 foil.). 

1"!*1D Maruduk, Marduk name of the deity Merodach , Hebr. 
"Tj^({4)lD- Phon. Ma-ru-du-ku, Mar-duk 422 (passim). Ideogr. 19, 
28; 123, ad init.; 124 (col. II. 5); 373, footn. ** 33; 399, 3; 413, 30. 
He is also called Bilu Bel 174, ad fin.; bi'lu rabu 422. — Marduk- 
abal-iddi-na proper name 235, 26; 339, passim; 345; 350, 51; 353, 
32. — Marduk-a&din-ahi proper name 458, footn. * 49. 

□■^^^Q M a r-1 a-r i m (?) proper name 335, ad init. 


pTilD (pyi*lD) niur-ni-iz(is)-ki Subst PI. horses Abb (Ps. II. 12). 

IDDID (avil) M a r-s i-m a-n i name of an Arab, tribe 277, ad init. 
and Botta 75, 4. 
^^^ nD mar-ru Adj. bitter, Hebr. ")Q, see below niD- 

n'lQ (m&t) Martu (Akkad.) Western land, written Mar-tu 90; 91. 

mD (n^r) marratu Subst. Ocean- stream , name of the Pers. gulf. 
Written (nSr) mar-ra-ti 247, 3. — M^t (n&r) mar-ra-ti land of the 
ocean-stream, name of South-Babylonia, perhaps the □^n"l/0 > ^'^ ^^ 
pronunced □ifilD o* J®""- i^^t 21) 423. — The subst. marratu is 
most probably to be derived with Del. from the root T^Q to be bitter. 
Thus it may have designated the salt maritime stream as the bitter- 
water. With the Assyr. word comp. Syll. II, 17, 36—88" : tabu ^{j 
sweet:, marru '^Q bitter-, mahsu VflD (^= Hebr. V^n) sour. 

i^tS^D comp. Arab. Lamwo. — im-gi 3. Ps. Sg. Impft. Kal he formed a 
low estimate of, forgot, despised 326, footn. — im-ma-su 3. Ps. PI. 
Impft. Nif. they were forgotten, became obsolete Khors. 11. 

"jti'D ruaSku Subst. skin, hide, comp. ).nA^. Phon. ma-sak (Stat, 
constr.) 323. Ideogr. 193, 82. Stat, constr. 290, 36. 

nii'Q (mSt) Mu-u§-ki name of a people, inhabitants of Mushhi = 
"HK'D 84 (and footn.). Comp. also above under TQ^. 

^^D comp. Hebr. ^]l}^, Arab. JJl^ etc. — tansilu Subst. likeness, 
resemblance; tan-§il Stat, constr. just as 15, 2. 

bU'D ma-Sal Subst. (Stat, constr.) ruZe (?) and hence protection {?), 
Hebr. ^t:>0(?) 350, 55. 

- T 

"lli'D u-ma§-§i-ru, u-ma§-sir 3. Ps. Sg. Impft. Pa. he left 152 (Gen. 
XLI. 1); 191, ad Jin.; ; 345, 8; 397 (footn. * ad fin.) ; he set free (to 
live) 266; — u-ma-§i-ru the same 350, 58. — ussuru Inf. Pa., as 
Subst. pardon, amnesty. With Suff. ug-gur-su-un (so read) 266; 290, 
(col. III. 7); (302, 26). 

"intfD (ina) ma§(?)-ta-ki-(gu-nu) Subst. — ?— 373, footn. ** 34. 

f^Q mStuv, m&t Subst. land, Akkad. in origin, has passed into 
Aram, as i^nD> IW*. — Phon. ma-a-tu 202, ad fin.; 452, 67. Ideogr. 
2, 2; 80, passim; 81 and often elsewhere; also 153 (Gen. XLIX. 1) 
(Sing.l); mSt la tairat lamd without return 455, 1; 456, Notes and 
lUust. — Plur. m^tati Ideogr. 174; 175, 3; 273, and frequently. 

^DD ™^* Matai, written Ma-ta-ai, name of a land and people 80, 
ad fin. 

jnD Ma-ta-an-ba-'-al , also [Ma]-ta-an-bi-'-il proper name of an 


Arvadite = Matanba'al, Phoen. |?J?3inD Muthnmballes 104, ad fin.; 
257; 355, 9". — Ma-ti-nu-ba-'-H the same 104, ad fin.; 173; 194, 93. 

— Mi-ti-in-ti Philist. proper name Mitinti, comp. rT^JnD '^2, ad fin. 
166; 257; 261, 12; 288, 51; 355, 6"; also Mi-ti-in-ti 355, 6^ — Mi- 
i-ti-in-na Tyrian proper name comp. Mytton, Mutton, Metten etc. 169,569 
ad fin. — Mi-tu(?)-na proper name 261, 14. 

{^^ (i r) N i-' name of the city Nb{-Ambn), Thebes, Hebr. j^^^, Aegypt. 
We, Ni 152, ad init.; 450, 72. 73; 452, 68. 

-]j^^ comp. Jc^. — it-ta-'-id 3. Ps. Sg. Impft. Ifte. held in honour 
333, 9. — n a-a-d u Part, (for n&'du from n^'idu) exalted 413, 32. 

— na-'-id Part. Stat, constr. exalted 411 (Is. XLI. 25). — nS.dutu 
Subst. exaltation, majesty (Hpi). Ideogr. 323. — Na-'-id-Mar-duk 
proper name 353, 35. 

Df<:, see □-)> 

"^j^J nftru Subst. river. Hebr. "nni* Arab. .g.j. Ideogr. 31 (Gen. 
II. 13); 82, 104; 486, B. C. 745'. Also occurs often as determinative 

^Ni (niS,t) Na-i-ri name of a country 91, 60. 61. — (m&t) Na-'-ri 
the same 213, 9. 

J^Di comp. t^3i, Ui, s-.^(4). i't')iC\Pl - ua-bu-u 3. Ps. PL 
Perf. Kal they have named (Subj. the plur. samamu) 2, 1. — i-nam- 
bu 3. Ps. Sg. Pres. (for i-nab-bu) he announces 153 (Gen. XLIX. 1). 

— ab-bi 1. Ps. Sg. Impft. Kal I called, named, 232, 7. — nam-bu-u 
3. Ps. PI. Perf. Pa. they proclaimed aloud 332, 25. — at-ta-bi 1. Ps. 
Sg. Impft. Ifte. I named 374, 30; 375 (Notes and 111.); comp. ■ > oi /'] 

'i^idP',- ~ ni-ba Subst. statement, number 290, 14; 302, 28; 874, 
24; 375 (Notes and 111.); ni-bi 218, 5; 289, 75; 301, 24. — nibitu 
Subst. naming, with SuflF. ni-bi-is-su-un (for nibit-sun 338, 15); ni- 
bit-su 374, 30; 375 (Notes and Illust.). 

IDi Nabfl, name of the god Nebo (root JO^?). Phon. Na-bu-u412 
(II E. 7, 40 g. h.); Na-bi-uv 412 (II R. 7, 41, left-hand col. and else- 
where ; see below). Ideogr. 232, 15; 333, 14; 373 (footn. ** 35); 389, 
155. — Nabu-bal-lit-an-ni proper name 382 (Neh. II. 10). — Nabu- 
zir-iddina proper name Nebuzaradan, Hebr. ']li<"1T13i 364 (2 Kings 
XXV. 8). — Nabu-zir-napi§ti-§uti§ir i, e. "■Nebo, guide the sprout 
of life''' 353, 32. — NabG (Nabiu v)-ab al-u su r proper name Nabo- 
polassar 363, 5. — Na ba(Nabiuv)-k udurri-u s ur proper name Ne- 
bukadnezzar, hebr. iJii^TlDni- Written Na-bi-u v-ku-du-ur-ri-u-su-ur 


etc. 361 (2 Ki. XXIV. 1); 363, 1; 364, 13. — Nabu-li' (so read!) 
proper name 315. — Nabu-n^'id, written Na-bi-uv-na-'-id proper 
name Nabunit , Nabonidus , Aa^iV7]roc 433. — Nabfi-si-zib-an-ni 
proper name Nebosezban, Hebr. ]3]t£^il23 (166) 421 (Jer. XXXIX. 13). 
— Nabu-gum-i§-kun proper name 329 (2 Ki. XIX. 36). — Nabfl- 
u-§ab-§i proper name 232, 9. — The writing Na-bi-uv instead of Na- 
bu-uv is like ra-bi-uv instead of ra-bu-uv (Borsippa-Inscription etc.). 

rr^Di (avil) Na-ba-ai-tu name of a tribe Nabataean, comp. Hebr. 
nil^J 117 footn. ad fin. — (mS,t) Na-ba-ai-ti name of a country 147 
(Gen. XXV. 13). — Ni-ba-'-a-ti, or [Na]-pi-a-ti see ibid. 

^3i comp. ^^3. — ab-bul 1. Ps. Sg. Impft. Kal I destroyed 194, 
90; 218, 9 etc.; also a-b u 1 210, 57. 

b'2^ nu-bil-tuv (? — reading uncertain). Means perhaps festival 
19, 28. 
570 riDi (avil) Na-ba-tu name of a Babylon, tribe 117 footn.; 147 
(Eng. ed. 133 last line); 346, 16. 

"iJi nagii Subst. district, circuit, comp. a^L:5^J, written na-gu-u 86 
(Gen. X. 4); 189, ad init.-, 195, 94; 286, ad fin.; Plur. na-gi-i 220, 
30; 261, 15. 

IHD dpi) comp. Hebr. '^p'^p_ (Haupt). — ag-gur (ak-kur) 1. Ps. 
Sg. Impft. Kal I destroyed, desolated 194, 90; 218, 9 etc.; also a-gur 
(kur) 210, 57. [Observe that this form is often combined with ab- 
bul Kal Impf. of nabalu. See above under ^^j. — TransL] 

p^^D^i (ir) N a-gi-t i-Ra-ak-ki name of a town 350, 56. 

Nli [o^" mi nadfl to lay. — ad-di Kal Impft. 1. Ps. sing. I set 
(fire to etc.) 194, 89 — so read with Dr. Craig, Hebraica July 1887, 
instead of i-du. — Transl.]. — id-du-u 3. Ps. Sg. and PI. he laid, they 
laid 136, footn. *; 289, 71; 301, 23. — id-di(-§um-ma) 3. Ps. Sg. 
Impft. Kal with Suff. and Cop. 399, 4. Perhaps the Hebr. nii "to 
push" is to be connected with it , which has acquired in Assyr. the 
meaning "push or cast away". — With the Assyr. katS,§u iddfi (136, 
footn. *) comp. "jll nmi Deut. XIX, 5. 

T T : * 

pi comp. Hebr. "jj^i (Aram. '^iJ). — id din a, also idinav 3. Ps. 
Impft. Kal he gave, phon. i-di-na-av 339, footn. *; Ideogr. with phon. 
complement iddi-na 194, 96. — id-di-nu 3. Ps. PI. they gave, handed 
over 289, 72; 301, 23. — id-di-nu-nuv the same with Nun epeuth. 
Inscr. of Hammurabi col. I, 13. — ad-din 1. Ps. Sg. 1 gave 290, 26; 
302, 30. — na-dan Inf. Stat, constr. 195, 100; 289, 63; 290, 27; 291, 
col. HI. 40; 302, 30. 32. — mandattu (maddattu, madattu, ma- 
datu) Subst. tribute, comp. rTlDt i^lr^- P^on. 82, ad fin.; 157, 85. 


87; 193, 82; 194, 87; 207, 102 foil.; 208 (2 Ki. IX. 2); 210, 63; 213, 
14 (ma-da-tav); 218, 2; 219, 24; 273, 4; 286, ad fin. Comp. also 
377, ad init. — Na-di-ni Babyl proper name 235, 26. 

p"l^ comp. Hebr. pjl^ etc. — nfihu Subst. rest. Stat, constr. nu-uh 
20 (II R. 32, 16*). 

Dli (DKi?) comp. Hebr. QJ^> — ni-nu-mi 1. Ps. PI. Impft. Kal 

we announced 124 (col. I. 27) (here with a present meaning). 
o > p ^ 

]^i comp. Arab. ..,_jj, Aram. J.JqJ (Hebr. V^^). — nQnu Subst. fish, 

nu-u-nuv(ni) 169; 182, ad init.; 426, ad init.; for the Ideogr. see 
II R. 40, 18 e. f. 

1")J comp. .Li, ,jj; — Hebr. "^^ lamp, Aram. |jaJ fire. — Nan- 571 
nar, written Na-an-nar, name of a god '^the Illuminator", epithet of 

the raoongod 10 ad fin. — nflru Subst. lamp, Hebr. "j], Arab. .^i. 
Stat, constr. nu-ur 155, (Exod. XXVII. 20); 175, ad init. 

IJ3 manzazu dwelling; from which comes man-za-z[i] Subst. Plur. 
15, 1. 

^pl^ nahlu Subst. brook, Hebr. ^fli) Aram. |1 ..v Stat, constr. na- 
hal 158 (Numb. XXXIV. 5). 

]D('')i Ni-sa-nu name of the month Nisan, Hebr. jQi^ 380, ad init. 

")ii (iJ^i) ni'ru, Subst. yohe, Ai-ab. ^ J ; then also side 156 (Numb. 

XXII. 5). Phon. (ana) ni-ri with Suff. 195, 102; 289, 59; 301, 20 
etc. Ideogr. 156; 184, 70; 193,85; 213, 5. 13; 232, 13 (read ni'ri-ja). 
— niraru, nirarutu (nirarfitu?) Subst. help, assistance Ideogr. 
with phon. complem. ti 194, 95; 473, B. C. 810. — Root "il^ or "n^?. 

IDi Ni-(ik-)ku-u proper name Necho, "j^^, fQ'^ 357 (2 Kings XXIII. 
29); 371. 

/Di naklu Adj. artistically wrought. From this we have the PI. 
msc. nak-lu-ti 389, 157; Plur. fem. na-ak-la-a-ti Adj. PI. Fem. 413, 
31. Should the Hebr.-Aram. ^^J be brought into comparison? 

DDi nakamu heap up. — nakantu Subst. heaping up, place for 
storing up, treasure chamber{?). Phon. na-kan-ti 193, 81. 

D3} ak-kis, a-kis 1. Ps. Sg. Impft. Kal I cut or hewed down 210, 
55; 261, 9; 234, 24. — nik-su(?) Subst. hewing in pieces (?). Phon. 
Gen. nik-si 290, 16. Comp. Aram. uaaJ. 

-^33 comp. Hebr. l^^, Arab. jXi etc. — unakkir 3. Ps. msc. Impft. 


Pa. he changed. Ideogr. 19, 31; Phon. 338, 14; 398 (Botta 149. 9). — 
u-n a-a k-k i-i r 1. P.s. Sg. Pa. 124 (col. II. 7). — u-§an-kir Impft. Shaf. 
he seducedto rebellion 370, 37. — n§.kiru, nakru, nikru Subst. enemy. 
PI. na-ki-ri enemies 154 (Exod. XXI. 8). — ni-ik-ru-ti the same 154, 
ad Jin. — nak-ri§ Adv. with hostile intent 289, 72. 

^Q^ comp. Q)^ in-na-mu-u 3. Ps. Sg. Impf. Nif. he fell to pieces 124 
(col. I. 31). 

O - - 

"IQ^ comp. -^.i, -X40. — namru Adj. bright. Plur. fern, nam-ra- 

a-ti 389, 156. — nim-ru Subst. leopard, .^.i, )i^i» "iDii J^^C J 

387 (Is. XI. 6). 

"^^^ namurtu Subst. onset, tempest, comp. Syr. jJboJ.^) . Phon. 
na-mur-ra-tu V 351, 62. Stat, constr. na-mur-rat 193, 79. 
572 "iQ^ (mat) Nam-ri name of a country 414, ad Jin. Is the word to 
be pronounced Zim-ri? — 415; 482, B. C. 798. 774; 484, B. C. 749. 
748; 486, B. C. 744. 

inDi (i'u) Nam-tar (god of) decision, destiny; plague 179, ad Jin. 

p nin, Akkad. word adopted into Assyrian meaning thing, possession. 
— n i n-§ u m-§ u = all to which a name belongs i. e. things of all sorts 
291, 37; 302, 32; 345, 9. [Delitzsch reads mimma sum-su, — 
mimma being an Assyrian ueut. compound form = minma what- 
soever, anything, from interrog. manu who? See under Q^Q. — Transl.] 

i^ii (ir) Ninua, NinS,, Ninu name of a town Niniveh, Hebr. plli^i 
Phonet. (ir) Ni-nu-a 99 (e. g. Asurn. I, 101); 482, B. C. 790; 484, 
B. C. 761 ; 193, 78; 291, 39; 455 (Ps. II. 12) etc. — Ni-na-a 99 [e. g. 
Asurn. Ill, 91 (see Norr. 1049!). 92]; N i-n u-u (very seldom! — II R. 
48 No. 3 line 9). Etymology doubtful; see Delitzsch's conjecture in 
Parad. 260. 

^ii (ilu) Na-na-ai, Na-na-a Babyl.-Elam. deity Nanaea, Ndvaia 
232, 15; 457. 

ji^Q^ comp. Hebr. J^D^. — u-n a-a s-s u-u 3. Ps. PI. Impft. Pa. they 
carried away 124, col. II. 2. 

P;q^ comp. Hebr. HDi- ~ as-su-hu, with Comp. as-su-ha-am-(ma) 
1. Ps. Sg. Impft Kal I transported 276; 277 (Botta 75, 5); 289, 61; 
301, 21; with SufF. also as-su-ha-su-n u-ti 232. — Respecting u-sah 
156 (Numb. XXH. 5), see nOV 

TQ^ nisiktu Subst. something poured out (? — Root ^Di^)* Pboo- 
ni-sik-ti 235, 26. 28; 290, 34; 450, Rev. 1. — Comp. also 237, ad init. 

TQ^ nisakku Subst. wicero^/, governor. Phon. ni-sak-ku 393, foot- 
note ***. Ideogr. 393, ibid.; 411 (Eng. ed. p. 103 ad Jin.). On this 
comp. D. G. Lyon, Cyl. Inschr. Sargous II, Lpz. 1882 p. 12. 


TDi (itt'i'') Nusku (Nusku?) uame of a deity (prob. only another 
name for Nebo, comp. the list of deities, Del. Assyr. Lesest. !»*. ed.) 
91, 57; 333, 16. 

)D3 Ni-sa-nu, see |DWi- 

nOJ (should we compare Syr. ^aaJ ? — observe the contrasted 
phrase : sul-m u sansi! — see also Del. in Lotz 83 flg.). — naphu 
Subst. the rising (of the sun), Stat, constr. na-pah 140 (Gen. XIX. 
23); 213, 6. 11. — Ideogr. 247, 3. — niphu Subst. with same meaning, 
Stat, constr. ni-pi-ih 140, ad fin.; 398 (Botta 151, 10 line 1). 

"HDi Nipur name of a town Nipur , the modern Nifer. Phon. N i- 
pu-ru II R. 13, 24 c. d. Ideogr. 232, 5; 346, 13. 

^J3^ napistu Subst. soul, life, comp. Hebr. Ci^Di- — na-pis-ti 17, 
3 and Notes and Illust.; 266 instead of napistisunu akbi (Guyard) 573 
we ought to read there ace. to Cyl. Asui-b. Rass. IV, 95 : ba-lat na- 
pi§-ti-§u-nu ak-bi / announced the life of their soul]. Plur. napsati 
Ideogr. 195, 100; 203 (end of insc.) ; 209, 53; 345, 7 (na-pi§-tu§ in- 
stead of na-pis-tu-su) ; 353, 34 (nap-§at-su). 

i^Jii (lji;j?) u-§a-as-su 1. Ps. Sg. Impft. Shaf. I caused to descend {?) 
195. 98. [Read with Dr. Craig u-sa-az-nin; see under p|. — Transl.] 

IDUi i^^) Na-zi-bi-na, Na-zib-i-na name of a town J^sibis —jl,sx^^ 
275; 480, B. C. 816. 801; 482, B. C. 782. 774; 486, B. C. 746. 736. 

"IJi^ comp. Hebr. "iJi^i Aram. j^. — is-su-ru 3. Ps. Sg. Impf. Kal 
he preserved 369, 28. — usur Imper. guard! Comp. the proper name 
Usur-amatsu 457, and comp. such names as Nabu-kudurri-usur, 
Bi'l-Sar-usur etc. etc. — n&siru Part, protector. Ideogr. 194, 96. 
— na-sir Subst. (Inf. for nasar??) protection 333, 19. — ni-sir-tu 
(tav) Subst. that which is preserved, treasures 193, 81; 291, 37; 302, 
32; 345, 9 bis; 398, 10 foil.; 450, Rev. 1. — Ni-sir(zir?) name of a 
country and mountain 53; Eng. ed. pp. 57, 58, Vol. I. 

]lpi (ir) Na-ku-di-na name of a town 220, 28. 

Ip2 comp. Ai'am. {\^) \_h. D.i pour out. — inak-ki Kal Imperf. (II) 

with present meaning 3. Ps. Sg. he offers 19, 32. — ak-ki (read thus) 
for ak-ki 1. Ps. / offered 232, 16. — niku Subst. offering. Phon. 
ni-ku-u 19, 32. PI. niki, Ideogr. 157, 85; 194, 87; 232, 16; 278. 

■Ipi see -ij> 

{^"12 (ii'j mat) Nu-ri-i name of a Cyprian town Nurt 355, 22. 

7J"1i nir-gal-i Subst. PI. Lion-sphinxes 283, ad init. — Nirgal name 
of a god Nergal ^y^^ 232, 16; 283; 333, 16. — N irgal-§ar-usur 
(u-su-ur), proper name Neriglissor, Hebr. "H^iJ^^ti; ^Jli 330; 416 (Jer. 
XXXIX. 3). 


"T^2 niraru and ni-i'a-ru-t u Subst. kelp, assistance see under "i^J. 

^J comp. Hebr. U^i^}*}, Aram. |.aJ), Arab. (j*Lj. — ni§u Subst. 
(femin. gender) 1) people (see Del. in Lotz, Die Insch. des Tigl. Pil. I 
110). Plur. Ideogr. 19, 29; — 2) people, inhabitants (against Del. ibid.) 
Plur. Ideogr. e. g. Smith's Assurb. 223, 39; 224, 42; also Sanh. Tayl. 
Cyl. II, 63; III, 17. 38 (see Eng. ed. Vol. I p. 281 foil.). Likewise 83; 
153 (Gen. XLIX. 1); 255, 27; 273, 1. 3; 289, 69; 301, 22 etc. etc. — 
nistu pupil (of the eye), comp. Hebr. ll'tJ^I^J. Stat, constr. ni-§it 
160; 411 (Eng. ed. Vol. II p. 103 ad fin.) [ace. to Del. in Zeitsch. fiir 
kirchl. Wissensch. 1882 p. 125 from J^^J = raising (of the eyes), 
favoured one, comp. Ql^O i^ti'J; see Eng. ed. Vol. I p. XXXI]. 

J^^i comp. Hebr. {^jt'i, Eth. JV^/il' ^.rab. Li».j. — as-§u with 
Cop. as-§u-um-ma, 1. Ps. Sg. Impft. Kal / raised up, also brought, 
led forth 124, col. II. 15: 459, footn. 7. — ig-§u-ma 3. Ps. PI. with 
Cop. 277, 5. — is-su-num-ma ditto with Nun epenth. and Cop. 289, 
57; 450, Rev. 5; 455 (Ps. II. 12). — na-su-u Inf. raising, offering, 
Oppert^ Exped. en Mesopot. II, 94; Gen. na-si-i 154 (Exod. IX. 7); 398 
(Botta 149, 6). 

p^j comp. Hebr. ptt^i, ■"*■' - — i§-si-ku 3. Ps. PI. Kal they hissed 

574 289, 57; 455 (Ps. II. 12). — u-na-as-§i-ka, u-na-a§-si-ik 3. and 1. Ps. 

Sg. Impft. Pa. I, he hissed 235, 27 bis; 353, 39.— u-na-as-§i-ku 3. Ps. 

PI. 450, Rev. 5; 455 (Ps. II. 12). [Comp. in O. T. 1 Ki. XIX. 18, 

Hos. XIII. 2. — Transl.] 

"l^i nasru Subst. eagle, '^]i}y, — ;*<^J , IjJaJ, ^flC" Written 

nas-ri (Gen.) 386, ad init. 

li^D (m^t) Sa-u name of a country 220, 27. 

Di^D sfindu a darh-coloured precious stone, written sa-an-du 30 
[stands probably (Del.) for s^ntu, sSmtu i. e. Fem. of sSmu = 
Hebr. nnK,']. 

}^3D comp. nyDuJ^) i^■^** etc. — siba, sibutu(?) numeral, the 
number seven 315 (Gen. si-bu-ti). — si-bit (= si-bit-tuv) the same 
21. — Si-bi-it-ti-bi-'-li proper name (= bV^'DV'^ii'' '^) 185 (1 Kings 
V. 32); 252, ad fin.; 257. 

i^JD (mSt, ir) Sa-ba-' name of a country Sabaea 145 (Gen. XXV. 
3). — (mat) Sa-ba-'-ai Adj. Sabaean 397, 3. 


^JD (ii^O Sa-gu-ri(ra), Sa-gur-ri name of a river Sddshur ,k.>L*i* 
156; 193, 85. 

I^D si-id-ru Subst. order, order of battle, Hebr. -)'^p 289, 77. 

^i^lD (sad) Sa-u-i name of a mountain 220, 26. 

DHID (ni^t) Su-u-ha-am name of a country 426, 24. 

■jID Si-va-nu, see p(i)D- 

pQ si-hu Subst. insurrectio7i, disturbances 484, B. C. 763 — 759; 486, 
B. C. 746. 

HD (mat) Sahi name of a country 427 (Ezek. XXXVIII. 2. 3). 

nnO comp. Hebr. r|nD> Syr. . o ^^ — is-hu-bu(pu), is-hup 3. Ps. 
Sg. Impft. Kal he cast to the ground 213, 17; 235, 27; 288, col. II. 36 
(301, 18); 288, col. II. 43; 290, col. III. 30; 302, 31; 332, 20. 

"IHD comp. Hebr. "ij-]Q. — is-su-uh-ra he {they?) was (were) turned 
about (ransacked?) 488 C, line 4. — si-bir-tu, si-hi-ir-tu Subst. cir- 
cuit, region 213, 7. 11; 220, 28. 29; 255, 18; 338, 12; 353, 40 etc. 

^D ('0 Sa-ai name of the Aegyptian town Sais 357 (2 Ki. XXIII. 29). 

]i<^D (^0 Si-an-nu name of a town 219, 26. 

1^(1)13 Si-va-nu, also Si-man(van)-nu name of the month Sivan,575 
Hebr. jl^p 380, 3. Ideogi-. 484, B. C. 763 ^ 

•iQIQ sisii Subst. horse, comp. DID, Aram. }<("i)p')D> ].'tJBQJ0 188, 
adinit. Ideogr. (= imir KUR.RA ass oj the East) Flux. 188, footn. **; 
195, 102; 261, 4; 289, 74; 301, 24 etc. 

^iQ sisli Snhst. joy (= Hebr. ^i\i;?) 333, 12. 

niDD (il*!) Sak-kut name of a Babylonian deity, another name for 
Adar-Saturn Hebr. niDD (Am. V, 26) 443, passim. 

^D (ilu) Sa-la name of a deity 458, footn. * 48. 

I^D i^^'} mat) S i-il-lu-(u?) name of a Cypr. town Soli Sokoi? 
355, 17. 

f^l^D (^1') mat) Si-(il-)lu-u-a name of a Cypr. town Salamisf 
355, 15. 

□^D (^ nbti' '')• — salimu Suhst. friendship, alliance{?) Gen. sa- 
li-mi(mi) 351, 61; 413. — salmu Subst. victory {? — ). Written sa- 
al-mi (Gen.) 398 (Botta 150, 3). 

bu7D Su-la-ma-al proper name of a prince of Miliddu = Melitene 
253, ad init.; 257. 

]u7D Sa-la-ma-nu Moab. proper name comp. IQ^tif (Hos. X, 14); 
257; 441. — Sulmanu-a§aridu name of anAssyr.king, Hebr. "^DJ^^Qp^f. 
See under Q^JJ^. 


bf^DD (^0 Sa-am-'-la-ai Adj. man of Sani'al 253, ad init.; 257; 
261, 12. 

7DD (i?) sa-mul-luv Subst. name of a tree or wood, with ideogr. 
for deity prefixed = Samas sun-god 159, Deut. IV. 16. This ace. to 
a syllabary discovered by Del. ; see Schrader in Berichte der Konigl. 
Sachs. Gesellsch. der Wissenschaften 1880, 2. note. 

pD comp. nilD^i A^^lF'tl' ^"V-^^^. )ll^Z. — sa-am-nu 
(Var. sam-na) Ordinal eighth, comp. Ethiop. 1*1^^*5 J 380, 8. 

i^^DDD Sa-am-si(i) femin. Arab, proper name Samsieh = iCjy*fc4.Xi 
255, 30; 262, 16; 397, 3; 414, Jer. XXV. 24. Khors. 27. 

PDDDD i^^j m&t) S am-si-mu-ru-na, also written Sa-am-si-mu-ru- 
na (355, 10"), name of a Kanaanite town 163 (Josh. XII. 20); 192; 355, 
10 a. b. — (ir) S a m-s i-m u-r u-n a-a i Adj. man of Samsimuruna 288, 47. 

nD"lDD Sa-am-mu-ra-mat feminine proper name Semiramis, Hebr. 
niDTIp^ 366 (2 Chr. XV. 18). The proper ref. is 2 Chr. XVII. 8 kri. 

pDD i^^) Sa-mi-ri-na, name of the town Samaria, Hebr. niDtJ'' 
Aram. p-ipB^* —li-lal/ 191 (1 Kings XVI. 24 passim); 204; 272, ad 
init.; 278; 277, Botta 75, 6; 323. — Sa-mir-i-na the same 191; 192, 
ad init. — Sa-mi-ur-na the same 191. — S a-mi-ru-na-ai Samaritan 
191; 223, ad Jin.; 252, ad fin.; 273. 

|Q (ilu) Sin name of the moon-god. Ideogr. 179; 333, 14; 389, 
155; 450, 70. Comp. also ideogr. AN. SIS. KI 398 ad fin. and 400 
(Notes and Illust.). — Sin-ahi-irib (ir-ba) name of the Assyr. king 
Sennacherib, Hebr. 3^'nniD> ^ivvaxrjQlfi (LXX); Sevax^Qi/^og (Jos.); 
Savaxdgil^OQ (Herod.) 285 (2 Kings XVIII. 13); 287, II Inscr.; 335, 
I Rawl. 48 No. 3; 459, footn. 5 * — Sin-bal-lit (for Sin-u-bal-lit) 
proper name Sanballat, Hebr. tO^^^D 382 (Neh. II. 10). 

3JQ Sa-ni-bu name of an Ammonite king, perhaps ^= 3{<3{J^ (Del.) 
141 (Gen. XIX. 38); 257. 

"IJiD Sa-an-gar proper name 193, 82. Hebr. "l^pji^ (Del.). 

"j^D sa-an-da-nis Adv. of unknown meaning 169. 
, - "i^Q (sad) Sa-ni-ru name of the mountain Sentr n^iji,' 159 (Deut. 
III. 9); 209, 45. 

^JQ sinnis, sinni§at A.d}. feminine, female. Phon. sin-nis 17 
(Gen. I. 27;; sin-ni-§a-at 179, ad init. Ideogr. 290, 17. — The read- 
ing zin-ni§ (Del., Hpt. and others) does not seem to me hitherto 
sufficiently guaranteed. 

{2DD Sa-pa-ti-ba(-')-al Phoenic. proper name = ^y^^QD ^- ®- 
Kanaan. ^j;ilJ2DX^ 1*^^! comp. IPl^tpDIJ/ 2 Chron. XX, 2. 


1QQ (ir) Sa-pi-i name of a town Sapi 234, 23; alternating with 
Sa pi-ja 235, 7; as well as Sa-pi-ja 486, B. C. 731. 

^20 sap-lu Subst. bowl, Hebr. ^pp 208 (2 Ki. IX. 2). 

1Q3 comp. Eth. f\^i\ (Haupt). — is-pu-nu 3. Ps. Sg. and PI. 
Impft. he, they threw down, overpowered 247, 2; 450, 74. — sa-pi-in 
Part. Kal overpowering 191 (Botta 36. 18). 

nSD si-ip-pu Subst. threshold, comp. nQ, jlkxfl 384 (Is. VI. 4). 

"IDD siparru Subst. copper. Ideogr. 157, 87; 193, 84. Ideogr. 
Plur. bars of copper 157, 87. 

"IDD (^0 Si-par, Sip-par, Si-ip-par name of a town Sepharvaim, 
Hebr. □^")"1DD SiJlcpaQa 232, ad init.; 279, passivi. Now represented 
by the ruins of Abu-Habba 280. 

^3-pQ Sak-kal Subst. (Akkad.) literally mighty head, title or 
designation of oflSce 261, 7. 

bi^lD (mat) Sir-'-la-ai Adj. the Sirlite, Israelite, comp. Hebr. 
I'pjij-lj^i 151, ad init.; 194, 92. 

{<^21D (^'') Sa-ar-bu-u-a name of a town 220, 29. 

]D"1D i^O Sa-ar-ra-ba-a-nu name of a town 232, 8. 

niD (n^i") Su-ra-pi name of a river 232, 5. 

TID (sad) Si-ra-ra name of a mountain Sirjon IVltf ^^^ (Deut. 
III. 9); 184, ad init. 

TID Suti (Sutu) name of a people, comp. Hebr. j;"^j^ (Del.), writ- 
ten Su-ti-(i), Su-ti-i (Khors. 19. 82. 123. 136; Smith's Sennacherib 
31, 13 [there Su-ti-i] Del. Parad. p. 235) 425 (Ezek. XXIII. 23). 

Co eo- 

nnO sittu Subst. remainder, remnant, comp. c>-*.t, iOCw, East-Syr. 

h.'^.t, also Hebr. niH^ C^^® 272, Notes and Illust.). Written si-it-tu 
(ta, ti) 277, ad init.; 350, 58. From this comes Plur. si-it-ta-ti 277 
(Botta 75, 5). — si-it-tu-ti Subst. the same 272, ad init.; 289 (col. 
III. 5) (in the last passage used of persons). 


|j^2 pi-in-ti (reading uncertain) Subst. 19, 30 Lotz renders ^re (?) 

(n)i^D patu, also (?) pa-a-di Subst. side, then boundary, comp. 

Hebr. P|}^P) side , frontier , district. — pa-ti Stat, constr. 140, ad fin.; 

pa-at the same 398 (Botta 150, 7) — or should we read pa-ad? See 

under "JQ. 

1!ID P3.-gi-i Subst. Plur. meaning unknown; probably name of a 577 
species of animal 450, Rev. 3. 



"IJD pagru Subst. corpse, comp. Hebr. "|J9, Aram. j|-~9 139 (Gen. 
XV. 11). Phon. with Suff. pa-gar-(§u) 139, ibid.; Plur. pag-ri 139, 
ibid. Ideogr. 195, 99 ? — pag-ri-(§u) 19, 31 (= body?). 

■JQ padu (pS,du — comp. Arab. 0*3? — ) Subst. district, region. 
Phon. pa-di 204 (Eng. ed. p. 194); constr. state p^d; 213, 9. 10; 215, 
footn. **; 249, footn. f- 

bj^lD Pu-du-ilu name of an Ammonite king 141 (Gen. XIX. 38); 
288, 52; 355, 11. Comp. Hebr. ^{<niQ) ^^ well as the name of the 
Assyr. king Pu-di-ilu I R. 6 No. Ilia, and b. Or is the name to be 
explained as bi<"13(y), that is "servant of god"? Comp. the Phoenician 
name BodostorftJ and others. 

^i^DlD Pa-di-ba-'-al Phoenician proper name = ^y^^^Q 105. 

•)-|Q Pa-di-i Philist. proper name = nHD '64; 289, 70; 290, 7. 25; 
301, 22; 302, 26. 

Y\Q comp. Arab. tuXs, Hebr. HID- — pad ft Subst. redemption; a-na 
pa-di-§u-nu 26, 15. 

1Q pu Subst. mouth and hence command, Hebr. HD, Arab. »«i , jS, 

Eth. /^4^I- ~ P^"^ ^^°- 2^'*' ^°°*^- *! ^^^' ^^5 ^^^- (^^•^) ^^^' ^®- 

— pa-a Ace. 323 (Eng. ed. Vol. II p. 7 line 9 from below). 

DID P'^tu Subst. what is opposite. Should we compare (with Barth) 
Syr. |2as? — Stat, constr. pu-ut 209, 46. 

^HD pahatu Subst. viceroy, Hebr. nriQ- Heogr. 249, footn. f; PI. 
pa-ha-a-ti 186 (1 Kings X. 15 and footn.); 187. Comp. Hebr. HinS- 

— pihatuv Stat, constr. pi-ha-at Subst. o^ce of viceroy 187. Ideogr. 
220, 27 (comp. 221, footn. ff). 

^nS upahhir, written u-pa-hir 3. and 1. Ps. Sg. Impft. Pa. he, I 
assembled, comp. "i^n- r^^ > *$ A-4 1 ^33, 17; 374, 27; 452, 68; 
u-pah-hir 398 (Botta 150. 2). Ideogr. 364, 1. — puhru Subst. 
assembly. Phon. pu-uh-ru 17, 1. Stat, constr. pu-hur 232, 11; 255, 
27. Ideogr. 332, 25. — napharft Subst. totality. Stat, constr. nab- 
har (likewise with Suff.) 370, 37. Ideogr. 178, ad init. — pat-ha-ri§ 
Adv. altogether 346, 16. The Adv. is synon, of istiniS, comp. p. 68 
line 30 foil. 

II^Q comp. Hebr. "itDDi Arab. J^. — tap-tu-ur 3. Ps. fem. Sg. 
Impft. Kal. she cleft, divided 332, 24 foil. — up-ta-at-ti-ir 3. Ps. Sg. 
Impft. Ifta. he burst in pieces 124, col. II. 3. 

D1WdO)D Pi(i)-si(i)ri-is (also without final s) proper name of a 
prince of Karkemish 252, ad fin. Del. Parad. p. 270. 


n^ (ir, m4t) Pa-ap-pa name of a Cyprian town Paphos 355, 16. 

"IJ^Q Pi-la-ag-gu-ra(-a) Cyprian proper name Pildgurd 355, 14 foil. 578 

"l^D palu Subst. year of the reign (Akkad. ?). Ideogr. PI. 82, 104; 
202, bis; 207, bis; 209, 40. 

J^D palgu Stat, constr. palag Subst. canal, Hebr. jj'pQ 29 (Gen. 
II. 11 and footn.) IV Eawl 14 No. 3 line 11 foil. II R. 38, 15 a. b. 
comp. with Nerigl. II, 6. 8 (Del. Parad. 142). 

n^D (^yj"- ■ "'^p ? — Nold. and Haupt deal with the word other- 
wise) ip-lah 3. Ps. Sg. Impft. Kal he was afraid 218, 8; 289, 73; 301, 
23. — ip-la-hu 3. Ps. Sg. Impft. Kal they feared 193, 79. — paiihu 
Psivt. fearing, revering, written with Suff. pa-li-hi-ka (Nom. !) 373, 
footn. ** 35. — pa-lah Infin. fearing, revering, obedience 398, Botta 
149, 12. — pulhu Subst. /ear, terror, written pu-ul-hi (Nom.!) 213, 
17; pul-hi (the same word) 235, 27; 288, 35; 290, 30; 302, 30 etc. 
— puluhtu the same, written pu-Iuh-ti 301, 18; 332, 20; 434, 27 
(Ace); comp. 421; from this we have pul-ha-at Stat, constr. 193, 79. 

DD^O u§-pal-kit 3. Ps. Sg. Shaf. of the Pa. he seduced to transgress 
or rebel 323 (Eng. ed. Vol. II p. 7 line 9 from below); 370, 31. 

D^g (m&t) Pi-lis-ta name of the land Philistia, Hebi\ riti'SB 102 
Gen. X. 14); 486, B. C. 734. — (m^t) Pa-la-as-tav ditto 103: 
213, 12. 

D^D pal^su Semitic root of the non-Semitic SI.BAR Ho roch\ See 
175 (and footn. f) SI.BAR-an-ni 'rocked me\ Delitzsch and others 
give to the Niphal naplfisu also the signification 'behold^ in the 
pregnant sense 'gaze upon with affection or sympathy\ See Haupt in 
Germ. ed. p. 72. 

IQ panu (panG?) Subst. face, front, Hebr. QIJQ. Stat, constr. pa- 
an 213, 3; 350, 49. — pan Prep, before (properly in face or front of); 
pa-an 184, 10 (255, 20); 332, 19; with SufF. pa-ni-ja, or pa-ni-a 97; 
370, 31; also pa-nu-u-a 205 (Eng. ed. Vol. I p. 195 footn.). — pa-nu- 
us-su 351, 65; 353, 41. Ideogr. 194, 96. — pa-an-na the same (?) 
19o, 99. — a-na pan before 194, 87; ina pan 234, 23. — pa-ni Adv. 
before, in front 135, ad init. [also in proper names as Nirgal-alik- 
pani Nergal goes before 470, B. C. 849. — Transl.] 

D3D Pa-na-am-mu proper name of a prince of Sam'al 253, ad init.; 
257 (Eug. ed. Vol. I p. 249 line 6 from above). 

]DD pisanu Subst. receptacle, written pi-sa-an-nu 29 (Gen. II. 11). 
Hebr. ptJ^iQ? — 

D!iD Pu-su-su Cypr. proper name Pussusu 355, 22. 

DJiD i^^) Pa-si-tav name of a town 232, 4. 



npp) comp. "ipQ. — ap-ki-id 1 Ps. Sg. Impft. Kal I appointed 399, 
footu. — u-pa-ki-da (for u-pa-ki-da) 1. Ps. Sg. Impft. Pa. I entrusted 
338, 17. — pSkidu Part., written pa-ki-id (Stat, constr.) ruling 413 
(Eng ed. Vol. II. p. 105). 

Ipr) Pu-ku-du name of a tribe, Hebr. ipg 232, 12; 346, 16; 423. 
(Jerem. L. 21); 425 (Ezek. XXIII. 23). 

pIpQ Pa-ka-ha Israel, proper name Pekach, Hebr. npD 19^) ad fin.; 
2b5, 28; 397, footu. * ad fin. 

{^"10 paru Subst. PI. mule (comp. Hebr. {^"jQ wild ass). Plur. pari'. 
579Phon. pa-ri-i Khors. 29; II R. 16, 35 b. c. Ideogr. 290, 18; 345, 8; 
346, 17. 

1N"lD Pi-ir-'-u proper name Pharaoh ^}}'^Q 153 (Exod. I. 11); 397, 3. 

bPD parziUu Subst. iron, comp. Aram. pii^,'\ij^, Hebr. ^PS- 
Phon. par-zil-luv 296; Ideogr. 213, 19; 289, 71; 301, 23; 371. 

-|-|Q comp. Hebr. rp^t HDID- — ip-par-ku-u 3. Ps. PI. Impft. Nif. 
they separated 398, Botta 150, 3. — mu-par-ku-u Part. Pa. acting 
violently, violent, violator {of command), comp. Hebr. "1^9 213, 3. — 
par-ka-nu Adj. witb same meaning 214, footu. ff. — naparku Adj. 
shortened, generally in combination with 1 a ^ unshortened, or undimi- 
nished. Ideogr. with phon. complem. = la naparka-at (Fem.) 288, 
46, comp. 295 Notes and Illust. 

TID parakku Siihst. altar, shrine. Phon. pa-rak-ku 390, footn. *. 
Q"12 (mat) Parsu name of the laud Persia, Hebr. DID- Written 

- T 

Par-su, Pa-ar-su, also Par-su-u 372 (Ezra I. 1). 

ND"10 (mat) Par-su-a name of a country, in the main Adherbeid- 
shdn 213, 8; 376, footn. **. 

"IID u-par-ri-ru 3, Ps. Sg. Impft. Pa. / broke in pieces 338, 9; 350, 

53; 450, 71 , comp. Hebr. "IIQ. The comparison of the Arabic j 
( Assyr. Pa. = to put to flight Haupt) is not so probable ; comp. Asurn. 
Stand-Iusc. 4 and elsewhere; also we have already three other words for 
"flee" viz. parS.sfl, parsadu and ab4tu. 

tt'lD ip-pa-ri§ 3. Ps. Sg. Impft. he fled 350, 57. 

I^ID ip-par-si-du, ip-par-§id(si-id) 3. Ps. Sg. Impft, Nif. he fled 
away 255, 20; 261, 6; 345, 7; 397, footn. * 3; 450, 72. 

fT)Q Purattu, see ni3- 

niJ'D u-§ap-§i-hu 3. Ps. Impft. Shaf. he procured rest 169. The 
derivation is uncertain. (The combination proposed on p. 169 foot- 
note *** with Arab. ^vaO is not free from objection.) Or should we 


read u-gap-pih in which case of course we obtain an altogether diffe- 
rent meaning? 

n^Dtt'D PK^*"*- Tu)-ga-mil-ki proper name Psammetich i^) 370, 
footn. ***. 

plS'D paSku Adj. hard of approach, difficult to pass, PI. msc. pa- 
as-kuti 450, 73. 

{^p,Q comp. Arab, ^xj, Eth. ^fY'Av I' Aram, v^£^, Hebr. nriD- 
— ap-ti-i 1. Ps. Sg. Impft. Kal I opened 345, 9; also ap-ti 1. Ps. Sg. 
Impft. Kal I opened 193, 81. — [pita phonet. pi-ta, pi-ta-a open 
2. Sg. Imperat. Kal 455, 14. 15. — Transl.] — pa-tu-u Adj. open, 
easily accessible, untrustworthy {^) 323, (Eng. ed. Vol. II p. 7 line 12 
from below). 

iriD (naSt) Pa-ti-na-ai Adj. man of Fatin 193, 84. 

DHD pa-ti-si Subst. commander 422, ad fin. Of doubtful origin. 
Comp. on this word D. G. Lyon, die Cylinderinschr. Sargons II, Leipzig 
1882, p. 12. 

iriD i^"^) Pi-it-ru name of a town Pethor, Hebr. "linp ^^^ (^"^™^' 580 
XXIT. 5); 156; 193, 85. 

DiriD (mfit) Pa-tu[-ru]-si name of the land Pai^ros, Middle Aegypt, 
Dlin^ 335 (last insc. on page line 5). 

]{<\i si'nu Subst. sheep and goats comp. Hebr. )ii^, Arab. ^jL/to, Plur. 

^^L/to, Aram, ij^j;, jli.. Written si-i-ni 235, 28; 290, 19; 374, 25; 
si-na 139 (Gen. XV. 5). (The preceding word lu is the ideogr. for 
"flock" and should properly have been enclosed in brackets); also si- 
na (Ace.) 397, footn. *. Ideogr. 346, 17. 

]J<2i (^O Sa-'-nu name of a town Zoan (Tanis) , Hebr. lyj^, Egypt. 
San-t 391 (Is. XIX. 11). — (ir) Si-'-nu name of a town 391, footn.*; 
Is it identical with Sa'nu? 

INii (iVJi^) ?^^'^ Subst. field, plain, ivilderness. Ideogr. 17, 4; 
450, 71; of doubtful origin (i^!^:^ [llpt.]? = "Depression" [Del.]? — ). 

J^^JJ comp. Hebr. }i^3i{. — sabu Subst. man, soldier, companies, 
troops. Phon. sa-ab (za-ab) Stat, constr. 323 (Eng. ed. Vol. II p. 7 
line 12 from below). Ideogr. 194, 91. 92. 93. 94; 289, 74 (in the Parallel 
301, 23 we read Sab. SUN i. e. umman&t, with the following word 
kasti!); 290, 31; 302, 31. — Sab-Adar Assyr. proper name 365 
(2 Ki. XXV. 27). — Sab-sar Assyr. proper name 299, line 12 from 
above; 365 (2 Ki. XXV. 27). 

DDJi (is) su-um-bi Subst. plur. carts, carriages, comp. Hebr. ^xj 


sedan-chair or litter (Del.) 345, 8. 

nn^i comp. Hebr. n^ii (D^nn^) shea/, Talm. n2iJ> m^^ tongs, as 
well as Ja.AXo, ^flflX^; see Haupt's Glossary in the German edition. 
sab-tu-(raa) 3. Ps. PI. Perf. they had seized (expected) 332, 19. — 
is-bat, is-ba-tu(ta) 3. Ps. Sg. Impft. Kal he seized 218, 17; 452, 
69. — as-bat 1. Ps. sing. / took, captured, seized 156 (Numb. 
XXII. 5 bis); 157, 84. 85 (of offerings made to the gods); 193, 85; 
249, footn. t; 345, 11; 398, Botta 150. 13. — is-bu-tG 3. Ps. PI. they 
clasped, seized 157, 87; 194, 86. — is-bat-u-num-ma the same with 
Cop. 371, Smith Assurb. 43. 45. — u-sab-bit 3. Ps. Sg. Impft. Pa. he 
seized 219, 23 (?). — u-§a-as-bi-ta 1. Ps. Sg. Impft. Shaf 204, footn.*. 
— issa-bat 3. Ps. Sg. Impft. Ifte. Ideogr. (LU) with phonetic complem. 
bat 486, B C 729; 488, B. C. 728. — as-sa-bat 1. Ps. Sg. Impft. 
Ifte, I seized, took 350, 50. sab-ta-at Subst. Plur. conquests 486, B. C. 
739. — sibtu Subst. p^'ocZwce. — subS,tu Subst. ^armen^. Stat, constr. 
su-bat 383, ad fin.; 455, 10. 

DDif (i^ Su-bat name of the town Z66a ^DliJ 172 (Josh. XXI. 32). 
We also find the forms or modes of writing the name Subut (Su-bu- 
tav) and Subit (Su-bi-ti) 183 (2 Sam. VIII. 3 and footn.); comp. 
Keil. u. Geschichtsf p. 122. 

581 n^ (^^^ Si-du-nu name of a town Sidon, Hebr. pl^ 103 (Gen. X. 
15); 213, 12. — Si-du-un-nu(ni) the same 103 (Gen. X. 15); 286; 

288, 38; 301, 18. — (mat) Si-du-un-na-ai Adj. Sidonian, also Si-du- 
na-ai 157, 86; 207; 210, 64. 

p^^i Si-id-ka-a Philist. proper name Zidkd =■ Hplli = D^plli 1^5; 

289, 58. 67; 301, 20. Another explanation is given by Prof. Robertson 
Smith; see "Notes and Addenda". 

*lf|i{ comp. Hebr. "lj;\{, Arab. JLo. — u-sa-ah-hir 1. Ps. Sg. Impft. 
Pa. I diminished, cut short 290, 26; 302, 30. — sahru, also sihru 

Adj. small, Hebr. "|ij;\{, Arab. -ouc. Ideogr. 103, ad fin.; 288, 38 etc. 
sa-ah-ri (Gen.) the same Sg. msc. 346, 14. PI. sahruti Ideogr. 333, 
17 etc. 

"Ipjf sihirtu Subst. heat, then summer, comp. Hebr. "ipii' Arab. 
.^, written si-hir-tu 52, ad fin., footn. *. 

{<"^i{(?) a-si-' 1. Ps. Sg. Impft. — ?— 203 (towards the end of insc). 

Vljf si-is-si Subst. PI. probably a species of bonds or chains 399 
(Botta 151, 10, 4). 

"l^Ji si-i-ru Adj. high, exalted 174; 422. PI. msc. phon. si-ru-ti 332, 

OL0S8ABY. 263 

19; sirQti Ideogr. 184, ad fin.; 194, 96. — sir, si-ru Prep, upon, 
above 286, ad fin.; 288, 46; 301, 21 etc. 

^^>i sillu Subst. (PI.?) shadow, Hebr. ^^, Arab. J^, Aram. |ilx| , 

Eth. /f AA)I /fAiV^I ~ (ana) sil-li (with determ. of deity) 
289, col. II. 72; 301, 23. — Sil-bi'l Philist. proper name Zil-Bel = 
^V3"^2i 162 (sub voce ^^1}) ; 290, 25; 355, 5. 

D^U 1 ) s a 1 m u Subst. likeness , Hebr. □'^Ji , Aram. ^Sn^-v, , Arab. 

*juo, Stat, consti'. sa-lam 210, 61. Ideogr. 255, 21. — 2) darkness, 

comp. D^^, 'i.*.\^, /f A^^ I- — (is) sal-mat-ti Subst. sun-shade, 
canopy? 213, 20; 216, footn. fff. 

"212"^ (i?) su-um-bi Subst. PI. — ? — 345; see under '2'2)i> comp. 
348 (Notes and Illust. ad loc). 

Iftyi simidtu, Stat, constr. simdat Subst. yoke, team, comp. Hebr. 
IQ^i. Ideogr. with phon. at 195, 102. 

)yy^ (ir) Si-im-mi-ni name of a country 426, 23. 

IDii (ir) Si-mi-ra, Si-mir-ri name of a town Zemar = "IQJ^, Gr. 
Slfivga, IJifiVQCC 105; 323 (Eug. ed. Vol. II p. 7 line 10 from below). 

"IDJi supru Subst. nail (of the finger) = Jih, /f4^Cl. '^?P, 
i^ipitS) ^^^ *'^o Hebr. ]~©]i{. Stat, constr. su-pur 159 (Deut. XXI. 12). 

"IJi (ir, m&t) Sur-ru(ri), name of the city Tyre '^j^ 169, passim; 
213, 12; 355, 1. — (ir, mSt) Sur-(ra)-ai Adj. Tyrian 157, 86; 207 
(Eng. ed. Vol. I p. 198 line 4); 210, 63; 252, ad fin. 

DDlii (^0 Sa-ri-ip-tav name of the town Sarepta flDliJ (^ ^- X.VII. 582 
9. 10; Obad. 20) 200; 288, 39. 


J^Dp ka-bu-a-ti Subst. fem. PI. from the Sing, kabu'tu goblet, comp. 
Hebr. nj^3p 208 (2 Ki. IX. 2 and footn. f). 

DDp kubbu Subst. cage, comp. Hebr. PlDp- Phon. ku-up-pi 261, 
9; 290, 20; (302, 28). 

^3p (}<Dp'') comp. Hebr. ^^p, 3p> — ak-bi 1. Ps. Sg. Impft. Kal 
1 spoke, announced, 290, 7; [302, 26]. — ik-bi 3. Ps. Sg. he spoke, one 
named 140 (Gen. XVII. 26). — ik-bu-u 3. Ps. Sg. they commanded, 
had commanded 333, 10. 16. — i-ka-bu-§u-ni 3. Ps. Sg. Pres. with 
Suff. and parag. ni 156; 193, 86 and comp. Notes and Illust. ad loc. 
The same ideographically (KA. GA) written 232, 6. — li-ik-bu-u 3. Ps. 
Volunt. Kal {that) they may announce 373, footn. ** 35. — kibitu 


Subst. bidding, command. Stat, constr. ki-bit 201 (Eng. ed. p. 191 
line 2 from below); 370, 36; but also ki-bi-ti 873, footn. ** 33. 

^3p kabaiu meet, Hebr. ^3p, Aram. \_as , Eth. ('l^)^flAI» 

Arab |J>~»iJ. — kablu Subst. 1) struggle, combat. Phon. kab-li (Gen.) 

397, footn. * 1. — Ideogr. 178 (Eng. ed. p. 166); 194, 96; 201. PI. 
, „„ with phon. complem. kabl&-ti 177. — 2) 3Iidst, stat. constr. kabal 
in the midst. Ideogr. 157, 87; 169; 288, 37; 301, 19. 

"l"]p (m&t) Ki-id-ri, Ka-ad-ri name of a country Kedar, Hebr. 
-)lp 147, ad fin.; 208, Eng. ed. p. 198. — Ki-id-ra-ai, Kid-ra-ai 
Adj. Kedarene, the Kedar ene 147, ad fin. 

J^ip (m&t, ir) Ku-u-i name of a country; from this comes (m^t) 
Ku-u-ai Adj. one of Kui 252, ad fin. \ 257. 

'I'PD^Ip Ka-us-gab-ri name of an Edomite king 150 (Eng. ed. 
p. 137 line 1). — Ka-u§-ma-la-ka Edom. king's name = KoaixdXaxoq 
257, ad fin. 

-l^p, see y^y 

•p^P kul-lul-ti Subst. worthy of a curse (Gen.) 289, col. III. 6. 

Pp kinnu Subst. nest. Hebr. p, Aram. \y p Written ki-in-ni 385, 
ad fin.; kin-ni 386, ad init. 

nQp kuppu Subst. cage, see 33p. 

■^Jfp comp. Eth. ^^^o^Z, \ properly gather , then gather together, 
take away, comp. Hebr. rjDX ^) gather, 2) take away. From this we 
have ki-is-su-ra 3. Ps. Sg. msc. Perf. Ifte. (for kitsura) he was col- 
lected, gathered together, taken away 2, 6. — ak-sur, ak-su-ra 1. Ps. 
Sg. Impft. Kal I took together 398, 150, 2; I carried aiuay 261, 9; 272, 
ad init. (273, 3); 323, ad fin. — ik-su-ra 3. Ps. Sg. Impft. he assembled, 
marshalled 323 (Eng. ed. Vol. II p. 7 line 8 from below). — kisru 
Subst. share (properly what has been taken away). Stat, constr. ki-sir 
273, 2; 323, ad fin.; 376 (Ezra IV. 10). 

"Ipp properly to be even, see for the Etymol. kakkaru. — mu- 
kak-kir Part. Pa. making level or like, then (of writing) blotting out, 
destroying 459, footn. 2. — kakkaru (for karkaru) Subst. surface 

of the earth, comp. Arab. JiJi, \JiJi (Assyr.-Babyl. Keilinsch. 383), also 

Hebr. J?p"lp (Hpt.), as well as Talm. mp'lp (Buxt.). Phon. kar-kar 
204 (1 Kings XX. 26). 

{^"Ip comp. {^")p, IjS. — ak-[ru] 1. Ps. Impft. Kal / named 405, 


footn. *** ; but the reading is uncertain. — ik-ti-ru-ni (num-ma) 
3. Ps. Impft. Ifte. (and with Cop.) they summoned 289, 75; 301, 24. 

3"lp comp. Hehr. 3~ip ak-rib 1. Ps. Sg. Impt't. Kal / approached 
289 (col. III. 1); [382, 25]. — ak-ti-rib (for ak-ti-rib) 1. Ps. Impft. 
Ifte. 193, 79. 82; 194, 86. 88. 89. From this comes kit-ru-up Subst. 
attack 290, col. III. 15. — kirbu Subst. (instead of kirbu) midst, in- 
ward part comp. Hebr. 3"ip. Stat, constr. kirib (for kirib) with 
Prepositions : ina kirib, ultu kirib etc. phon. ki-rib 195, 101; 
213, 21; 290, col. III. 7. 20. 23; 291, 39; 302, 27. 28 etc.; also 
ki-ri-bi 373, footn. ** 33. With Sufi", e. g. ul-tu kir-bi-su-un 290, 
19 etc. 

T^p kardu Adj. brave (= Ai-ab. .tAS ?). Phon. kar-du 17, ad Jin. ^^^^ 
247, 2. — kuradu Subst. hero, combatant, warrior. PI. ku-ra-di 
332, 18; 398, Botta 150, 3. 

"ip-jp (ir) Kar-ka-ru(ra, ri) name of a town Karkbr ~fp"ip 180 
(Judg. VIII. 10); 194, 90. 97; 323 (lines 7 and 5 from below Eng. ed.) 

riDinmp C^*"' ^i^t) Kar-ti-ha-da-as-ti name of a Cyprian town 
Kartichadast = nU'lH Hip {Carthage) 355, 20. 

(n)tt'p kaStu Subst. bow, comp. Hebr. f);^«p, Aram. |£u4_d , Ethiop. 

<J)f^^;, Arab, fj^yi. Gen. kasti (Ideogr.) 261, 4; 289, 74; 801, 
23 etc. (comp. 296, Notes and Illust.): 374, 31. With Sufi". kaSat-su- 
nu 332, 23. 

J-)P katu Subst. hand (of what etymology?). Phon. with Sufi", ka- 
tus-su 213, 2. — [ka-]ti-ja 219, 23 (Eng. ed. p. 211); from the latter 
it is prob. shortened to ka-ti 302, 25; 397, 2; comp. Assyr.-Bab. Keil. 
246 Note 2. Ideogr. 208, 2 Kings IX. 2. Dual 136 Note line 2; 370, 
36 etc. etc. 

inp) "Tip Kut(i(tr), see in> 

^J^'^ comp. Hebr. I}}"], Ar. «Ac , , Ethiop. CX)^',. — radu Subst. 
thunder, storm, written ra-a-du 124, col. II. 1. 

i<(l)N"l (avil) Ru-'-(u)-a name of a tribe 232, 12; 346, 16. 

ij^-) comp. Hebr. piyi, Arab, ^c ., Aram, ji^j, Ethiop. (^OP [• — 
ri'u Subst. herdsman, sometimes in its proper sense (preceded then by 
avil e. g. 397, footn. * 3), sometimes in the figurative sense leader, 
commander. Phon. ri-i-uv 453 (Zech. XI. 5). Ideogr. 19, 29; 397, 
footn. * 3. — ri'Iutu Subst. rule. Stat const, ri-i-uv-ut 153 (Gen. 


XLIX. 1)? 453 (Zech. XI. 5). — ri-i-tu Subst. pasture 288, col. 11.41 
(ri-i-ti genit.). (Hpt.). 

□J^"l comp. Hebr. QJ^"!, >a^9, C^<hl^P^ \ ~ rimu Subst. thunder, 
written ri-mu(ini) 205, Eng ed. p. 196. From this comes Rammanu, 
RamSnu, written Ram-ma-nu, Ra-ma-nu, Ra-man (205, 2 Kings V. 
18), name of the god of storm ^= Hebr. pj^'^ (written p-) and pro- 
nounced -Jts-i comp. 'Pefz/iidv). Ideogr. 91, 53; 194, 87; 195, 98; 333, 
14; 458, footn. * 48; 459, footn. 3. — Ramm4n-abal-i-di-naav 
proper name 339, footn. * = 'Rammdn bestowed a son\ — Ramman- 
nirUri proper name 184, 65; 212, 1 = Rammdn is help. [We have 
other names compounded with Ramman as Samsi-Ramm&n (?) 472, 
B. C. 823, Ramm3,n-m u§ammir 'Rammdn bringeth flood' , 472, B. C. 
789, Ram m&n-uballit '■Rammdn hath preserved alive' 472, B. C. 786. 
Mannu-ki-Ramm^ n 'who is like Rammdnf 478, B. C. 683. — 

Di^l comp. on"). Aram. UTH, >o-.9, Arab. ^, Eth. f^^4 .'• 
ra-'-i-mat Part. act. fem. (Stat, constr.) loving 332, 22. — ri-i-mu 
Subst. mercy, favour 371 (Eug. ed. Vol. II p. 59). — ri-mi-nu-u Adj. 
merciful 26, 16. — nar&mu Adj. beloved, loved one, favourite. Stat, 
constr. na-ra-am 413, 34. — naramtu ditto Fem., written na-ram-ti 
(Stat, constr.!) 414, Notes and Illust. 

□Jil (alap) rimu Subst. wild ox (vnsentf), Hebr. DJ^l- Phon. ri- 
i-mu 160 (Deut. XXXIII. 17); 456 (Job XXXIX. 9). Ideogr. 456. ibid. 
— ri-ma-ni§ Adv. (formed from the Plur. rim&ni) like a wild ox 456 
(Job XXXIX. 9). 

|DN"1 i^^^^j ^0 read!) Ra-'-sa-a-ni name of a tribe 232 (Eng. ed. 
p. 224 line 4). 

pi^-1 ruku Adj. far, Hebr. plplli Ciftt*^',' « n* »?, |.a-.ej, writ- 
ten ru-u-ku 188. ad fin.; ru-ku 213, 9; also ru-uk-ki (Gen.) 288,36. 
PI. msc. ru-u-ku-ti 277 (Botta 75, 4); ru-ku-ti 398, ad fin. — ru-kis 
Adv. far, from afar 398 (Botta 150, 6). — ri'kiitu Subst. distance, 
Gen. ri-i-ku-tiv 124 (col. I. 31). 

^j^") ri'§u Subst. head, summit, also beginning, commencement, comp. 

tt^N'l. LT^jy I^J. CXri."- - Pl^o°- "-^-^^ (^«°) 124, col. II. 15; 
ri-i-ia-a (Ace.) 124, col. I. 30. col. II, 15 d. Ideogr. 231, 4; observe 
also ri'S nSri = "iH^n ^i^"l source of a spring 29; ri's tiSmdi, per- promontory"} 210, 61; ri's §arr&ti beginning of rule, opening reign 
273; 345, 6. — ri'stu Adj. distinguished, exalted, majestic {not first! — 
see p. 352), written ri§-tu-u 2, 3; 12, footn. f; 351, 63; 434, 25; — 

0L0S8ART. 267 

177, ad fin.; 178 ad init. (ri's-ti). — Ri-is-i-ni (ir) name of a place 
5eaen (?), properly 'head of the spring', 'spring' 100. 

^»3-1 comp. V31(J<). JJ^(0. '^'(1). (A)C'l^'l"."- - arba-tu 
four Ideogr. with phon. complem. ti 213, 4; also ir-bi-it-tiv 377, adfin. 

N31 (avil) Ru-bu-' name of a tribe 232, 5. 585 

'13'^ comp. Lj,, P)D1) |-£». — ir-bu-u 3. Ps. Sg. and PI. Impft. Kal 
he, they grew up 2, 11 ; 346, 14. — u-rab-bu-u 3. Ps. PI. Impft. Pa. 
they raised 398, Botta 149. 12. — rabu Adj. great, written ra-bu-u 
124, col. II. 5; 194, 96; rabu-u (Ideogr. with phon. complem. 103, ad 
fin.; 288, 38; rabitu Fem. Ideogr. with phon. complem. tuv, tiv, ti 
91, 59; 140 (Gen. XIX. 23 passim); 157, 85 6ts etc. PI. fem. ra-ba-a-ti 
19, 29; 389, 156. — rubil Adj. rm^/iiy (formation like mahrii), Phon. 
ru-bu-u 421, ad init. Ideogr. 97. PI. rubGti the great ones, Ideogr. 
289, col. II. 69, col. III. 2. — tarbitu Subst. sprout. Stat, constr. 
tar-bit 351, 64; 450, Rev. 3. — kima tar-bi-ti — ?— 232, 8; 247,2. 

PQ3"^ rab-sak name of an official Rahsdk , literally Great-Bead, 
then commander, hebraized into nPK^DI ^19; 320. Comp. 421 (Eng. 

l-T : - 

ed. Vol. II p. 114 last line). 

V31 comp. W3"1 , n^J; » ''^-ci- — nar-ba-su Subst. abode 336, foot- 
note *. — (ir) Tar-bi-si name of a town Tarbiz, properly -resting-place' 
335, 6. 

□J"1 I'i-gim Subst. Stat, constr. onset, comp. Hebr. QJl , Aram. 
^„» to stone 350, 53; 397, 2. — [Haupt regards rigmu as signifying 

'shout' (hence 'battle-shout') from ragamu to cry out; comp. Deluge- 
story col. III. 9 u-nam-bi (= unabbi Pael Impf. nab ft 'speak') 
iltu rabitu (sirtu) ta-bat rig-ma 'the exalted goddess called out 
with loud voice' (or should we render 'the exalted goddess with kindly 
voice etc.'?). — Transl.] 

l-I") u-rad-di 1. Ps. Sg. Impft. Pa. I added 290, 28; 302, 30; 323, 
ad fin. ; 376 (Ezra IV. 10). 

"i-ll u-§ar-di 1. Ps. Sg. Impft. Shaf. I laid low 195, 99. — Lotz 
(Tigl.-Pil. I, 80 etc.) scatter. 

I-]-) ar-ti-di 1. Ps. Sg. Impft. Ifte. I pursued 209, 53. 

QY} comp. QY). — murimu Part. Pa. elevating, erecting. Stat, 
constr. mu-rim 213, 3. — r&mSnu properly exaltation (421), then 
self, with Suff. I myself , thou thyself etc. — (a-na) ra-ma-ni-ja(§u) 
156 (Numb. XXII. 5); 193, 79; 262, 15; 326, footn. **. 

3n'^ Ru-hu-bi Ammon. proper name 194, 95. 

nm (avil) Ri-hi-hu name of a tribe 346, 15. 

vpil comp. Hebr. vni- — ra-hi-su Part, overflowing, overwhelming. 


— i-i-hi-il-tu Subst. (=: ri-hi-is-tu) overwhelming, storm 195, 98; 198 
(Notes and Illust. ad loc). 

331 comp. 331, v_^,, ,^y — ir-kab 3. Ps. Sg. Impft. Kal he 

travelled 184, ad ink. — u-gar-kib 3. Ps. Sg. Impft. Shaf. he caused 
to mount, conveyed 350, 56. — rab-bu Subst. ambassador (Ace!) 291, 
col. III. 41; 302, 32; 399, 3. — nar-kab-tuv Subst. chariot, Hebr. 
n33~ip- Ideogr. 19, 32. PI. narkab^ti Ideogr. 194, 91 6i«. 92. 93. 

n3D"l Ru-kib-ti Philist. proper w&vaQ Rukipt 166, ad init.; 289, 62; 
301, 21; also Eu-u-kib-tu written 262, 16. 

DD"1 u-rak-kis, u-ra-kis 1. Ps. and 3. Ps. Sg. Impft Pa. /, he 
b86 displayed, stationed, marshalled 218, 16; 290, 22; 302, 29. — ri-kis 
Subst. Stat, constr. (properly array, then (?) marshaller, ruler 413. — 
rak-su Subst. rank, battle-array 332, 24. 

^31 comp. Hebr. 5t^3"l. — u-rak-gu 3. Ps. PI. Impft. Pa. they drew 
together 332, 19. 

i^i-) comp. np"1. jloj, ^A^y ZjC^W — ir-mu-u 3. Ps. PI. Impft. 

Kal they cast down, founded 389, 175. — u-Sar-mu-u 3. Ps. Sg. Impft. 
Shaf. he settled in, transported to 277, ad init. — Haupt in his Glos- 
sary gives to the root the general signification of dwell, settle, rest and 


compares Hebr. n'DI ^^^ Arab. Lo,. Comp. Amiaud 1. c. 

T • : .y 

D^DT Ru-mi-su Cypr. proper name 355, 19. 

^^1 nam-mas-§i (so we should read instead of §im-mis-si accord- 
ing to K. 3358; K. 36, see Del. in Lotz Die Insch. Tigl. Pileser I, 167 
note), arising out of nar-ma§-§i, crawling animal, worm, comp. Hebr. 

riD"! (^0 Ra-pi-hi name of a town Raphia 204; 396, 1. 

^D1 comp- Hebr. tJ'IQ, rap&§u to be broad. — mu-rap-pi-§at 
Part. Pa. fem. Stat, constr. glorifying 176, ad init. — rap-§u(si) Adj. 
wide, extended 189, ad init.; 191, ad init.; 195, 100; 255, 18; 450, ad 
fin. — rapastu Adj. fem. of the same, written ra-pa-ag-tuv(tiv) 129. 
Ideogr. with phon. complement tu, tuv 202, ad Jin.; 351, 65. Plur. 
fem. rapgati Ideogr. 195, 99; 374, 24. 

"iJil risiitu Subst. help, assistance, comp. Hebr. ^ifl » Arab. , c^j> 

written ri-su-tu 91, 52. — ri-su-us-su-un the same with Suff. 289, 76. 

iyi R a-s u n-n u (n i) Syr. proper name Bezin |")\{~) 191; 252. 

njil comp. Hebr. nj^"], Arab. >^a^. rasfipu fit together. — ar-sip 
1. Ps. Sg. Impft. Kal. / prepared, erected 335, 10; 336 (Notes and 
Illust. ad loc). 


ri^^ (mat) Ra-sa-ap-pa, Ra-sap-pa name of a country or city 
Bezeph r];i-| 327, ad init.; 480, B. C. 804; 482, B. C. 772; 486, B. C. 
747. 737. 

3"T) (for 3")3"l) ra-ru-bat Subst. Stat, constr. majesty, terror, comp. 
Syr. uD?o^, jiaajo? 288, 42; 294 (Notes and Illust. ad loc). 

^1 (mat) Ra-a-si name of a country (hardly to be identified with 
the ti't^l of the Bible) 427, ad Jin. 

^^") comp. iA.iij. — u-gar-si-du 3. Ps. PI. (Sg. ?) Impft. Shaf. they 
(or he) established 213, 3. 

^^^ comp. L^.. — ir-§u-u 3. Ps. Sg. Impft. Kal. he granted 290, 
col. III. 33 [301, 31]. — ar-si 1. Ps. Impft. Sg. I granted, bestowed 
371 (Smith's Assurb. 43, 53). — ir-sa-a 3. Ps. Sg. Pres., or Volunt. 
he will (or may he) yield 434, 29. 

]i; §a Pron. relat. 19, 28. 30; 79, footn. *; 97; 124, col. I. 28; 

expresses the genitival relation 79, footn. *; 82, 106. 109; 91, 52. 59; 

143, ad init.; 156 (Numb. XXII. 5) etc. etc. [With this comp. the 

Aramaic genitival usuage with i-q or rj. — Transl.] Conjunction 82, 
105 etc. etc. 

]^ §u, see "i^. 537 

^^ §i-uv Subst. corn, comp. Akkad. §i 182, ad init. 

^J^^ comp. ^J^K') >3L*«, ^i-i^. — u-sa-'-lu 3. Ps. PL Impft. Pa. they 

" T 

begged, summoned 289, 77. — §a-'-al Inf. Stat, eonstr. 399, 3. 

)J^^ Su-an-na-KI name of a town (either another name for Babylon 
or designation of a quarter of that town) 346, 14; 373, footn. ** 33. 

"IN^ si'ru Subst. Jlesh, comp. Hebr. IJ^ti''- Ideogr. 19, 30. 

•)^J^^ sa-a-§u (from §a -f- §u) that one, he himself. Demonst. pro- 
noun 289, 59; 301, 20; 323 (Eng. ed. p. 7 lines 5 and 6 from below). 
— sa-a-su-nu PI. msc. 398 (Botta 149, 12). 

{^3^ Sab-'-i Egypt, proper name Seveh, Hebi". j^'^Q (read i^^D-) V^^' 
bably Egypt. Sabaka 269 (2 Kings XVII. 4); likewise 396, 1. 2; also 
Sab-' 397, footn. * 1. 3. The sibilant is always s. — 

[{^3^ iibft to be satisfied or satiated with, comp. Hebr. y2\i/i Arab. 

}t*-w, Syr. '?!>,ai8. — lisbi (phonet. li§-bi 434, 31) precat. may he be 

satisfied with. — Transl.]. 

U^ OD^) §a-bi-i Subst. agate, Hebr. ^2^2^ l^^ (Exod. XXVUI. 19). 


132^ §a-ba-tu name of a month Shebat, Hebr. t3315> 380. 

-)3^ comp. Hebr. "i^tJ^, Eth. fl[\Z, I- Arab. ^ , Aram. j^Z. — 
ta§-bir 3. Ps. Sg. fern. Impft. Kal she broke or shattered 332, 23. — 
u-sab-bir 1. Ps. Sg. Impft. Pa. I broke in pieces 261, 3. — u-sab-bi- 
ru 3. Ps. PI. Impft. Pa. they broke in pieces 458, footn. * 48. 

f)3^ comp. Hebr. HDtJ^- "" sa-bat-tuv Subst. day of rest, Hebr. 
DSJ^ 20, ad init. 

J^ sa-ga and sa-su, see under "^y 

■^^ §i'du Subst. {images of the) bull-deity, Hebr. "^J^. Ideogr. 39; 
160 (Deut. XXXII. 17). 

"n^ siddu Subst. boundary, Targ. {^Tjg-' side. Plur. si-di, §id-di 
157, 84. 85; 203; 232, 5; gi-di-i 288, 55. 

1"!^ sadu Subst. mountain, mountain-range. Ideogr. (passim); with 
phon. complement u 213, 10; 220, 29 bis; PI. §adi-i 209, 45; 210, 55. 
60; 220, 27; 374, 31. — sad-di-(§u-un) the same (with Suff.)? 450, 
Rev. 3. — [gad determinative 157, 84; 209, 46; 210, 60; 220, 26 etc. 
As the ideogr. for gadii and mS,tu is the same, it is in many cases 
hard to decide which of the two should be read or (as in determina- 
tives) understood. — Transl.]. 

\^ §& demonstr. pron. msc. that, that one, written su-u 97; 261, 6; 
290, 29 [302, 31]; 326, footn.; 350, 51 etc. — su-a-tu (Gen. ti) the 
same Fem. 195, 101; 338, 12; 345, 7. — §u-a-tu-nu Plur. msc. 398 
(Botta 150, 12). 

^W (tOJ^tS' '')• Should we compare the Hebr. J^^)^? — i-sa-at 
3. Ps. Sg. Kal he tendered, offered 289, 64. — i-su-tu 3. Ps. PI. 398 
(Botta 151, 10. 1). [Etymology very uncertain. The word occurs in 
the combination i-sa-at ab-sa-a-ni (Tayl. cyl. col. II. 64 comp. V Eawl. 
2, 77 ; V Rawl. 7, 88) "tendered submission". Friedr. Delitzsch gives 
the verb the meaning 'draw', 'draw upon oneself (as a yoke)' hence 
'to bear', the word absanu meaning 'yoke', root Ji/'2i^ (ti^DD) '*'' 
bind'. — Transl.] 

||^ (m4t) Si-za(sa?)-na-ai Adj. man of Sizan 194, 94. 

nn^ §u-hu-ut Subst. wrath (Hebr. nPIK^ ^) ^98 (Botta 150, 1). 

"ItD^ comp. Hebr.-Aram. "it^tj' (Arab. .ia**). — a§-tur, al-tur 
1. Ps. Sg. Impft. Kal 1 wrote 153 (Gen. XLIX. 1. Exod. V. 6). — i§- 
tur 3. Ps. Sg. Impft. Kal 153 (Exod. V. 6). — §a-ta-ru Inf. writing 
153, ad fin. — sitru Subst. writing Stat, constr. si-ti-ir 124, 12; Si- 
Sggt-ri 413 (II Kawl. 60, 34e), Ideogr. with Suff. (Ace.) §itra-ja 459, 
footn. 2. 

j^l^ §i-' 3. Ps. Sg. masc. Pf. Kal he budded or sprouted forth, comp. 
Hebr. n^tC 2, 7. 


31^ comp. Hebr. ^ijj^, Aram, v-sjjo, Arab. LjLii. — sibu Subst. 
old man, grandfather. From this we have as fem. §i-ib-tu grandmother 
= ummu [rabitu] (II R. 32, 65 c. d.; comp. with 67 c. d.) 139 (Gen. 
XV. 15), and also §i-bu-tu Subst. Age (II R. 33, 10). 

3jit2?, see ^nfY 

□"t^ comp. Hebr. □ijj^. — §i-ma-tav Subst. destination, fate 2, 8. 
— sim-tav the same 207, ad fin. (Asarhaddon's Cylind. col. III. 19). 

p^ comp. Hebr. yQ, Aram, as, Arab. ,mL^, Eth. Y^ J \ (according 
to Haupt sub voce = pU^). — i§-kun, is-ku-nu(na) 3. Ps. Sg. Impft. 
Kal he made 209, 47; 326, footn. ; 338, 8. 15. — i§-ku-nu 3. Ps. PI. 
they made 370, 38; 385 (Is. X. 14). — a§-ku-un, a§-kun, as-ku-nu 
1. Ps. Sg. Impft. Kal I made 124, col. II. 13; 193, 80; 194, 97; 201 
(Eng. ed. p. 191 last line); 202 (Insc. ad fin.); 203 (Eng. ed. p. 193 line 
8 from below); 209, 48; 210, 62; 220, 32; 255, 19. 29; 289, col. II. 63; 
301, 21. — u-sa-a§-kin 3. Ps. Sg. Impft. Shaf. he caused to he made (made?) 
323 [Eng. ed. p. 7 (Vol. II) lines 8 and 3 fr. below]. — §u-u§-ki-in 
Imp. Shaf. 434, 28. — git-ku-nu 3. Ps. Sg. and PI. Perf. Ifte. was or 
were erected, set up 218, 14; 289, 77. — igtak-an 3. Ps. Sg. Impft. 
Ift. Ideogr. (SA) with phon. complement he brought about 484, B. C. 
763 (here of the darkness produced by an eclipse of the sun). — a§- 
ta-kan 1. Ps. Impft. Ifte. 289, 79; 301, 24; 345, 6; 346, 14. — ig- 
tak-ka-na 3. Ps. PL Ifta. (Subj. katS-ai) 370, 36. — §aknu, Stat, 
constr. §akan viceroy = Hebr. pQ. Phon. sa-ak-nu (Stat, constr.) 
411 (Is. XLI. 25). Sak-na (accus.) 374, 34; Stat, constr. §akan, 
written SA-an 393, footn. ***. PI. gaknuti Ideogr. 220, 32; 255, 19; 
with phon. complem. u-ti 338, 16. — §iknatu Snbst. creature. Stat, 
constr. sik-na-at 17, 3 (and Notes and Illust.) (8). 

"liD^ sakkannak(k)u Subst. (as it seems of Akkadian origin) 
commander, lord 289, col. II. 69, III. 1; 301, 22; 302, 25; 335 (I Rawl. 
48. No. 5. 2). Comp. my Essay "die Sargonsstele des Berl. Mus." 
(1882) p. 29 foil. 

"13^ sikriti Subst. Plur. Fem. palace-women (7). Ideogr. 291, col. 
III. 38; 302, 32; 345, 10. 

^^'^ comp. {3^[^, w^^i-4/ (JoLw). — saliatu Subst. commandamt, 
viceroy = "^^W- Phon. §a-lat (Stat, constr.) 315; 488 C, line 3. 12. 

T - 

Ideogr. 314, footn. *; 488 C, 6. — §il-tan-nu Subst. ruler, comp. 
qLLLw 270; 396, 1. But see under jniH- 

"p^^ comp. ^'p^. — is-lu-la 3. Ps. Sg. Impft. Kal he conveyed away 
(into captivity, as spoil) 338, 11. — a§-lu-la 1. Ps. Sg. Impft. Kal 589 


I carried away 193, 81; 210, 59; 261, 13. 14; 272, ad init.; 289, 68; 
301, 22; 346, 17 ad fin. etc. — sa-lil Part, carrying away. Stat, 
constr. 323 (Botta 40, 20). — gal-la-tu Stat, constr. §al-la-at Subst. 
spoil, captive 261, 13. 14; 287, II Inscr. 3; 346, 17 etc. — §al-lat(?) 
261, 4. With Suff. §al-Ia-(as)-su 139 (Gen. XV. 5); 194, 88; 338, 11. 
— sal-la-su-nu(sun) 210, 58; 289, 68. 83; 301, 22. — gal-la-ti§ 
Adv. as booty 290, col. III. 20; 302, 28; 346, 13; 450, Rev. 4. 

D^^ (alternating with* Q^D'') comp. ch^i}, ^^'^ *^j (*-L«. — [uSal- 
lim (contracted to §allim comp. 382 (Neh. II. 10) Sin-ballit) Pael 
Impf. 3. Sing, 'he preserved', 'gave prosperity to' e. g. Sin-sallimani 
'Sin gave me prosperity' (recompensed me?) 474, B. C. 747. — Transl.] 

salmu Subst. welfare, Hebr. Q'i^tt', Arab. |»bl*v etc. — sa-al-mu 124, 
col. II. 8. Also used of the setting (of the sun) e. g. Sanh. Tayl. Cyl. 
I, 13 : sa-lam §an-§i. Comp. p. 215 footn. ff. — iulmu Subst. 
1) peace, written §ul-mu(mi) comp. Ill Rawl. I col. V, 26 (§u-lum); 
399 (Botta 151. 10. 3); 484, B. C. 758; 2) greeting, salutation, hail. 
Phon. §ul-mu 152 (Gen. XLIII. 23); 3) setting (of the sun), written 
with the Ideogr. DI and the phonet. complem. mu 140 (Gen. XIX. 
23); 213, 13; 247, 4. — §almi§ Adv. sound, uninjured, in good con- 
dition 450, Rev. 5. — sa-li-im-tu Subst. peace 373, footn. ** 33. — 
Sulm anu-a§4ridu Iti'i^iQ^^ proper name Salmanassar {Shalman- 
eser), Hebr. "lCi^iD!?2■^ written Sul-ma-nu-asaridu [but in the earlier 
part of Vol. I Sal-ma-nu-ussir] 97; 266 (2 Kings XVII. 3); Sulma- 
nu-a§aridu 19; 459, footn. 1. 

* [Haupt holds that the root Q^^, common to Semitic languages, 
appears in Assyrian sometimes in the form q'?D, salamu being the 
root-form in Assyrian. But according to Fried. Delitzsch, in Assyr. 
Lesestiicke S^^ ed. (glossary), there are two independent roots which 
come to approximate one another in meaning salamu turn oneself 
to — hence be gracious or helpful to (synonym saharu); galSmu to 
be uninjured, sound, complete. Pael, to keep whole, — complete, recom- 
pense. Zimmern, Busspsalmen p. 57 illustrates the use of saldmu 
6. g. §ar ta§mi u salimi hing of hearing and showing -favour ; Bi'l 
ana ali u biti §a§u islimu ir§(i tari 'Bel turned himself (gra- 
ciously) to city and temple and granted mercy (forgiveness)',. The 
two ideas, however, 'favour' and 'well-being', 'peace' very closely 
approximate, and in the latest inscriptions salamu and §al4mu are 
used in the same sense. Lastly the Assyrians employ the same ideo- 
gram for both. See Haupt's Beitrage zur Assyr. Lautlehre (Assyrian 
Phonology) § 9. — Transl.] 

0L0S8ARY. 273 

^^^ §al§u numeral third, comp. Eth. 1*1^]^ JI , Arab. v^>JLS 

(Hebr. "itJ^l^l^?, Aram. f. A.V ^) Written sal-§i (Gen.) 288, col. II. 34; 
301, 18. — salastu numeral three =: rW^U) ^^^- [1° this passage 
however, we should transcribe salaita, or Salastu. The TA of the 
text belongs to the Akkad. group TA.A.AN ^ t&n (numerical deter- 

□^ §umu Subst. name, Hebr. Qlt', Aram. Q^, ) ^ *■ j §u-ma Ace. 
2, 2. 8; with the (phon.) sign sum 291, 37: 302, 24; 345, 32; also 
§u-mi Genit. 124, col. II. 12. Ideogr. with Suff. 459, footn. 2. 3; 
Ideogr. PI. 338, 14. 

□^ SIM (RIK) with SUN (= ma'du), Akkad., literally much 
sweet- smelling , i. e. incense, spices 235, 28. Comp. Haupt on Flood- 
legend col. III. 48; 237 {Notes and Elust.). 

{<D^ comp. Hebr. yi^W, j^ptJ^, Arab. «.*.«- etc. — i§-m i-i 3. Ps. 

Impft. Kal he heard 152, ad init. — i§-mi-ma the same with Cop. 398, 
Botta 150, 6. — Tas-mi-tuv name of a god 232, 15. — li-mi-Da-gan 
name of an ancient Babyl. king 129, ad fin.; 182, footn. *. 

bi^DtJ' su-mi-lu Adj. and Adv. left, on the left. Hebr. ^{^^ji' =: 
Sumilu, also Sumilu. Adj. and Adv. left, on the left hand 135 (Gen. 

xm. 9). 

^(J^)D^ (m&t) Sumiri {land) Sumir i. e. "IJ^J^^ Shinar , written 
Su-mi-ri 118 (Gen. XL 1); 373, footn. ** 33; 460, footn.; (avil) Su- 
mi-ir-im the Sumerians (PL of Su-mi-ir-u) 118 (Gen. XI. 1). Comp. 
Khors. 3; II Eawl. 65, 52 a. etc. Ideogr. 335 (1 Rawl. 48 No. 5. 3); 
346, 14; 351, 65. 

lIDty comp. l^OIC^n- — aS-mud 1. Ps. Sg. Impft. Kal / destroyed fi<dQ 
234, 24. 

1^^ Sami', written AN.-i (i phon. complement, comp. the ortho- 
graphy §a-mi-i V Rawl. 21, g. h. and see Lotz , Inschr. Tigl. Pil. I 
216), Subst. plur. = Hebr. D^QK^ heaven. Entirely phonet. §a-mi-i 
123, ad init. Ideogr. with phonet. complement i 139 (Gen. XV. 5); 
177, ad fm. (read §ami-i); 178, ad init. — Sa-ma-mu pronounce 
Samamu the same (poet.) 2, 1. 

P^ §a-am-iiuv Subst. oil, Hebr. YQ^ 426. 

[lD^ SamSru to come down in floods, be tempestuous. Hence Samru 
and Sitmuru raging especially used in ref. to a flood (Haupt). 
Sumflrtu (constr. Sumfirat) flood, tempest. Deluge-story col. II. 
49 Su-mur-ra-as-su (= SumuratSu) 'his (Ramman's) tempest'. 



Comp. also the phrase in Salmanassar's Monolith col. II. 98 kima 
Ramman ili-su-nu ri-hi-il-ta u-§a-az-nin (so Dr. Craig reads in 
'Hebraica' July 1887) "I rained down a flood on them like Ramm&n". 
— musammir Partic. Pael "tempest bringing'. Ramm4n-mu-gam- 
mir Ramman hringeth a tempest, name of an eponym-official 472, Can. 
Ill B. C. 789; 482, B. C. 789. — Translator.] 

ti'D^ §ama§, sam§u (sansu) Subst. sum,, Hebr. t£^OtC'> Arab. 
O o - 
ij**,**i etc. Gen. sam(n)-si, written sometimes altogether phoneti- 
cally sam-§i, sometimes with the Ideogr. UD(PAR) and the phonet. 
compl. §i 140 (Gen. XIX. 23); 178; 213, 6. 11 etc. etc. Conip. also 
484, B. C. 763". — (ilu) Sama§ name of the sun-god. Phon. Sa- 
ma§ 262, 16. Ideogr. 91, 53; 279, ad fin.; 280, ad ink. —- Samas- 
balat-su-ik-bi proper name 429 (Dan. I. 7). — Samas-§um-ukin 
proper name 'Samas established the name' Sammughes 2!aoadovxivog 
368, footn.; 369, 27. 

jl^^ sangu Subst. priest, Ideogr. 213, 3. — g^angfitujSubst. priest- 
hood(?). Phon. §a-an-gu-ti-(ja) 332, 22. 

1^^ comp. nitt^' AJPI; — i5"*^' ^^■^' ^'^^^ numeral two. Phon. 
§i-na 21, footn. *. — §a,nitu the second. Written §ani-i 273 (Eng. 
ed. p. 265 line 11) (Gen.); §S,ni-ti the same 193, 82. — Sanitu Subst. 
repetition, time. Ideogr. 82, 104; 91, 61; 202, 87; 207, 97. 102; 209, 
40. — Perhaps (?) we have as a derivative from this gattu, St. catr. 

ianat, Subst. year, Hebr. Hi^) Arab. A-*.**, Aram, {^pitt') 1^^^- Phon. 
5at-ti (Gen.) 288, 46; 290, 27; 302, 30. Ideogr. 15, 3. PI. §anati, 
written §ana-ti 160 (Deut. XXXII. 7); Ideogr. 458, footn. * 50; 459, 
footn. 6. — On 364, 13 we ought perhaps instead of Stat, constr. 
sanat to read St. abs. gattu. [Comp. p^ (singular) in Moabite stone 
line 8 and Schroder, Phoniz. Sprache pp. 105 — 106. — Transl.] 

]y^ comp. Eth. "t" 1*1 $ J I (Lotz). — §ananu Infin. rivalry, emula- 
tion, then equality, occurring frequently in the phrase la sa-na-an 
without equal, without rivalry 213, 2. — §a-ni-nu Subst. the rival, 
occurring frequently in the phrase §a-ni-na la i-§u-u he who has no 


pty Sinnu Subst. tooth, comp. ^y^ , jtJ^, llX, l\il 187 (1 Kings 

X. 22). — Sin al-ap tooth of the elephant, equivalent of the Hebr. 
D^SniSy i'vory 187 (1 Kings X. 22; but comp. footn. *). 

j^Q^ = yQ]i; and ultimately identical with Hebr. yQ\ j;^p"in- — 

§a-pu-u 3. Ps. PI. Pf. Kal they came forth 2, 7. — u-§a-pu-u 3. Ps. PI. 

591 Pa. they caused to come forth 17, 3. — u§-ta-pu-u 3. Ps. PI. Impft. 


Ift. they %oere brought forth 2, 10. — sup ft Subst. Phon. (Gen.) Su- 
pi-i — ? — 290, col. III. 15. 

WD52^ si'pfl (sipu?) Subst. /ooi, peibaps so named because it is 
that which rubs the ground, or is the member which glides over it, 
comp. Hebr. riD'^i Aram. | q f ■ ■, q *-■- — si pa Dual 157, 87; 194, 86; 
235, 27; 289, 57; 455 (Ps. U. 12). — §ipu Prep. Written with Suflf. 
1. Ps. Sg. si-pu-u-a 288, col. II. 44. 

iQt^ (ir) Sa-pi-ja name of a Babyl. town 486, B. C. 731. Comp. 
also Sa-pi-ja, as well as Sa-pi-i under ^QD- 

nOtt' comp. Hebr. TJOti^, Arab. i^a*g. — is-sa-pi-ik 3. Ps. Sg. Impft. 
Nif. he was washed away 124, col. II. 4. 

^2tJ^ comp. Hebr. ^QJ^,* , Arab. J»a*«, A ra m '^ a ^. — Saplituv 

lower; Ideogr. sapliti genit. 203; 232, 6; 333, 18 (gap-lit). — §ap- 
li§ Adv. below, beneath 2, 2. — mu§-pa-lu depression = lower tovm? 
(Stand. Inscr. 17) 99, footn. *. 

^Qjy comp. Jljm. — is-pu-ra 3. Ps. Sg. Impft. Kal he sent 291, 41 
[302, 32]. — i§-pur the same 398 (Botta 149, 8). — ag-pur I. Ps. Sg. 

I sent 320. — is-pu-ru 3. Ps. PI. they sent 399 (Botta 151, 10. 3). — 
§a-pi-ru Part, sending forth 277 (Botta 75, 4). 

TiDK' (m^t) Sa-pa-ar-da name of a country (= "l")r)D?) 447 
(Obad. 20). 

{<p^ ga-ku-u 3. Ps. PI. Perf. Kal? they mounted up{'i) 218, 5. 

ip^ comp. np'^'n, ij:^> rt.4^Pl' >-*-a-^\- — ^u-kft-tu Subst. 
drinking vessel, goblet, comp. Hebr. nptJ''- Written su-ku-ti 235, 28. 

— gikitu written si-ki-tuv Subst. giving to drink, watering, irrigation 
31 (Gen. II. 13). — maskitu, written mas-ki-tav Subst. drink 

II Rawl. 44, lOg in the phrase karSnu mas-ki-tav ga garrfl wine, 
drink of the king, — mas ki-ti genit. 288, col. II. 42. 

Sp^ comp. Hebr. ^p'^l} , Eth. J[*lCj>/V.I' Arab. J.sS*, Aram. \«oZ. 

— ig-ku-ul 3. Ps. Impft. Kal he weighed, comp. Assyr.-Rabyl. Keilinsch. 
p. 20. — i-sa-kal 3. Ps. Impft. Pres. he weighs out 142 ad init. 

"1^^ Sar name of a god 2, 12. 15. 

{^"1^ comp. Aram. {>{~i^ Pa., v^i-^.. — gurratu (properly Infin. Pa. 

with feminine ending) Subst. beginning Stat, constr. gur-rat 402, foot- 
note * (comp. Asurnas. Monoiith-inscr. I, 43 u. a. St.). 

P")^ mu-sar-ri-hat Part. Pa. fem. (Stat, constr.) (she) who makes 
mighty 177 (Lotz 92 foil.). 


Km^ (ilu) Si-ru-uh-a name of a god 232, ad fin. 

"1")^ i§-ru-ka 3. Ps. Sg. Impft. Kal he bestowed, rendered 194, 97. 

IDl^ (^?) sur-mi{vi)-nu , su-ur-mi(vi)-nu name of a tree, Aram. 
{<i3"11ti'» iJ-i^Jo-k. 183 (1 Kings V. 13) and footn. * (Eng. ed. p. 173); 
388 (Is. XIV.'s). From Akkadian sur-man(?) 388, footn. *. 
592 pj-)^ comp. Hebr. TT^. — as-ru-up 1. Ps. Sg. Impft. Kal / burnt 
194, 90; 234, 25. Ideogr. with phon. complement up 210, 58. 

Tl^ §arru Subst. king, Hebr. itj; (= Akkad. sirru?) 23, foot- 
note **; 124, col. I. 28. Ideogr. with Suff. sar-a-ni our king 332, 25. 
Stat, constr. Ideogr. 91, 56. 57. 58; 97, Stand-inscr. 14; 174 etc. — 
PI. sarri, written §arri-i 79, ad init.; §ar-ri 277 (Botta 75, 5). PI. 
§arrS.-ni Ideogr. with phon. complem. ni 82, 106. 109; 115, footn. ** ; 
153 (Gen. XLIX. 1); 157, 85,; 194, 95. — sar-rat Subst. fem. Stat, 
constr. queen 178, ad init.; 253 (Eng. ed. p. 245); 255, 30; 262, 16; 
333, 15; 397, 3. — Sarrrutu Subst. kingdom, rule. Phon. Gen. with 
Suff. sar-ru-ti-ja 273, 2. Ideogr. with phon. complem. tu (ti) 161 
(Josh. X. 1); 194, 88, 90 etc. etc.; with Suff. garrussin, written §a- 
ru-us-si-in her (fem.) rule 248, ad init. Stat, constr. sar-ru-ut 276 
(Botta 70. 8 — 10); §arru-ut 323 (Eng. ed. Vol. II p. 7 line 11 from 
below). — Sar-lu-dd-ri, 8ar-lu-dd-a-ri Assyr.-Philist. proper name 
Sarluddri 166, ad init.; 289, 62; 301, 21; 371. — *Sar-usur Assyr. 
proper name Sharezer 1li}|^"ltt' 329, ad fin. — Sar-ukin or Sarru- 
kinu Assyr. proper name Sargon ]'Jil"ID (jiJID) ^^^ (^ Rawl. 48. No. 3. 
line 3); 392, passim; 411 (Is. XLI. 25). Phon. Sa-ru-ki-na (with 
D) 392. 

^^ §u§su Subst. Sbssos, total of 60 units. Ideogr. 315. 

"mfi^ Si§-ku-KI — ?— name of a town 415 (Jerem. XV. 26). Is 
it = Ija^^? 415 ibid. 

Ifif"^ (ir) Su-§a-an name of a town Susa, Sovaa, Hebr. jK^IK^ HI* 
ad fin.; B75,adfin.; 381. — Su-§i-na-ak Elamite name for the district 
of Susa = Susiana, comp. the race name {^ipiK^Itt^ (Ezr. IV. 9) 112, 
ad init. Whether the word was originally an adjective (376, ad init.), 
cannot be safely determined ; see Notes and Addenda. 

n^ §attu year, see 1^^. 

-tf)^ comp. Hebr. nDK^. Eth. J^^P^- — i§-tu-u 3. Ps. Sg. Impft. 
Kal they drank 145 (Gen. XXIV. 54). 

pDH^ (amil) iu-ut(par?)-sa k Sahst. commander, mcero?/ Akkadian 
in origin. Sg. and plur. 255, ad\init.; 272, ad init.; 320 (2 Kings 
XVIII. 17); 374, 33. 


Qj^f^ ti&mtu Subst. sea, comp. Qinn ! ^^^^ abbreviated into t^mtu 
(tamdu) 6; 57 (Eng. ed.) 59. 60. Ideogr. 91, 85 6is ; 157, 87. tiam- 
tiv (Gen.) 140 (Gen. XIX. 23); 169. — tiSm-di the same 157, 84 
(or should we read Ud-di (Akkad.!)?; 203, etc. etc. — ti-amat the 
same 2, 4; this afterwards became a proper name. 

D{^n (m^t) Tu-'-im-mu name of a country 426, 23. 

IDi^n (avil) Tu-'-mu-na name of a tribe 346, 15. 

iOn it-ba-a 3. Ps. Sg. Impft. Kal he came, advanced, Ar. Lo, «.aj? 593 
(or is it secondary formation from j^^3 Impft. ibS,'u? — ) 397, foot- 
note * 2. — it-bu-ni 3. Ps. PI. Impft. Kal they came 194, 96; 201 
(Eng. ed. p. 191 line 3 from below); 203; 396, 1. — u-§at-ba-a 1. Ps. 
Sg. Impft. Shaf. he caused to come forth 452, 69. 

^{On Tu-ba-'-lu Phoenician proper name Ithobal, Hebr. ^ySHi^) 
EtS^w^aXoq, 'I&co^caog 104, ad init.; 173; 286, ad fin.; 288, 44. 48; 
301, 19. 

"i^n comp. Hebr. n")^. — at-bu-uk 1. Ps. Sg. Impft. Kal 1 poured 
out 351, 62, used metaphorically of inspiring terror. 

b'2r\ Tabal name of a land and people, Hebr. ^^R, written Ta-ba- 
luv(lu, li) 82, 85. 86; 83, ad init. (bis); also Tabal 83 (Eng. ed. 
p. 65 line 10 from below). — (m^t) Ta-bal-ai Adj. Tahalaean , the 
Tahalaean 253. 

pDn comp. Hebr. T)T)'2- — at-ta-bak I poured out 1. Ps. Sg. Impft. 
Ifte. 48, footn. ff. 

n^JI tidiiku, see 'r\-\. 

"l']J^ comp. .Lj, I^H' — Properly turn round, then in Assyr. it comes 
to signify become, be. — utir 1. and 3. Ps. Impft. Pa. I or he made 
to turn round (so 290, col. III. 22; 350, col. III. 49); then I or he 
made, produced. Phon. u-tir 234, 25; 255, 24; 338, 13 etc.; also 
u-tir-ra 255, 18; 290, 22. Ideogr. (GUR) with phon. complement ra 
= utir-ra-a 220, 32. — ut-tir 193, 85. — taiartu Subst. return. 
Phon. ta-ai-ar-tuv (Gen. ti) 346, 15; 351, 63; 484, B. C. 754; ta-ai- 
rat 455, 6. Ideogr. 455, 1; 456 (Notes and Illust. ad loc). 

TFin comp. ^pij^ (Ift.). — tahazu Subst. hand to hand conflict^ battle. 
Phon. ta-ha-zi (Gen.) 177; 332, 22. Ideogr. 177; 178; 194, 86. 96; 
201 (Eng. ed. line 3 from below) ; 203 (Eng. ed. line 7 from below). 
— mit-hu-uz-zu Subst. combat 218, 7 is to be crossed out (Del.). 
Comp. Sanherib, Taylor-Cyl. Ill, 16 (Peiser). 

□Ilf^ Tu-ba-am-mi, name of an Istundaean 253 (Eng. ed. 244 line 2 
from below); 257. 


7|-]p (m&t) Tu-ha-na-ai Adj. the Tuchanaean 253; 257. 

i^D^n (^^') Ti-ma-ai name of a tribe Ihematite, comp. Hebr. J^Qlp 
149 (Gen. XXV. 15). 

^DH comp. Syr. \jZ and Arab. \}S^. — u-tak-kil 3. and 1. Ps. 
and he (or 1) encouraged e. g. Lay. 69, 3" above. — mu-tak-kil Part. 
Pa. inspiring confidence in the proper name Mutakkil-Nusku (= 
Nabu?) 91, 57 (412, footn. *) ; on this consult Assyr.-Babylon. Keil. 
p. 146, no. 42. — u-§at-kil, read u-§ad-gil and see under ^y^. — 
it-ta-kil 3. Ps. Sg. Impft. Ifte.* he confided, trusted 209, 43; 326, 
footn. *; 397, footn. — it-tak-lu-ma the same with Cop. 353, 33; 
3. Ps. PI. 201 (Eng. ed. p. 191 line 4 from below). — tukultu Stat. 
constr. tuklat trust, confidence, reverence, service. Phon. tu-kul-ti 
(Gen. and Stat, constr.) 241 and footn.; 247, 2. Ideogr. 193, 79 (277, 
5); with phonet. complement ti 213, 4; the same with the meaning 
minister (as a title) 480, B. C. 806; 482, B. C. 777 (read tukultu); 
484, B. C. 749; 486, B. C. 739 From this we have tuklati Plur. Ideogr. 
devoted servants, soldiers 157, 85; 218. 16; 452,69. Phon. tuk-la-a-ti 
in bit-tukl&ti house of soldiers, fortress 288, comp. Sm. Assurb. 207, 
56 (III R. 21, 56), likewise III R. 9, 36 (tuk-la-ti). — tik-lu Subst. 
confidence. Phon. ti-ik-li (Gen.) 333, 8. 
594 D^Dn Tuklat-Adar proper name 184, 64; 459, footnote 1. — 
Tuklat-(Tukul-ti)-abal-i-iar-ra proper name Tiglath-Pileser , Hebr. 
iPi^b^ rhyP\ 231; 240; 91, 55; 247, 1; 458, footn. 49; 486, B. C. 

nSDH ta-kil-tu Subst. violet-blue purple, Hebr. n^Dn ^^^ (Exod. 
XXV. 4). 

on comp. Hebr. |3p. — u-§a-at-ka-an-ni (probably for uSatka- 
ninni) 3. Ps. Impft. Shaf. with Suflf. he adjusted or arranged for me 
124, col. II. 6. 

•pf) tillu (not tullu!) hill, comp. Hebr. ^p, Arab. Jo. Ideogr. 
232, 9; 234, 25; 262, 15 (til abflbi); 234, 25 (ana tili etc.). ti-la- 
ni-iS Adv. like a mound (or heap) 124, col. II. 4. — Til-A§-Su-ri 

* [Haupt in Hebraica Oct. 1885 p. 5 footn. 6 holds that ittakil he 
trusted is not the Ifteal of a root J>^^ but rather the Niphal (Haupt 
designates it by the Arabic VII form J^JtftJl) of the root takalu 
which he identifies with the Ethiopic takdla fixit, stabilivit. Natkil 
will then be the Imperative Niphal, formed quite regularly like na§- 
kin; comp. naplis (look). — Transl.] 


name of a town Telassar IjJ^Jii^F) 327. — Til-Ga-rira-mu(mi) name 
of a town 85. — Til(so read !)-kam-ri name of a town 232, 6. — 
Til (so read!)-ga-habal-a-hi name of a town 193, 80. 

Zhr\ talimu oion brother. Comp. Targ.-Talm. {^Q^H ^°d Targ. 
rD^n rni^ (Gen. XLIX. 5). Fried. Delitzsch derives it fr. root 
talamu to bestow. With Suffix ta-lim-ja 398 (Botta 149, 10), ta- 
li m-su 399 footn. 

IDD (avil) Tam-mu-di, Ta-mu-di name of an Arab, tribe 277, ad 
init. and Botta 75, 3). 

nOn u-tam-mi-hu 3. Ps. PI. Pael they bound 371 (and footn. * 
Eng. ed. Vol. II p. 59). 

IDD i^'"^) Ta-am-na-a name of a Hebr. town n^PP Timnath 170 
(Josh.^XIX. 43);;289, col. II. 83. 

DDH (^'"> m^t) Ta-mi-su name of a Cyprian town or district 
Tamassus 355, 19. 

IDH tumru Subst. date, Arab. j40 , Syr. (PI.) jfieZ- PI. Phon. 
tum-ri 19, 30; and Eng. ed. p. 20 footn. *. [Zimmern , however, in 
Busspsalmen p. 76 gives the word the meaning 'smoke'. — Transl.] 

"I^nOn Tam-tam-ak-ai(?) Adj. — ?— 235, 26. 

|J-) (mat, ir) Tu-na-ai Adj. the Tunaean 253; 257. 

iiDD a-tip-pa (a-tip-pa) 1. Ps. Sg. Impft. Kal (?) / touched{7) 
(should we comp. the Hebr. pQj^ = riDD i") 1^3, 81. [Dr. Craig (con- 
firmed by Mr. Pinches), Hebraica, July 1887, reads amur (a-mur) 'I 
saw' Kal Impft. Sing, of amaru q. v. — Transl.] 

ntjn ti-ip Subst. impetus, onset, comp. Hebr. PjOH) Arab. «.sO. Phon. 
ti-ib(ip) 332, 21; 350, 54. 

□Pp tuk-ma-tu Subst. resistance , oppression 154 (Exod. IX. 7) 
Comp. Hebr. Q!)^ etc. 

n^mn Tar-hu-la-ra proper name of a prince of Gamgum 253, ad 
init. ; 257. 

l*in comp. Arab. ijo.J (also Syr. 'iZ make straight, guide). — tir-su 
Subst. establishing, recognition. Stat, constr. ti-ris 335, ad init. — 
tar-si with ana Prep, exactly opposite 458, 49 [or perhaps, with 
Delitzsch, we might render 'in the time of, comp. insc. of Sennacherib 
I Rawl. 40, 45. 6 alani . . sa ina tarsi abija I'lamu ikimu 
"cities . . which the Elamite had seized in the time of my father." 
The metaphor of space is applied to time, as with the Hebr. l^Dp etc. 
- Transl.]. 


p")f) Tar-ku-u proper name of an Egyptian king Tirhaha npm.P 
152, ad mit.; 326 and footn. *; 338, 7. 

|n"in tur-ta-nu official title Tartan, Hebr. ]H"1p 270, footnote *; 
^^^819, ad init. Stat, constr. tur-tan 335 ad init.; 480, B. C. 809; 482, 
B. C. 780. 770. 752 ; 486, B. C. 742. Also 270, ad init.; 396, 1 (Eng. ed. 
I, p. 261 foil.; II, 88, 1) instead of siltannu is to be read turtannu, 
because, according to Dr. Hugo Winckler, in the Sargon-inscriptions the 
sign for tar, 6t7 interchanges with the sign for the syllable tur. Com- 
pare C. P, Tiele, Babylonisch-Assyrische Gesch. I, 260 note, who pre- 
fers the pronunciation tartanu. 

ytCTl ti-§£-i Subst. genit. , of doubtful meaning 177, root y^J^n = 
^J^^? Comp. Delitzsch in Lotz, Die Insch. Tigl.-Piles. I p. 92. 

rY'l^n Tasritu name of the month Tishri, Hebr. ^"ij^^p. Written 
Ta§-ri-tav(tuv) 380, 7; 486, B. C. 745"=; 488, C 5. Haupt writes 

^^n ta-§i-il-tu Substant. — ?— 193, 80. 

*IIDnn T u-t a-a m-m u-u name of a king of Unki 249, ad fin. 

To these are to be added : — 

[23 bubfitu /ood with suffix bu-bu-us-su-nu (for bu-bu-ut-su-nu) 
455, 8. 

tO^LJ titu clay filth, comp. Hebr. ^^^, phonet ti-it-tu 455, 8 simi- 
larly titi§ adv. Jeremias, Die Babyl.-Assyr. Vorstellungen etc. p. 25. 

"1"I3 kudfiru /roniter employed in proper names Kudur-Nahundi, 
Kudur-Mabug etc. 136. Nabfl-kudurri-usur 'Nebo protect my 
frontier' (Haupt) or rather with Schrader 'N. protect the frontier' 361; 
362 and footn.; 428 ad fin. 

p)^^ la 1ft (lulft) plur. phonet. la-li-i 434, 31 abundance, splendour; 
comp. Nabonidus cylind. col. II, 28 [r]-hul-hul bit §u-bat la-li-i-ka 
'^Ihulhul (House of joys) thy splendid abode." Latrille in Zeitsch. ftir 
Assyr. 1885 p. 350 foil. Flemming p. 44. — Transl.]. 


[The numerals refer to the page-numbers of the original German work 
in the margin of the English edition.] 

Abednego, name 429. 

Abel, name 44. 

Abel-Beth-Maacha, town 255, 

Abibal, king of Samsimurun 355. 

Abiram, name 200. 

Achab, see Ahab. 

Acharri (Aharri), name for Kanaan 
and Phoenicia 90. 108. 

Achaz, see Ahaz. 

Achimit, prince of Ashdod 162. 

AchmethS,, see Ekbatana. 

Adar. name of a god 20. 284. 423. 

Adbeel, proper name 148. 

Adrammelech, Assyrian deity 284. 

Adrammelech, son of Sanherib 
(Sennacherib) 329. 

Aegypt, name 89; export of horses 
from 187; is attacked and sub- 
jugated by Tiglath-Pileser II 
89; Sargon 396; Sanherib (Sen- 
nacherib) 289 ; Asarhaddon 337 
and Asurbanipal 326 (footnote). 

Aethiopia, name 86; is attacked 
and overthrown by Asarhaddon 
and Asurbanipal 326 (footnote). 

Ahab (Achab) , his name on an 
Assyrian monument 193. 

Ahashuerus, king of Persia, see 

Ahaz (Achaz) := Assyrian Jahu- 
hazi (Joachaz) of Judah 257. 
263. 265. 

Akkad, town and land, name and 

position 95. 136; appears as 
name of a country repeatedly 
in the titles of Assyrian and 
Babylonian kings 95. 230. 335. 

Akzib, see Ekdippa. 

Altakti, see Eltekeh. 

Amanus, mountain 388. 

Ammon, Assyrian name 141, 196. 

Amkarruna, see Ekron. 

Amraphel, king of Shinar 135, see 
also Addenda. 

Anammelech, name of a god 284. 

Anos, name of a god 12. 

Anu, name of a god 10. 12. 284. 

Aos, name of a god 12. 35. 

Aparanadius, Babylonian king 35. 
See also Asur-n4din-sum and 

Apason, deity 6. 

Apharsaje, whether connected with 
Parsua 376 (footnote). 

Apharsekaje , name of a race 376 

Apharsatkaje, name of a race 376 

Aphek, town 204. 

Arabia, name. See the signification 
of the term on the Assyrian 
inscriptions 414. 

Arallu, Assyrian name for Hades 

Aram, Aramaea, region signified 
by the term among the Assy- 
rians 115. 

Ararat (= Urartu) , name of a 


country 52. 423. The sons and 
murderers of Sanherib (Senna- 
cherib) escape there 331. 

Arbail, name of a town 118 footn. 
333 ; epithet of the goddess Istar 
36. 333. 441; see also Addenda. 

Arioch, king of Ellasar 135; name 
of a later Babylonian oflBcer 

Arka, name of a town 104. 254. 

Arpad, name of a town 223. 231. 
250. 251. 324. 328. 

Arpakshad, name of a race or 
country 112; see also 'Addenda' 

Arrhapachitis, name of a country 
112; Addenda 611. 

Arses, name 490, B. C. 337 and 
Addenda. Vol. II p. 295. 

Artahasta, see Artaxerxes. 

Artaxerxes, king 375. 

Arvad (Arados), name of a town 

Asarhaddon, king. His name 332; 
was successor and son of San- 
herib (Sennacherib) 335; built 
the South-west palace 98; over- 
came Aegypt 337 ; made Manas- 
seh of Judah tributary 356; 
settled the eastern inhabitants 
in Palestine 373; ruled Babylon 
845; and abdicated his throne 
in favour of his son Asurbanipal- 
Sardanapallus 333; his inscrip- 
tions 336. 

Ashkenaz, a race, Addenda 610. 

Assembly, mount of 389. 

Ashdod , name of a town 162; 
conquered by Sargon 398. 

Ashima, a Hamathite deity 288. 

Ashkelon, name of a town 165. 

Asordan, Babylonian king 35. 350. 

Assoros-Sar, deity 12 (=r An-sar? 
see Addenda 608). 

ASsur, name of a country 35. 156. 

A§gurit, epithet of Istar 86. 

Astarte, deity, Assyrian name 176. 

Agur, name of a deity 85. 

Asurbanipal (Asur-bSni-abal), a 
king; his name 45; mounts the 
throne as successor of Asar- 
haddon 333; lord of Babylon 
368; Manasseh of Judah is tri- 
butary to him 355; he himself 

attacks Tirhaka (Tarku) 826: 
the length of his reign 859. 360; 
his clay tablets 3. 

A§ur-itil-ili-(ukinni), one of the 
last kings of Assur 359 : was 
the builder of the South-east 
building of Nimriid 98. 

A§ur-nadin-sum , the Asordan of 
Alex. Polyhistor 350. 352. 

ASur-nSsir-abal , king, his name 
45 ; is the builder of the North- 
west palace of Nimrud 98 , and 
new founder of Kalah 97 ; 
makes the "Westland" tributary 

A§ur-ris-igi, old Assyrian king 91. 

Atharsamain, name of a deity 414. 

Av-va, town 281. 288. 824. 325. 

Axerdis = Asarhaddon. 

Azai'jah = Azrijahu, see Uzziah. 

Azuri, king of Ashdod 398. 

Baal, name of a deity 173. 
Baal, Phoenician king 170. 
Baal Zephon, name of a town 154. 
Baaltis, a goddess; her Assyrian 

name 175. 
Baasha, king 189. 194. 196. 
Babel, a town, its name 11. 127; 

king of Babel, title 877. 
Babylonia, a country. Its native 

names 129; mother country of 

Assyria 98. 96. Exile of the 

Israelites 276. 
Bau (Bahu?), deity 14. 
Bedolach (Bdellium?) 80. 42. 
Bel, Babylono-Assyrian deity 7. 

12. 173. 
Belesys, proper name 234. 286. 
Belibus , proper name 176. 846. 

See also Elibus. 
Belshazzar, king 438; duration of 

his reign 438. 
Beltis, Babylono-Assyrian deity 

Belteshazzar, proper name 429. 
Benebarak , name of a town 172. 

Benhadad II, king 200. 211; which 

king in the inscriptions is pro- 
bably to be identified with him? 

201. See also Hadadezer. 
Benhadad III, king 211. 



Beth-Arbel, town 440. 
Beth-Dagon, town 167. 298. 
Beth-Omri, country := North-Israel 

188. 190. 215. 342. 
Birs-Nimrud, 122. 
Bflz, proper name 141. 
By bios, town 185. See also Gebal. 

Cedar, Assyrian name for the 411. 

388. 183. 
Chabor, river 275 and footn. **. 
Chalach, town 275. 
Chalah-Kalach, town 96 ; its foun- 
dation 97 ; its position 98. 
Chaldaea, country. Its name 131 ; 

extent of country so designated 

Chaldaeans , Armenian 131 and 

footn. **. 
Chaldaean= wise, since when? 429. 
Chaues, Aegyptian town 410. 
Chasisadra (Adra-hasis) or Xisu- 

thrus, Eng. ed. p. 56 Vol. I. 
Chatti, country; Chattaeans, people 

107. 201. 202. 288. 
Chavila, country 29. 
Chazo, name of a country 141. 
Chedorlaomer, see Kedorlaomer. 
Cherub 39. 

Chineladan, see Kineladan. 
Chinzer, Babylonian king 234. 
Chronology, Assyrian and Hebrew 

458 foil. 
Creation-account Chaldaean I foil. 
Crucifixion or impaling 377 and 

Cyprus, Island 85; Assyrian name 

86, 301; made tributary by Sar- 

gon 368. 404; tributary to 

Asarhaddon and Asurbanipal 355. 

Stele of Sargon in Cyprus 396. 
Cypress, Assyrian name for 388. 
Cyprus, name 372. 377. 

Dache, see Lache. 

Dachos, see Lachos. 

Dagon, Philistine-Babylonian deity 

Damascus, town 138; kingdom 
201 footn. 209. 213; the latter 
destroyed by Tiglath-Pileser II 
258. 264. Already in earlier 

times tributary for a while to 

Assyria 215. 
Darius, name 375. 
Darius the Mede 437. 
Date, its Assyrian name 19. 
Dauke, deity 12. 
Daukina, deity 12. 
Delephat, name of the planet 

Venus 178. 389. 
Deluge-story Chaldaean, Eng. ed. 

Vol. I pp. 46—61. 
Dilbat, see Delephat. 
Dor, name of a town 168. 
Dur-Sar(r)ukin (KhorsabAd), resi- 
dences of Sargon and built by 

him 101. 
Dura, Babylonian name of a place 


Eden, a country 26. 

Edom, a country 149. 

Ekbataua, name of a town 378; 

the present Hamadan (New-Persic 

Ja.4.*) 524. 
Ekdippa, name of a town = Akzib 

170. 288. 

Ekron , name 164. In sedition 
against Sanherib (Sennacherib) 

El, Babylono-Assyrian name for a 
deity (Ilu) 11. 

Elam, a country 111; comp. Susa. 

Elibus, Babylonian king 176 foot- 
note. 346; see also Belibus. 

Ellasar, Babylonian locality 135. 

Eltekeh, a place, Assyrian AltakS 

171. 289. 301. 

Elulaeus, king of Sidon 286. 288. 

Epha, Arabian race 146. 277. 

Erech, Babylonian place and king- 
dom 13. 94. 375. 

Esarhaddon, see Asarhaddon. 

Ethbaal = Tuba'lu in the inscrip- 
tions 104. 200. 286. 288. 

Eulaeus, river 438. 

Euphrates, river. Its name 34. 

Evilmerodach, Babylonian kiug. 
His name 365. He is also men- 
tioned in the inscriptions 365. 

Gath, name of a town 166; whe- 
ther conquered by Sargon 444. 


Gaza, town 107. 161. 256. 

Gazer, town 167. 

Gebal = Byblos, Phoenician town 

Gichon (Gihon), river 31. 
Gilead(?) 255. 
God's mountain 427. 
Gog, name of a prince 427. 
Gomer, see Kuminerian 427. 
Gozan, country and town 275. 
Greeks = lonians, see under 


Hadad, name of a deity 151. 
Hadadezer, name of a king of 

Damascus 198. 200. 204. 
Hadad-Rimmon, 454. 
Hades, Assyrian designation of the 

same 389 and footn. ; 455. 
Hadrach, country 453. 
Hamaddn, see Ekbatana. , 

Hamath, town 105. 201. 323. 
Hamm6th-D6r, name of a town 172. 
Hammurabi, see Addenda Vol. II 
' p. 297. 

Hanno, king of Gaza. In the in- 
scriptions HanQnu 255. 257. 

396. 397. 
Harran, town 134. 
Hauran, country and mountain 

210. 428. 
Hazael, king of Damascus 206. 

211; king of the Kedarenes 

148. 208; Arabian king 148. 207. 
Heaven, queen of. Her Aramaean 

name 414. 
Helbon, town 425. 
Heni, town 324. 
Hezekiah, king of Judah 285. 286. 

Hiram, king of Tyre = Hirummu 

in the inscriptions 170. 
Hittites, people 107. 
Homoroka, deity 7. 13. 
Horse, its Assyrian name 188 footn. 

Export of horses from Egypt 

Hoshea, king of Israel 255. 260. 


Illinos, deity 12. 

Ilubi' di, king of Hamath 23. 

Imbappi, Elamite prince 140. 

lonians, see Javan. 

Israel, name 150, 188. 

Istar. Assyrio-Babylonian deity 13. 

It'amar, Sabaean prince 146. 397. 
Ivva, name of a town 324. 

Jabne, name of a town 167. 

Jab (Ja'), province of Cyprus) 368. 

Jahlfi, North - Arabian king 24 

footn. 208. 
Jahubi'di, see Ilubi'di. 
Jahve, name of God 23. 
Jaman, prince of Ashdod 398. 
Javan, people = lonians 81. 
Jehu, king of Israel 189. 208. 
Jerusalem , city. Assyrian name 

161. Besieged by Sanherib 

(Sennacherib) 290. 
Joachaz = Achaz, see Ahaz. 
Joppa, town 172. 289. 
Judah, kingdom 188. 286. 

Kalah (Kelah), see Chalah. 

Kalneh , place 96. 444; identical 
with Kalno? 384. 

Kalno, place, see Kalneh. 

Kamosnadab, king of Moab 141. 
288. See Glossary sub voce. 

Kanaan, country, its name among 
the Assyrians 90 ; already tem- 
porally subdued by the old 
Babylonian kings 91; similarly 
by the old Assyrian rulers 91; 
also by Asurnasirabal 157. 

Kardunia§, name of a country 88. 

Karkar, town 180. 194. 196. 

Karkemish, town, name and posi- 
tion 384. 

KaSsfl, name of a race 88. 

Kausmalak, king of Edom 257. 

Kebar, river or perhaps it may be 
called canal 424. 

Kedar, name of a race 147; 414. 

Kedorlaomer, king of Elam, name 
and time 136. 

Kewan, Babylonian deity 442. 

Khorsabad, ruined site of D&r 
Sar(r)ukin 101. 

Kilmad, name of a place 427. 



Kimmerians = Gomer, name of a 
race 80; their place of abode 428. 

Kineladan, Babylonian king = 
Sardauapalus =; Asurbanipal 

King of Babel, title 378. 

King of kings, title 336. 387. 

King of lands, title 378. 

Kissares = Kisar, deity 12. 

Koa' , name of a race 425. 

Kosbarakos, Edomite proper name 

Kosmalachos, Edomite proper name 

Kostobaros, Edomite proper name 

Kudur-Mabug , Babylono-Elamite 
king 135. 136. 

Kudur-Nachuudi, Elamite or Baby- 
lonian king 136. 

Kush , name of a race 31. 86; 
relation with Lower Aegypt and 
Pathros 387 ; identical with the 
Babylonian Ka§§u of the inscrip- 
tions 87. 

Kutha , a town of Babylonia 278 
and footn. * ; the Kuthaeans 
worship Nergal 279. 282. 

Labynetus I = Nebuchadnezzar 

432. Labynetus II = Nabuna'id 

432. 436. 
Lache = Lachmu, deity 12. 
Lachos = Lachamu, deity 12. 
Ladanum, Assyrian name 151. 
Lakish, town, where Sanherib 

(Sennacherib) encamped 287. 

317; its Assyrian name 287. 
Lebanon, mountain; its Assyrian 

name 183. 209. 220; cedars of 

Lebanon 183. 184. 
Libua, town 325. 
Lud, name of a race 114. 

Mfigan, another name for Aegypt 

Magi, their name and nationality 

417 foil. 
Magog, name of a race 80. 
Malikram, Edomite king 288. 
Manasseh, king of Judah, tributary 

to Asarhaddon 354, and to Asur- 

banipal 354; carried away cap- 
tive to Babylon 366. 

Marcheshwan, Hebraic -Babylo- 
nian name for a month 380. 

Mari', king of Damascus 212. 213. 

Massa, North-Arabian race 148. 

Media, country 80. 

Megiddo , name of a town 168. 

Memphis, town 357. 391. 

Menahem, king of Samsimurun 

Merathaim, country 423. 

Merodach , Babylono - Assyrian 

deity 12. 422. 

Merodach-Baladan, king of Baby- 
lon, name 339. 350. 353; dura- 
tion of his rule 340; embassage 
to Hezekiah 338. 343. 

Meshach, Babylonian name, see 
Engl. ed. Vol. II p. 126. 

Meshech, a people 84. 

Metten, king of Tyre 169. 

Miluchchiicha) (Miluhhi), country 
= Kush-Nubia 30. 205. Sends 
ambassadors to Sargou 400. 

Mina, Babylonian name 143; its 
relation to the shekel and talent 
142. 428. 

Minnaeans, a people 423. 

Mishm&, 148. 

j^|itinna, see Metten. 
itinti, king of Ashdod 288. 290; 
king of Ashkelon 257. 

Mizir, see Muzur. 

Mizraim (Misraim), country 89. 

Moab, country 140. 258. 291. 

Moloch, a god, perhaps identical 
with Assyr. Malik 150 footn.; 

Months, Babylonian name of the 

Moymis, deity 6. 13. 

Musical instruments, Greek, their 
names not found in the cunei- 
form inscriptions 431. 

Mutakkil-Nebo (Nusku), old Assy- 
rian king 91. 412. 

Muzur, country := Aegypt 89. 

Mylitta, Babylonian deity 176. 

Nabataeans, a race 147. 414. 
Nabonassar, Babylonian king 234. 


Nabopolassar, Babylonian king 45. 
358. 363. 

Nabunit (Nabiina'id) , Babylonian 
king 434; the Labynetus II of 
Herodotus 432. 

Nanaea, Nana, Babylono-Elamite 
deity 234. 457. 

Nannar, moongod 10. 16. 

Nebo, Babylonian deity 412. 

Nebosumi^kun, son of Merodach- 
Baladan 329. 

Nebuchadnezzar, name 361 ; his 
inscriptions 362; his dream 431. 
Inscription of this monarch 
found at the Dog's river 364. 

Nebushezban, name of a Aegyptian 
prince 166; name of a Babylo- 
nian 421. 

Nebuzaradan, a Babylonian 364. 

Necho I, king of Aegypt 357. 

Necho II, king of Aegypt 358. 

Nephilim, see Addenda 609. 

Nergal, Babylonian god 282. 

Nergal-shar-eser, a Babylonian 416. 

Nibchaz, Babylonian deity 283. 

Nifler {= Nipur), Babylonian place 

Nile , river, its Assyrian designa- 
tion 152. 

Nimrod, name 92 and Addenda. 

Niniveh, town, name 102; its posi- 
tion 99; magnitude and extent 
447 ; age 96 ; destruction 358. 
360; latest Ninivite ruler or 
rulers 358. 

Nisibis, town 275. 

Nisroch , Assyrian god ; whether 
the name is a corruption of 
Asarach? 329. 

Nizir (Nisir) , country and moun- 
tain 53. 59. 63. 75. 

N6-Am6n, town 449. 450. 

Oannes, whether identical with 

Auu? 284. 
Omoroka, see Homoroka. 
Omri , king of Israel, mentioned 

in Assyrian inscriptions 188. 189. 
On, town of = Heliopolis 152. 
Orontes, river 195. 197. 
Osnappar , with which Assyrian 

king he is , most probably , to 

be identified 376. 

Paddan-Aram, 612 (Addenda). 
Padi , king of Ekron 164. Is 

delivered over to Hezekiah, 

reinstated by Sanherib (Senna- 
cherib) 290. 
Palms, their Assyrian name 19. 
Paradise-story 40. 608. 
Pathros, country 336. 397. 
Pekah, king of Israel 191. 255. 

Pekod, Babylonian race 232. 346. 

Persia, country, name 372. 
Pethor, name of a town 155. 
Pharaoh, designation on Assyrian 

inscriptions 153. 270. 397. 
Philistia, name 102 ; its inhabitants 

Semitic 167. 
Pishon, river 29. 
Pistachio, Assyrian name 152 and 

Planets, their names and order 20. 
Puduil, king of Ammon 288. 
Pul, king of Assyria, name 238 ; 

identical with Tiglath-Pileser 

222. 227. 238. 
Purple, the Assyrian name for 154. 

Rabm&g , Babylonian honoi'ary 

official title 417. 
Rabsak, Assyrian oflScial title 319. 
Rabsaris, Assyrian oflScial title 319. 
Ramman, Assyrian deity 205. 
Raphia, battle at, 396. 397. 
Rechoboth-Ir, town, name and 

position 96. 100. 
Resen, town, position 100. 
Rezeph, place 326. 
Rezin, country of Damascus 260. 

Rimmon, Aramaeo-Assyrian deity. 

See also Ramman. 
Rosli, name of a race 427. 
Rukibti, see Ashkelon 262. 289. 

Saba, Sabaea, country 92. 145. 

Sabako, king of Aegypt 269. 396. 

Sakkuth, Babylonian deity 442. 

Salman, Salmanu , Moabite king 
257; the name on a Palmyrene 
inscription 441 ; whether also 



the name of an Assyrian king 
Salmanassar I , king of Assyria, 
time of his reign 97 ; built Ka- 
lah 97. 
Salmanassar II , king of Assyria, 
contemporary v?ith Benhadad II 
(Hadadezer), Hazaei and Jehu 
201. 206. 208. 
Salmanassar IV , king of Assyria, 
the Biblical Salmanassar, name 
266; monuments 267; whether 
identical with Sargon 267. 
Samaria, town and kingdom 191; 
besieged by Salmanassar, con- 
quered by Sargon 271; place to 
which its inhabitants were de- 
ported 275. 
Samgar-Nebo, Babylonian 416. 
Sammughes, Assyrio - Babylonian 
name of a king 367 ; 369 ; pro- 
bably tempted Manasseh to re- 
volt 37 1 . The name = Assyrian 
Sama§-gum-ukin 368. 
Samsieh, Arabian queen 255. 262. 

Sarasimuruna, Kanaanite town 163. 

192. 291. 355. 
Sanballat, name 382. 
Sanherib (Sennacherib), king of 
Assyria, name 285 ; time of his 
reign 286; his inscriptions 286; 
raises''Ninua"to a royal residence 
99; undertakes a campaign 
against Palestine - Aegypt 288; 
time of the latter 313; murdered 
by two of his sons 329. 330 
and Addenda. 
Sanibu, Ammonite king 257. 
Saosduchin, see Sammughes. 
Sapija, town 234. 235. 
Sabbath, Assyrian name 20. 
Sarakos, king of Assyria, his pro- 
bable Assyrian name 358 footn. 
Sardanapalus, Assyrian king, iden- 
tical with Asurbanipal 359 footn. 
369 footn. 
Sarepta(Zarephath), town 200. 288. 
Sargon, king of Assyria, name 
392; descent 268. 393; time of 
his reign 407 ; is different from 
Salmanassar 267. 271; conquers 
Samaria 271 ; conquers Aegypt 
396; conquers Ashdod 392; and 

Babylon 268; makes an end of 
the Hittite kingdom of Karke- 
mish 385; founds Diir-Sar(r)ukin 
405; his inscriptions 394; his 
annals 402. 
SarlGdari , Assyrian name of a 

prince of Ashkelon 289. 
Sarsekim, name of a Babylonian 

Saturn, see Kewan 
Semiramis, name of a woman 366. 
Senir, mountain 195. 209. 
Sennacherib, see Sanherib. 
Seph&rad 445. 

Sepharvaim, town 279. 325. 
Seveh, see Sabako. 
Seven, number, its sacredness 21. 
Shadrach , a Babylonian name 

Eng. ed. Vol. II p. 125. 
Sharezer , a son of Sanherib 329. 
Shedim 160. 164. 
Shekel, name and relation to the 

Mina 142. 
Sheshach, name of a country (?) 

Shinar, country. Its name 118. 

135; geographical 119. 
Shoa', name of a race 425. 
Shoham-stone 30. 
Shomeron-Meron, name of a town 

Sidon, town 103. 288. 
Sinab, name 141. 
Sirjon, mountain 159. 184. 
Sparda, whether = Sepharad 444. 
Sultan , as siltannu title of the 

Sab'i of Aegypt 270, 396 ; but 

see "Addenda." 
Sumir, Babylonian province or 

kingdom 118; the same as the 

Hebrew Shinar 118. 
Susa, town 136. 375. 381. 

Tabeel , Aramaean proper name 

Talent, its Assyrian name 216; 

relation to the Mina 142. 
Tamarisk, Assyrian name 554. 613. 
Tammuz, name of a month 425. 
Tamud, Arabian I'ace 277. 
Tartan, Assyrian official title 2/0. 

319. See "Addenda." 
Tauthe, a deity 6. 13. 


Telassar, town 327. 
TSm&, name of a race 149. 
Ti&mat, a deity 7. 
Tid'al, proper name 137. 
Tiglath-Pileser I, king of Assyria, 

when he lived 91; governs the 

"Westland" 91. 
Tiglath-Pileser II, name 240 ; when 

he ruled 242; is identical with 

Pul 222. 227. 238; his annals 

242. See also Vol. I p. XXXII. 
Tigris, river, name 32. 
Timnath, town 170. 
Tirhaka, king of Kush-Aethiopia 

326. 338. 
Title of Assyrian great kings 320. 
Togarma, name of a race 85 footn. 

Tree, sacred 28. and Addenda. 
Tubal, a race 82. 
Tubal, king of Sidon, see Ethbaal. 
Tyre, town 168. 281. 281. 

Ummanaldas, Elamite prince 140. 
Urartu, name of a country 53. 

Ur-Kasdim, with which Babylonian 

ruins to be identified 129. 
Urumilki, king of Gebal 185 footn. 


Uzziah (Azarjah) , identical with 
the of the cuneiform 
inscriptions 217. 

Venus planet, name 388. 
Week, of seven days 19. 

Xerxes = Ahashuerus, his name 

Xisuthrus, see Chasisadra. 

Zabibieh, Arabian queen 253. 255. 
Zarephath, town, see Sarepta. 
Zarpanit, feminine Assyrian deity 

19; identical with Sukkoth- 

Benoth? 281. 
Zemar, town 105. 
Zerubbabel, name 377. 
Zidka (Sidka), king of Ashkelon 

Zil-Bel, king of Gaza 290. 
Zimri, name of a country 414. 
Zoan, town in Aegypt 155. 391; 

whether identical with Zi'nu 

(Si'nu) ibid, footn. 
ZdbS, Syrian town 182. 


[The numerals refer to tho page-numbers of the original German work 
•qin of the English edition.! 

3J< 380. 


V^^ 152. 

DJ,^ 348. 
TIN 380. 

T -: 

H'D.Till-IN 618. 

NimJ^ 617. 

i<l|i? 617. 

-li{<} 380. 

^^ 11 footn.; 608. 

bt>^ 380. 

b^y^^ Vol. II, p. 298. 

^JK 280, footn. *. 

t«"'D"lDN* 376. 

N*'DnD"lDi< 376 footn. 

jD^i^ 155. 

Hi? 388. 

11*^ 411. 

-I'lK^K 35. 

Ti3¥^J< 610 Addenda. 

Vym 430. 

•eier to tho page-numbers of trie origv 
in the margin of the English edition 

B^ina 388. 
J^na 296. 

]in''^ 31 

nai 151. 

i^-rj 209 footn. ft- 

bD^n Eng. ed. 
ip^^T 388. 
"IJ^ID \n 389. 

-nj^T 380. 

-IDT 17. 

r|pT 378. 379. 

D-IT 126. 

Vol. I p. 56; 353. 

]^3 540. 
t!p3 377. 
'pj;3 173. 

b?3ry 32- 33. 
Q-)ip 170 footn. 



niD^bq 153. 

-ipO 121. 

p-in 134. 
jnn 140. 
n^n 209. 

nnt? 380. 

IDDD 154. 424. 

T[)jyi 23. 
]«ipi 135. 
J^Jil 140. 

-)^^ip Eng. ed. Vol. II p. 126. 

niip, see nip. 
ni 143. 
W^n-yo 380. 

Dn2iD bm 158. 
z'r\) 37. 

plj 379. 380. 
id: 387. 
□1^2^ 609. 
-)i 155. 
plt*3 455. 

151 154. 
3D13 139. 


1)1«3 442. 

nD-^D Vol. II p. 237 {u^'2). 

J<P3 383. 

1^03 379. 380. 

r)D5 134. 142. 

-)pj3 48 footn. tf. 

^i^-jj 39. 609. 

D").3 ^^^• 

br\2 457. 

"•Op^Db 415. 

Q^^2^ 121 and footn. *. 

^^ 151. 

^^^p 18. 

^120 609 (Addenda). 
niD 376. 

T • 

i^JilD 126. 455 and Addenda. 
rj^p 23 footn. 

IJP (]JD) 372. 411. 
DID 128 and footn. **. 

mSP 442. 

ni3? ni3D 281. 

ipDp 159. ' 

r|p 384. 

bpp 208 footn. **. 

|1il")P) TCHD 392 and footn. **. 

Y\yi 17. 26. 

iT'llJ? (nMV) 244 and footn.; Eng. 
Vd.'Vol. l' p. 216. 

D^-|J5) 139. 

nq) 612 (Addenda). 

nn^ 186. 

D^-}D 381. 

riyiD 153. 



n^3p 209 footn. f. 

DK"1 160. 456. 

:d-3i_ 417. 

DnD-31 319- 
np.l?^ 31 319. 
IIST 206 footn. *. 454. 
nn 455. 


Dl-)tOit' 153. 

n3^.jr 139. 

\S-Di^ 135. 
D^Sny^ 187. 

-|*^' 23 footn.: 
Tf\p 182. 
Qip-lt:; 383. 
TjB-'fiEf 415. 



b)m' 390. 

12*^* 155. 
^35Jf 380. 
D">"12^ 40. 160. 

D"inn 6 footn.; Eng. ed. Vol. I 
p. 57 footn. **. 

nbjn 155. 

TliSn 380. 425 and Addenda. 
in-lP 319. 




608 On Vol. I p. 5 foil. — Respecting the question of relationship of 
the Babylonian Creation-story and other primitive legends to the cor- 
responding Hebrew traditions, comp. Aug. Dillmann on the origin of 
the primitive legends of the Hebrews (Sitzungsberichte der Konigl. 
Preufs. Akad. d. Wissenschaften Phil.-histor. CI. 27. April 1882 p. 427 
— 440). [Reference has been made to this interesting Essay in my 
Introductory Preface Vol. I p. XVIII. An English translation is to be 
found in the 'Bibliotheca Sacra' for July 1883 pp. 433— 449. — Transl.] 
For a criticism of the story of Paradise in particular, comp. Th. Nol- 
deke in Zeitschr. der Deutsch. Morgenland. Gesellschaft XXXVI 
p. 178 foil. ; Fr. Philippi in Theol. Literaturzeitung 1882, No. 7 (April 
8); H. Strack in Theolog. Liter. Blatt 1882, No. 12 (March 24); J. 
Oppert in Getting. Gelehrt. Anzeiger 1882 pp. 26 foil. : J. Hommel in 
Augsburg. Allgemeine Zeit. Beilage 229. 230; C. P. Tiele in Theolog. 
Tijdschrift 1882 (dated Jan. 82); J. Haldvy in Revue critique 1881, 
No. 50. 51 ; FrauQois Lenormant in Les Origines de I'histoire II (1882) 
pp. 529 foil. ; C. H. Toy in American Or. Society, Proceedings at New 
Haven Octob. 26, 1881. 

On page 12. — Should we suppose "Agocuqoq to have arisen imme- 
diately out of Assar (standing for An-sar), just as Kioadgrjq arises 
from Ki-sar? And just as in the latter case, so in the former, ought 
we simply to identify the word with the Akkadian? And should we 
in consequence hold that A§ur and ^'AaaejQoq have no connection with 
one another? 

On page 20. — According to Jos. Epping in the 'Voices from Maria- 
Laach' 1881, VIII, 290 (comp. J. N. Strassmaier in Transactions of the 
Berlin Oriental Congress 1881(82), p. 70) the planet guttu is equiva- 
lent to Mars-Nergal and is not to be identified with Bel-Merodach 


(Jupiter). The order of the planets in the list must be rectified 

Vol. I p. 46 — 47. — FranQ. Lenormant in his Origines de I'histoire 609 
I p. 344 holds that the Hebr. Di^Qi Gen. VI. 4 is to be connected 
with an Assyrian word naplu which means 'werewolf or 'man-wolf 
and originally, in accordance with the Akkad. uSugal, signified "great 
one", being derived from a root palu 'to distinguish', 'separate'. But 
such a root has not yet been proved to exist in Assyrian and the form 
above cited, naplu, is the same word as nablu which appears as a 
royal epithet in Tigl. -Piles. I col. I, 42 ; col. V. 42. This is the partic. 
act. of the root nab&lu to destroy (standing for nibilu). Whether 
we should connect this with the Hebr. IpiQJ requires further discus- 
sion. [A presumption in favour of such a view seems to be aff'orded 
by the probable connection of the word 'piSQ with the same root (compare J^')2D ^°^ VSJ) ^''st suggested, I believe, by Delitzsch 
in Parad. p. 156. This theory is certainly preferable to that put 
forward by Haupt in p. 66 of the German edition of the present work, 
that ^13D is a popular-etymological modification of abubu 'flood'. 
We should therefore understand ^ISJJ to have originally signified 
desolation, destruction , a view which is confirmed by the qualifying 
use of D^!!Di whether in the phrase ^13Sn ^D' or, in apposition, comp. 
Gen. VI. 17, VII. 6. The opinion enunciated by Fried. Delitzsch is 
also supported by Canon Cheyne in Hebraica, April 1887, p. 175 foil. 
Comp. also Fried. Delitzsch's 'Hebrew in the light of Assyrian' p. 67; 
Prolegg. eines neuen Hebr.-Aramaischen Worterbuchs p. 122. — Trans- 

Vol. I p. 67. — In Libri Dan. Ezr. Nehem. ed. Baer (1882) p. IX 610 
Fried. Delitzsch connects the Hebrew ^^31^'$^ with the cuneiform (m§,t) 
As-gu-za [gentile name (m&t) As-gu-za-ai], the name of a country 
whose prince appears, according to Asarhaddon's cylinders II, 29 foil., 
to have been united in alliance with the Kanaeans in Armenia. We 
must bear in mind also Jerem. LI. 27 where Ararat, Minni and 
A§kenaz are similarly named in succession to one another. We should 
accordingly assume with Delitzsch that an original form A§gunza or 
ASkunza = Tints' i< became in the pronunciation of the Assyrians 
Agguzza and lastly Asguza (actually A§giiza?). I call to mind 
the Assyrian Guz§.n (Salmanassar's Monolith col. I, 28 the name of 
an Eastern district) arising out of the harder form Gilzani or 
Kirz^ni, comp. Keilinsch. u. Geschichtsforschung p. 167. 

Vol. I p. 96 (comp. also Vol. II p. 64). — I adhere to the opinion 
that SuSinak is the name for the district of Susa (see Glossary sub 
voce). Su§inak always occurs in the Elamite inscriptions at a place 


where one expects to find the name of a country; for example, after 
the name of a king, as in the phrase an in Susinak i. e. "king of 
Susiana". To translate this phrase, as Oppert and Fried. Delitzsch do, 
rex Susius is in my opinion impossible, for such a mode of expression 
611 is contrary to analogy.* Moreover in the passage in Ezra (IV. 9) 
the race-name N^^^K^'IK^ 's formed from SuSinak in the same 
way as the forms J^^^33, {<1"1D"1}< and J^lQ^y are formed from ^33, 
^"|J^ and Q~iy. The writer was evidently thinking of a locality or a 
land with the inhabitants of which he was specially concerned. These 
inhabitants were the Shushankaeans i. e. inhabitants of the region Shu- 
shanak or the land SuSinak.** The fact that the writer names in 
particular the Elamites i^'^T^bV ^^ "^^^^ ^^ ^^^ Susiaus is to be 
explained in the same way as the definite distinction made by the 
Greeks between the territory of Susa and that of the Uxians although 
Huga :^ Ov^ioi was the Persian name for the entire province Susiana; 
see Noldeke in Nachrichten von der Getting. Gesellsch. der Wissen- 
schaften 1874, No. 8, pp. 184 187. I would observe in conclusion 
that in contrast with the Hebrew-Assyrian Su§an 1^^^ the native 
pronunciation of the city's name was apparently Susun. See the great 
inscription of king Sutruk-Nahhunti line 4 (Su-iu-un) and compare 
also my article Susan in Riehm's Handworterb. des Biblischen Alter- 

Vol. I p. 96 ("|l5^p0"){<)- — Instead of Arba-ha J. HaMvy in Rev. 
critique 1881 p. 480 reads the form as Arba-nun (as against Delitzsch 
Parad. pp. 124 — 5) and interprets it, according to the analogy of the 
other name, Arba-ilu "Arbela", as signifying "four lords." On the 

* The same thing may be said in the main of the translation 
adopted by Prof. Sayce in Transs. of the Soc. of Bibl. Arch. p. 479 
viz. "king of the Susians." Moreover this interpretation also is refuted 
by the Aramaic race-name formed from that of the country (see im- 
mediately below). 

** Oppert, who in conjunction with Sayce has made strenuous endea- 
vours to interpret the Susian inscriptions (in the treatise cited Vol. I 
p. 96), regards the name SuSunka (with n) as the name of Susiana, 
occurring in the combination anzan Suiunka (great inscription of 
Sutruk Nachchunti line 2 etc.). But he is disposed to regard Susinak 
not as a proper name but as an appellative adjective meaning 'fair', 
'brave'. But apart from what has been stated above , this supposition 
is in my opinion opposed by the fact that the Silchak inscriptions, 
for example, would not exhibit any designation of the king according 
to the kingdom he ruled, since they do not contain any title belong- 
ing to him except aniu Susinak. 


other hand it must be recollected that the sign ha, which Hal^vy 
reads as nun, never has the meaning "lord", Assyr. rubfl. Indeed as 
an ideogram its proper signification can only be "fish" Assyr. nunu. But 
this Assyrian word nQnu has nothing whatever to do with the Akkadian 
NUN meaning "lord." Moreover it is no longer possible to interpret arba 
as signifying 'four' on account of the variant Ar-rap-ha Sennacherib, 
Taylor-cylind. col. II. 3; Tigl.-Pileser II (II Rawl. 67) line 14 (in this 
last passage with the determinative mat "land", in other cases, as in 
the Taylor-cylind., cited above, with the determ. ir "town". The final 
a of arba, protected by Ain, (standing for, as well as in conjunction 
with, arba') = y^^J^ cannot, as would be the case with Ar-rap-ha, 
completely vanish without leaving a trace of its existence; for the 612 
final o in Arba-ilu even maintains itself before a following vowel (i), 
without blending with the latter into a diphthong. In fact in the ri 
of the Greek {xa) "AQi3i]Xa we discern a trace of the final a-vowel in 
the first part of the name. 

Vol. I p. 100 footn. ***. — The other name for Mesopotamia ir^Q 
Dli^ (Gen. XXVIII. 2, XXXI. 18 etc.) occurring in the document of 
the Annalistic narrator [Priestercodex] is combined in its first portion 
i. e. ]TjQ by Moritz (and Delitzsch?) with the Assyrian padanu which 
is explained in II Rawl. 62, 33 a. b. by the ordinary ideogram for iklu 
b'\)r\ "/eZd" and ginu n '^garden''' (III Rawl. 70, 96 foil.) and accord- 
ingly has a similar meaning and well adapted to the Hebr. Q'^J^ XID- 1° 
order to determine the actual original signification of the Assyrian word, 
observe that it is explained on the one hand in IV Rawl. 69 1, 6 foil, by 
the ideogram for the conception cleave, divide "){3Q, and on the other 
in II Rawl. 38, 28 c. d. by the ideogr. for "foot'' NIR (GIR), whereas 
a statement in a syllabary (unfortunately mutilated), which immediately 
follows, explains an Akkadian word (NIR?) gal-la (see also syllabary 
667 in Haupt) by kibsu, "treading", comp. Hebr. \i;'23, K'DD' ^^^ 
daraggu meaning perhaps ascent, compare — .0 (the word is synonym 

of urhu = n"li<) harranu, comp. ft\Z,l> ^^^ mitiku = pn^lD 
II Rawl. 38, 24 — 27 c. d, comp. also durgu path Tigl.-Pileser I col. II' 
86 and elsewhere.) 

Vol. II p. 195, B. C. 337. — The ancient Persian form of the name 618 
"igorig which has not yet been discovered in the Inscriptions must 
have been pronounced Ar§a and is to be regarded as the second ele- 
ment in the name KhsajarSa = Xerxes. 



Vol. I p. 46. Dr. Schrader is now disposed to hold precisely the 
opposite view to that indicated in the text. He now considers that 
ibila in Sumiro-Akkadian is a loan-word from Babylono-Assyrian and 
at all events Semitic. See his essay "Zur Frage nach dem Ursprunge 
der altbabylonischen Cultur" p. 24 footnote : "To the same category, 
as it seems to me, we should assign the Akkadian ibila (Syllab. 307) 
as compared with the Assyrian abal 'son' which I formerly was disposed, 
along with Delitzsch, Haupt and others, to explain as having a non- 
Semitic origin (KAT* 45). The word has not yet been discovered in 
a connected Akkadian text, while in Akkadian proper names the word 
which appears for 'son' or 'child' is not this but another, dii. Lastly 
we certainly cannot pronounce the word to be thoroughly nonsemitic in 

p. 47 foil. It has been proposed by Fried. Delitzsch and even as- 
serted by Fritz Hommel that the original cuneiform signs usually read 
as Iz-du-bar (Is-tu-bar — Sayce Gis-du-bar) should be pronounced 
Namra-uddu = Biblical ")1Q3 Nimrod. But to this conjectural 
reading Dr. Schrader (in a letter to me dated May 1. 1886) is not 
able to give his approval. See Delitzsch in Calwer Bibel-lexicon p. 639. 
Fr. Hommel in Zeitschr. fiir Keilschriftforschung 1885 p. 105 footn. 2. 
Comp. also Haldvy in Zeitsch. fiir Assyr. 1887 p. 897 foil, who inter- 
prets Namr a(Namar)-udu = Namra-sit ^ 'light of the East.' 

p. 78. "Akkad has not yet been pointed out on the inscription as 
the name of a town." Since these words were written the name 
Akkad has been found as the designation of a town with the deter- 
minative ir prefixed viz. in an inscription of Nebucadnezzar I col. H. 
50 (ir) Ak-ka-di. See V Rawl. 55 foil. Herm. Hilprecht, Freibrief 
Nebukadnezar's I, Leipzig 1883. (Schrader.) 

p. 108 ad init. Respecting the temple I'-zi-da and the question of 
its identity with the Borsippa temple, see also Job. Flemming , Die 
grosse Platteninschrift Nebucadnezar's II, Gottingen 1883, as well as 
C. P. Tiele, De Hoofttempel van Babel en die van Borsippa, Amsterdam 
1886 p. 3. (Schrader.) 

p. 120 foil. Gen. XIV. 1. The views here expressed require modi- 
fying and supplementing. At the conclusion of a dissertation on the 
cuneiform list of Babylonian kings (in the Sitzungsberichte der Konigl. 
Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften ; philos.-historische Classe 
1887) Prof. Schrader remarks — "We have above (p. 582 in the essay) 
stated the reasons which appear to us to prove the correctness of the 
assumption of Mr. Pinches that the dynasty of eleven kings which 
preceded the SiSku-dynasty in the canon is the same as the dynasty 
of eleven kings of Babylon on the obverse of Tablet 80, 11. 12 No. 3. 


If this conclusion be a sound one, the inferences which may be de- 
duced from it will be not unimportant. In the first place, it is quite 
evident that the age in which king Hammurabi of Babylon , sixth in 
the series of Babylonian kings, lived, must be placed much earlier 
than we have hitherto been disposed to place' him. Ofcourse a precise 
estimate of the length (beginning and end) of the first dynasty, though 
we have exact data, cannot be arrived-at, since the Canon has a lacuna 
in the middle which can only be filled up hypothetically. Pinches 
assigns to the dynasty the date B.C. 2232—1939, while Tiele, Gesch. 
Vol. I, p. 112, basing his calculation on the statements of Assyrian 
kings, is inclined to place the date 70 or 80 years earlier .... King 
Hammurabi must be placed somewhere about the time 2100 B. C 

We thereby obtain a result which, in my opinion, is likely to shed 
some light on a subject that has hitherto remained obscure. As is 
well known, we may conclude from the dates of contract-tablets be- 
longing to the reign of this Babylonian king that he conquered king 
Riv-Aku (I'ri-Aku) of Larsav and incorporated his dominion in his 
own.* Riv-Aku of Larsav i. e. the Biblical Arioch of Ellasar, was 

* See the statements in Geo. Smith, Notes on the Early History of 
Assyria and Babylonia, London 1872, p. 9 foil.; Early History of 
Babylonia in Records of the Past V p. 64 foil. 68. 70. Tiele, Baby- 
lonisch-Assyrische Geschichte p. 122 footn. 3. The passages in the 
inscriptions, with which we are now concerned, are to be found in 
IV Rawl. 36, 4—20, comp. 21 — 44. Tiele in his History Vol. I p. 124 
objects to the identification of Arioch and I'ri-Aku that the reading 
of the latter, though possible, is by no means proved. He would 
hardly deny that the same objection might be urged with equal force 
against his own reading Arad-Sin. For the reading I'ri-Aku (or Riv- 
Aku) it may be argued that this name with the pronunciation Arioch 
^T'lJ^ was certainly quite current in Babylonia even in the latest 
times, as we learn from the Book of Daniel (II. 14 foil.). It will pro- 
bably be no longer a matter of doubt in the present day that the 
Babylonian proper names in that book are not artificially formed, 
whatever views may be held respecting the historical character of 
those who bear them . . . What, however, appears in our eyes decisive 
as to the ti'ue reading of the name in question is the phonetic mode 
in which the name of the 'son of Kudurmabug' is written viz. Ri-iv- 
AN.EN.ZU in col. I, 11 of the insc. of Afadj (see Lenorm. , choix de 
textes cun^if. p. 164) whei'eby the reading Arad-Sin (or -Aku) is 
finally disposed of. Moreover we have also to investigate the identity of 
Riv-Aku with Ri-iv-A-gu-um (IV Rawl. 35 No. 8, 1, comp. Delitzsch, 
Kossaer p. 69 note 1). 


according to Gen. XIV a contemporary of Amraphel of Shinar and of 
Chedorlaomer of Elam. According to the inscriptions (I Rawl. 2 No. III. 
3 — 5; Fr. Lenormant, choix de textes cundiformes III fasc, No. 70, 
p. 164 foil.) Riv-Aku was a sou of Kudur-Mabug of Ur, son of 
Simti-Silhak. Therefore he must have belonged to an Elamite- 
Chaldaean dynasty. Moreover Kudur-Mabug is expressly designated 
as adda Jamutbal "Father (i. e. Kuler) of Jamutbal", an Elamite 
province. It may be assumed a priori that he continued to enjoy 
friendly relations with his mother-country as well as tribal land , one 
of whose former rulers (about 2280), Kudur-Nahundi, made a success- 
ful campaign against Chaldaea (Asurbanipal's cylinder -inscr. comp. 
Keilinsch. u. Gesch. p. 47 foil.). Accordingly it is not surprising to 
find him in alliance with an actual king of Elam, likewise a Kudurid, 
Kudur-Lagamaru "IDJ^^IID- But the same thing may be said with 
equal truth of a temporary association of both kings with a third, the 
prince of the Babylonians, in a case where we have a campaign con- 
ducted against a non-Chaldaean potentate. From the history of the 
Sargonids we learn that, whenever it was incumbent on the Chaldaeans 
to make war on Assyria, the enemy of the Babylonian empire , Elam 
was the firmest ally of the Babylonians. Also in earlier days this 
may for a time have been the actual state of the case. It is true 
that we have no records at the time referring to such an alliance of 
Elam and South-Chaldaea with North-Chaldaea or Babylonia. But can 
this be regarded as a sufficient objection? As far as I know, even 
tolerably advanced sceptics in the domain of Biblical history, like 
Ed. Meyer, refer the account in Gen. XIV, as regards its contents, to a 
Jew who obtained in Babylon more precise information respecting the 
most ancient periods in the history of the country and simply out of 
his own imagination "had woven the story'of Abraham into the history 
of Chedorlaomer" (Meyer Gesch. Vol.1 p. 166). Accordingly no doubt 
is cast upon the narrative in its historic foundation so far as it refers 
to Babylonia. Assuming the correctness of the reading I'riaku, Meyer 
considers this ruler, who calls himself "king of Larsam", to be un- 
doubtedly identical with the ID^J^ -]^D "IVIN spoken-of in Gen. XIV. 
The objections brought by this writer in another place (p. 169) against 
the identity of this Riaku with the Riaku, with whom Hammurabi 
waged war, have probably in the meantime been regarded even by 
the author as destitute of support since the publication of the Baby- 
lonian dynastic canon and also owing to the earlier date which in 
consequence became probable, if not necessary, for the reign of king 

But in saying this we are confronted by a new question which 
awaits an answer, namely : Who then was "Amraphel king of Shinar", 
who appears at the head of the allies and occupied, accordingly, as 


we may suppose, au important, if not a leading place among them? 
As is well known, a king of this name is not to he found in the in- 
scriptions, and even in the list uf Babylonian kings in the Canon we 
seek for it in vain. Moreover the name itself, with its Biblical form 
and pronunciation, has not been discovered anywhere in the inscrip- 
tions. Also the etymologies and explanations derived from Assyrio- 
Babylonian have not been confirmed and have been, in some cases, 
already given up.* But, on the other hand, we have no right to 
assume that the name is devoid of any historical basis and has simply 
been formed artificially. For we have the other names of persons and 
countries appearing in the same passage including even Ql^J perhaps 
= Gutium (Eawl.). We must remember that I'riaku of Larsav, in 
our opinion identical with Arioch of Ellasar, was undoubtedly a con- 
temporary of Hammurabi of Babylon, who is spoken-of as having 
conquered the former. Also let us bear in mind that I'riaku himself 
was descended from the Elamite dynasty of Kudurids and accordingly 
appears as a natural ally of the Elamite Chedorlaomer ; that moreover 
Hammurabi in his own inscriptions that have come down to us never 
boasts, at least not in express terms, that he has defeated his powerful 
rival. From this we are entitled to infer that, at the time when these 
inscriptions of Hammurabi were composed, he had not yet overpowered 
his rival, and that he rather stood, as a matter of fact, in friendly 
relations with the latter. Accordingly it would not be a very far fetched 
combination, if we were to assume that prior to the breach in the friendly 
relations between these Babylonian states they joined in military 
operations against a foreign foe, drawing into their alliance Elam that 
stood in closer relationship with Arioch of Ellasar, and also the Baby- 
lono-Median frontier-race of Guti who were more closely united to the 
Babylonians. Amraphel of Shinar would then simply be identical 
with Hammurabi of Babylon. As illustrations of the interchange 
between p and }^ (or I")) within the limits of the Assyrian language itself 
in the case of proper names we may cite Hamatti and (ir) Amatti =^ 
Hamath POH ^"^ t^® inscriptions of Sargon, and also the Hebr. 7p^n 
Tigris as compared with the Babylonian Idiglat (Idignat) and Aram. 

nbjn and Arab. *Jb*0. [Comp. Vol. I p. 33]. The interchange between 

* Fritz Hommel , Babylon. -Assyr. Geschichte p. 169 footn. 1 is dis- 
posed to combine the name with that of the father of Hammurabi, 
which he reads Amar-muballit, although for 'Amar-' there stands the 
ordinary ideogram for the moon-god Sin. This ideogram also appears 
in the preceding name which even Hommel reads Apil-Sin, and not 
Apil-Amar. Comp. also Fried. Delitzsch , Sprache der Kossaer p. 66 
and likewise his new Assyr. Worterbuch I p. 21. 


3 and Q in the last syllable bi = pi requires no special remark so 
far as Assyrian is concerned. The change of the appended jod in 
Hebrew (intended to express , we presume , the long final i *) into a 
Lamed (LXX ji/naQ(faX) may be due to a scribal error. How ancient 
such textual corruptions may be is shown by such examples as "IQ^DJ^ 
(Ezra IV. 10) , LXX \'iaoeva<phQ as compared with what we may 
assiime to have been the original form ^D23"1DN- ^^ *^® ancient 
Hebrew script ^ and ^ are liable to be confused with one another in 
cases where (as may be easily imagined) the two left-hand horizontal 
strokes of the jod are almost completely obliterated in the manuscript 
lying before the copyist.** 

We may assume that all admit the equivalence of the terms ^y^^ 
and Chaldaea (with Babylon as its centre). 

We may therefore suppose the course of events to have been as 
follows : — Hammurabi of Babylon at the beginning of his reign, when 
he ruled simply as a Babylonian ruler , joined with other similar 
co-regents in an expedition against the West — an enterprise which, 
according to the Biblical account, did not have the success that was 
anticipated. As time went on, and for reasons with which we are not 
acquainted, there was a dissolution of the alliance. A struggle broke 
out between Hammurabi and Arioch of EUasar. The latter was con- 
quered and his empire at length overthrown. During Hammurabi's 
long reign of 55 years it is no matter of surprise that such a revolu- 
tion should have taken place in the relations which subsisted between 
him and the surrounding states." 

[To these words may be added a supplementary reference to an 
interesting Excursus by Fried. Delitzsch contributed to Prof. Franz 
Delitzsch's New Commentary on Genesis (1887) pp. 539 foil. Full 
justice is there rendered by the Leipzig Assyriologist to the im- 
portance of the results of Dr. Schrader's dissertation from which 
the preceding extract has been made. Prof. Delitzsch adds some ad- 
ditional matters of importance to the subject in hand derived from his 
personal investigations. In March 1887 he obtained possession of an 

* The length of the final i seems proved by the formation of the 
name; see Fried. Delitzsch, Sprache der Kossaer, Leipzig 1884, p. 72. 
It is not certain whether we also find the orthography bi-i as well as 
that with the sign bi (Tiele, Gesch. p. 126). Comp. Noldeke, Mesa- 
Inschrift 1870 p. 32. 

** Or should we regard the final ^ as simply an accretion, just as 
the final T in the name Tl^pi (fi'om ^^Di^ =^ "AooaQax", LXX ikfffff- 
Qax or NaaciQhx, Joseph. 'Agdax?], originally -|C{< ^ A§ur)? So Well- 
hausen. See note on 2 Ki. XIX. 87 in the present volume pp. 13. 14. 


ancient clay cylinder containing two columns of inscription of king Sin- 
iddinam of Larsam (Ellasar). From this inscription the conclusion to 
he drawn is, that of the three kings of Larsam which we now know 
to have belonged to the same period, Nur-RammS,n ('Ramman is light') 
was the father of Sin-id din am. We may also infer on other grounds 
that Rim-Sin (Schrader : — Riv-Aku := Arioch) came after them and 
was the last king of Larsam (Ellasar). 

As to the pronunciation of the cuneiform sign for the last mentioned 
king, Delitzsch is of opinion that the first sign cannot possibly be read 
as Iri- or Eri-. On the other hand the reading Aku for the second 
sign is quite possible since A-ku has been found on the monuments 
as one of the names for the moon-god. We may therefore with good 
reason read the name as Rim-Aku, or as the Babylonian pronounced 
the name in later times Riv-Aku, Ri-Aku. This king may be iden- 
tified therefore with ^^l^J^ king of TD'jJJ^. — Translator.] 

Vol. 1, 121 1. 1. Read "Notes on the early history of Assyria and 
Babylonia", London 1872 p. 10. 29. 

Vol. I p. 153. In a letter to Prof. Schrader from Prof. W. Robertson 
Smith dated June 2 1884 upon the Philistine proper names discussed 
in the comment on Josh. XIIL 3, the writer says: — "Let us begin with 
the name Sidka. The analogy which subsists between this and the 
Hebrew forms ^Q^, ^'Q^ or i^^Q^, ^•2^^, ^"^ (^Tj;, ^J^iy), ^3^ etc. is 
evident. These latter have been discussed by Derenbourg, Hist, de la 
Pal. 95, 150 and by Wellhausen, Jahrb. fiir deutsche Theol. XX. 631. 
But the termination in these abbreviations has no reference to the form 
of the second half of the original name; for simUiar abbreviations are 
also common in Phoenician, and occur in such a manner that it is quite 
impossible to refer to the name '^^\'\^y\ by way of explanation. Thus 
JO^D i"^ Corp. Insc. Semit. I, 1, no. 52 cannot be separated from 
D^J^D^D no. 49, and we must come to a like conclusion with respect 
to J^^n as compared with Hannibal etc. and with respect to Bodo 
(i^"ID 01' J^IDJ? °o- 1*^)' ^VO"^ "^^^ 1^' i^nriD etc. etc. If this be so, 
we must form a similar opinion of the names with an I-termination. 
We already find in Hebrew that endings oscillate between a and ay, 
just as in Phoenician {^"l^y alternates with ^"l^j;, A^Saloq; and the 
Assyrian transcription of p^^p appears to show that an original ay 
may be represented by Assyr. i." Compare also Robertson Smith's 
article 'Philistines' in the recent edition of the Encyclop. Britannica 
and his note on a gem with the inscription J^^^i, Pal. Expl. Fund, 
Qu. Stat. 1885 p. 131. 

Vol. I p. 262 footn. *. Dr. Hugo Winckler has communicated to 
Dr. Schrader the information that from a personal examination of 
paper squeezes in Paris he has found that in the inscriptions of Sargon 


the sign which can be read as sil and tar interchanges in the case 
of this title with the sign which bears the special value tur. Con- 
sequently the reading turtauu (Tiele) becomes much more probable, 
assuming that we hare no error on the part of the tablet writer. 

Vol. II p. 27 footn. The explanation of the apparent discrepancy be- 
tween Bei'ossus and the monuments (in Dr. Schrader's article in the 
Reports of the Royal Saxon Society of Sciences 1880 p. 4) is to the 
following effect: — "The only difference which has hitherto been positively 
ascertained to exist between Berossus and the monuments is concerned 
with the statement of the former, that Merodach Baladan was not only 
dethroned by Sanherib, as the Inscriptions testify, but that he was also 
put to death (Euseb. Chron. I p. 27). Bearing in mind the definite 
statements on this point by Sanherib himself [see the extract from the 
Bellino-cylinder quoted in Vol. II p. 30 foil.] one can hardly hesitate 
to which of the two accounts one ought to give the preference. Does 
however the Armenian text of Eusebius in this passage really admit 
of no other rendering than that of interfecit or sustulit; or might we 
not suppose that the corresponding Armenian phrase is due to 
the misunderstanding of a Greek word of more general signification 
such as 'removed' i. e. dethroned?" Comp. also H. Winckler in Zeitsch. 
fiir Assyr. 1887 p. 392 foil. 

Vol. II p. 31, Inscr. line 14, comp. also p. 34 Bi'libni. — The re- 
cently discovered (1884) Babylonian chronicle gives the name Bil-X(?) 
Bi^XijSog in the phonetic form Bi'l-ib-ni "The name Brj).i^OQ meets us 
[in the Babylon, chronicle] in the same form as on the Bellino-cylinder 
[cited in Vol. II p. 30 — 31] only ofcourse with this exception that the 
Babylonian form of cuneiform signs is chosen instead of the Assyrian. 
The chronicle according to Proceedings of the Soc. of Biblical Archaeol. 
1884 p. 199 gives as phonetic equivalent of the name in its second 
portion . . . ib-ni so that the pronunciation Bi'l-ibni or Bi'1-ibni ap- 
peal's to be warranted as that which occurs on the monuments. How 
the pronunciation Be li bus-Eli b us, certified by the Ptolemaic Canon 
and also indirectly by Berosus , originated, still remains a problem." 
(Die keilinschriftliche Babylonische Konigsliste in Sitzungsberichte der 
Koniglich Pi*eu8sischen Akad. der Wissenschaften 1887 p. 589.) 

Vol. II p. 52, 1 Chron. V. 26 J^")r). "The meaningless phrase of the 
Chronicler >);|"| ]|"J3 -i,-|il }^in"l "llDm i^ evidently a corruption from 
the original text in 2 Kings XVUI. 11 i-]p n-jyi |p -|ni "liDnDl" — 
Keilinsch. u. Geschichtsforschung p. 430 footn. Dr. Schrader shows 
on p. 435 foil, that errors have crept into the Chronicler's text and 
that the original trustworthy textual tradition is to be found in the 
second Book of Kings. 


Vol. II p. 81. Add after line 4 from above the following section: — 
Isaiah XIV. 29 ri^D WD2^ ^"'^ which smote thee. Probably the Assyr- 
ian king Tiglath Pileser II is intended who died in the year 727 B.C. 
and in the year 734 B. C. conducted an expedition against Philistia 
(see Vol. I p. 246). Comp. likewise J. Barth, Beitrage zur Erklarung 
des Jesaia, Berlin 1885 p. 18 foil, and also Max Duncker, Geschichte 
des Alterthums, Berlin 1885, 5th ed. II p. 244 (Schrader.) 

Vol II p. 230. Ad vocem "y^-f. Instead of za-rar(?)-ti H. Winckler 
proposes to read za-lip-ti. 


Vol. I p. XXXI ad fin. If Prof. Fried. Delitzsch's combination of 
11ti^''{^ 'pupil of eye' with a root ^")J^ to be strong, be justified, we 
have an interesting parallel in the Aegyptian nutrit 'eye-ball' connected 
by Page Renouf with nutar or nutra having the original signification 
of 'strong'. (Lectures on Origin and Growth of Religion 1879 p. 98.) 
But the existence of a Hebrew root ]^'\^ 'to be strong' (even if we 
connect it with another collateral ti'^i^) i^ extremely problematical. 
The form 1ti'i£'J<nn I^- XLVI. 8 may well be a denomin. from ^1{>^. 
The proper name K'J^in^ ^^ K'i^l^ proves nothing, as Noldeke has al- 
ready pointed out. (Zeitsch. der Deutsch. Moi-genl. Gesellsch. 1886, 
art. on Fi'ied. Delitzsch's Prolegg. eines neuen Heb.-Aram. Worterbuchs, 
ad fin). There is therefore no justification whatever for Fried. De- 
litzsch's assertion that such a meaning for the root is "satisfactorily 
proved" by the above proper name (Prolegomena p. 161 footn. 3). 
Noldeke is disposed to agree with Gesenius in regarding Ji^i^ln"' ^^ 
signifying 'Jehovah has given' and would compare the Arabic root 
tjf*)\. This is also the view of Prof. D. H. Miiller in the lOt'i edition 

of Gesenius' Hebr. Lexicon sub voce tC'iiin"'- S®® *'^^ examples from 
Corp. Insc. Semit. there cited. The name accordingly signifies 'Jehovah 
has given (sc. a son)'; comp. Hebr. |J-|3in'') Assyr. Marduk-abal-iddina 
(Merodach has given a son), Adar-iddin and similar names. 

Vol. I p. 15 (Gen. I. 14) misrata umassir. Sayce (Hibbert Lec- 
tures 1887 p. 389) renders (transcribing mizrata yumazzir) "appointing 
the signs of the Zodiac" 'Mizrata is the mazz&roth of Job XXX VIH. 

* On this Dr. Schrader writes to me (Feb. 1. 1888) as follows: — 
"A transcription mizratu umazzir (Hibbert Lectures 389) I consider 


Vol. I p. 19, Insc. line 30 §i'ru sa pinti baslu sa tumri ul ikul 
is rendered by Zimmern in Babylon. Busspsalmen p. 76 "neither roast 
nor smoked (sa tumri sc. baslu 'cooked') flesh shall he (the king) 
eat"; tumru is regarded as signifyng 'smoke', ba§lu being evidently 
connected with the root basSlu 'to cook'. As an illustration of the 
above signification for tumru Zimmern cites from Nimrod-epos 44, 53 
taramima damk§,ru(?) §a kSn&ma tu-um-ri ispukaki thou 
lovedst also the shepherd who continually poured out (sapSku Hebr. 
'^Dtt') before you incense" (Sayce : — smoke [of sacrifice]). The root 
in any case would be -j^f) 'mount on high', 'to be high' , Assyr. 
tamS,ru. — pintu Zimmern follows Delitzsch in connecting with 
Hebrew DHD 'coal' — the original form being pimtu. 

Vol. I p. 28, Gen. II. 9 'tree of life'. Prof. Sayce quotes a remark- 
able fragment of a bilingual hymn translated by him as follows : — 

1. In Eridu a stalk grew overshadowing; in a holy place did it 
become green; 

2. its root was of white crystal which stretched towards the deep, 

3. while before Ea it went, Eridu was richly fertile (?) 

4. its seat was the central place of the earth etc. . . . 

6. Into the heart of its holy house, which spread its shade like a 
forest, hath no man entered. 
Prof. Sayce thinks that "it is pretty clear from the sculptures that the 
sacred tree of the Babylonians was the cedar, which was subsequently 
displaced by the palm ; so that Hommel's view, which sees a palm in 
'the stalk' of Eridu may still be maintained : . . . Long after the days 
when the hymns and magical texts of Eridu were composed the mystic 
virtues of the cedar were still remembered . . . 'the beloved of the 
great gods which their hand has caused to grow.' It was possibly 
the fragrance of the wood when lighted for sacrificial purposes that 
gave the tree its sacred character. It is possible that as time went 
on another tree became confounded with the original tree of life. The 
palm was from the earliest period characteristic of Babylonia ; and 
while its fruit seemed to be the stay and support of life, the wine 

improbable on account of the sign which is generally read as sir; 
but also my own transcription umassir is in my opinion not without 
objection and I am disposed to concur in the view of Prof. P. Haupt 
who in Zeitsch. fiir Assyr., Sept. 1887, p. 271 reads misratu umas- 
sir. He refers these words to a root ")yQ to cut, determine, comp. 
misru district [see the glossary. Haupt ibid, refers also to namsaru 
award]. He does not however give any rendering of the phrase. Per- 
haps it should be 'the frontier-districts (courses of the stars?) he 


made from it made 'glad the heart of man'. Date-wine was largely 
used not only in Babylonian medicine, but in the religious and magi- 
cal ceremonies as well. . . In later Babylonian belief the tree of life 
and the tree of knowledge were one and the same. The text, which 
describes the initiation of a sooth-sayer, associates the cedar with 'the 
treasures of Anu Bel and Ea, the tablets of the gods, the delivering 
of the oracle of heaven and earth'" — Hibbert Lectures 1887 pp. 238 — 242. 
With Gen. II. 9 we may compare Ezek. XLVII. 12 where in the 
vision of the river proceeding from the temple the prophet beholds 
upon the banks "every kind of tree for food whose leaf withers not . . . 
and its fruit serves as food and its leaf for medicine" (riD1"in!? inbi^l)- 
These two passages are blended in the apocalyptic vision Rev. XXII. 2. 
There is an interesting parallel in Jeremias, Babyl.-Assyr. Vorstellungen 
vom Leben nach dem Tode p. 93. After Nimrod's (Izdubar's) return 
from the spot where he was cleansed of his leprosy, Pir(Samas)-napi5tim 
shows the hero a plant which seems to have grown upon high trees or 
cliffs in the island. The name of the plant indicates its magic pro- 
perty — viz. §ibu-issahir-amilu [issahir Niphal Imperf. of saharu, 
see Glossary under "inii ^^^- ^^ ^^ small — then young.] '(already) an 
old man, the man became young' (line 267). Nimrod in his joy ex- 
claims that through its possession he would fain return to that (vigour) 
which he possessed in his youth lutur ana sa sihrijama. No 
wonder that demons of the under-world longed for this divine plant 
and that a lion of the earth (ni'su §a kakkari) robbed the hero of 
his priceless possession and plunged with it into the deep. Parallels 
from other literatures and mythologies may be suggested. Jeremias 
refers to the Zoroastrian plant Horn. 

Vol. I pp. 47 foil. Gen. VII. 13 pjiri DITl DJi^B "^ *'""* ^^^2/ ^<^2/- 
Comp. Exod.^^XXIV. 10 D^Dtt^H DJjy3 '^^^ *^fi ^er?/ heavens. Q^y 
properly signifies 'bone' and its synonym □"ijl is similarly employed in 
2 Kings IX. 13. To this idiomatic use we have a close parallel 
in the Assyrian masku hide, skin hence = self e. g. I Rawl. 41, 49 
(campaign of Sennacherib against Babylon) si-dir-ta pa-an ma§-ki- 
ja sab-tu-ma "they planted [their] line of battle right in front of me" 
[literally , before my skin i. e. before myself]. See Prof. Lyon's 
Assyrian Manual p. 71. 

Vol. I p. 120 foil. Gen. XIV. 5 D"'J«^D> ^^ Academy Oct. 30. 1886 
Dr. Neubauer suggests "Possibly the early inhabitants of these [Amorite 
Hittite] countries are also called by the general name of Rephaim, the 
explanation of which is not yet settled. According to the later mean- 
ing of this word in Isaiah, the Psalms and Job, it means the shades 
of the Sheol; and it may be that the Rapha represented a divinity of 



the shades from which a plural Rephaim has been formed similar to 
Elohim ; at all events the words Repha-el (1 Chron. XXVI. 7) and 
Repha-yah (ibid. III. 21 etc.) , and the later use of Raphael as the 
name of an angel, would in some respects confirm my supposition. I 
would venture to explain also from this name of Rapha the word 
Teraphim (Gen. XXX. 19. 34; 1 Sam. XIX, 13. 16 and elsewhere) 
which perhaps represented the manes: and if so, it would prove the 
existence of ancestor-worship among the Canaanitish tribes." In 
the following no. of the Academy (Nov. 6) Prof. Sayce supports the 
above views : — "The Assyrian inscriptions strikingly confirm Dr. Neu- 
bauer's brilliant explanation of the Teraphim despite the Masoretic 
vocalization of the word. The Assyrians had a verb rapu 'to be 
weak' corresponding to the Heb. HDl- From this was formed the 
word tarpu (i. e. tarapu) which signified 'feeble' or 'departed' (Ac- 
cadian dim ma or dim me) and then a ghost or more exactly an in- 
habitant of Hades. That rappu could be used in the same sense as 
tarpu is shown by the fact that the ideogram which denotes a spectre 
has the value of rap. We thus have an explanation of the Hebrew 
Rephaim. They are "the departed" great ones, who like ancient heroes 
of the Babylonian mythology sat on their shadowy thrones in Hades 
or else represented the historic populations of the Semitic world." 

Prof. Sayce remarks in another place: — "Military expeditions to the 
distant West were not the unlikely events they were once supposed 
to be. Long before the age of Abraham , Sargon of Akkad had set 
up his image on the shores of the Mediterranean and had even crossed 
over into Cyprus, while a cylinder containing the name of his son, 
Naram-Sin, was found by General di Cesnola at Kurion." 

Gen. XVII. 1 'trw^ ^^ ^■y^. An attempt has been made by Fried. 
Delitzsch with much ingenuity to connect the name l"JtJ^ with the 
Assyr. Sadu 'to be high' and Sadvi 'mountain', the compound name 
^TCi^ 7^ being compared with such proper names as Ilu-sadfia or 
Bil-§adQa 'God is my rock (or mountain)'. Similarly, since §adu 
meant really 'rising', 'height' and sad (sadi) uru meant 'rising of the 
light' or 'day-break', we have in this phrase an explanation of the 
Hebrew proper name "llJ^l"]^ (Proleg. eines neuen Hebr.-Aram. Wor- 
terb. p. 96). The latter admits, however, of a more satisfactory ex- 
planation by combining the first portion with the root TfW which 
appears in Aramaic as i-|»if, jl^, 'to throw' — the name would there- 
fore signify 'light- or fire-thrower'. Moreover in Eccles. II. 8 occurs 
the form \yr\^ usually rendered 'mistress', but which Delitzsch (ibid, 
p. 97) refers to the Assyrian root sad4du 'to love'; the noun 
sudadu being used as synon. of r&'imu 'lover', while naSaddu 


'favourite', 'darling' is employed instead of the alternating expression 
narS,mu or naramtu (so also Haupt in glossary, Germ. ed. sub voce 
-^^.^) He would therefore translate nils' 'beloved one'. But it is 
safer to resist so attractive an hypothesis since (1) Hebrew itself with 
the verb ^■|t^' '^^ be powerful, violent', hence 'to destroy', correspond- 

- T 

ing to the Arabic root iAa« , furnishes an adequate explanation of 
^•r\]l} the termination in proper names being explained as in Olsh. 
§ 217 a. — lti>, Assyr. Si'du ,'Syriac \y^\ {= N. T. dalfiwr, dc(ifj.6- 
viov, comp. Canon Driver in Expositor 1885 p. 296) would then be 

referable to the collateral root oL*m, ^^^, like ^3, from '^)f^; Hl?^ o° 
the other hand might be either connected with T^tt'i or, more pro- 
bably, with Ti^ (comp. □^jjij and □">Ji">]iJ , QI^Q ^^^ D^^^P Olshausen 
§ 83 c) and with its signification 'mistress' might be taken as a femi- 
nine counterpart to "j^a (= n"'3n n^J?3 1 ^i. XVII. 17). (2) Hal^vy 
in Zeitsch. filr Assyr. 1885 p. 405 foil.* and Jensen (Zeitschr. fiir Assyr. 
1886 p. 251) doubt whether gadu in Assyr. signifies 'to be high' — 
Noldeke, in Zeitschr. der Deutsch. Morgenland. Gesellschaft 1886, im- 
pugns the massoretic punctuation l^t^ which he ascribes to the tradi- 
tion which resolved the form into ^'r^ -f- It* (= lli^i^); just as n^^ 
was taken as = "^^ -}- U^ in Gen. XLIX. 10. Hence the render- 
ing 6 ixavog or adrdQxrjg. Noldeke considers "that the actual pro- 
nunciation was i^jj^ or s^if,' which naturally enough in later times 
became repugnant to the feelings of the Jew." 

Vol. I p. 127, Gen. XIX. 38. The geographical terms (ir) Bit- 
Amman a or (m^t) Bit-AmmS,na clearly indicate that Ammfin or 
Ammon (pj^y) was a deity.** Sometimes the name for the deity 

* HaMvy thinks §adu means 'to throw', 'project', 'extend', Aram. 
^Ip, Arab. ^J^-w. 

** With this we may compare the use of mn^ n^3 ^^ Hosea VIII. 1 
and ^n^3 i"! chap. IX. 15. The term f)i^ expressed the land and the 
people who dwelt in it combined in one notion. (Comp. Exod. XX. 2 
where Egypt is designated Qll^y D^S)- Prof. Cheyne (Camb. Bible 
for Schools, Hosea) thinks my comparison of Assyrian obscures the 
beauty of the figure. It is quite true that, according to the domina- 
ting idea of Hosea's oracles, Jehovah's house is the bride-groom's house, 
but it is clear from the context in the two passages cited (and from 
the parallels) that to the mind of a Hebrew the phrase ,~]^n^ D^D must 



assumes the shorter form Ammi (^J3J?). Thus in Rassam's fragments, 
quoted in Delitzsch Parad. p. 294, we have a king helonging to the 
time of Asurbanipal Am-mi-na-ad-bi (^li^sy Exod. VI. 23. 1 Chron. 
VI. 7). Other analogous compound names, such as Ammi-shaddai and 
Ammi-el, may he found in the Hebrew Lexicon. The last case is in- 
teresting as we have the same elements inverted in Eliam (2 Sam. 
XI. 3). Dr. Neubauer has pointed out that we have the same name 
for deity in Jei'oboajn.. Prof. Sayce observes that the "mother of 
Rehoboam was an Ammonitess, and Eehoboam is formed exactly like 
Rehab-iah (1 Chron. XXIII. 17) just as Jekam-'am (1 Chron. XXIII. 
19) is formed like Jekam-iah (1 Chron. II. 41)." 

Exod. XXVI. 31. niDiS curtain {before the Holy of Holies). In 
Assyrian also we have a word from the same root "I'HD viz. parakku 
signifying shrine. Thus Nabonidus invoking the god Samas says 
V Rawl. 64 col. III. 13 ana I'babbara bit naramika ina iribika 
14. parakkaka darii ina rami'ka "when thou enterest Ibabbara 
thy beloved house, 14. when thou dwellest in thine eternal shrine." 
Parakku meant the inner shrine or adytum. Comp. Sayce, Hibbert 
Lectures p. 64. 

Vol. I p. 142. Exod. XXVIII. 41 Ql^TIi^ DN^DI <*"^ <^0" «^"^* 

TT V T * • 

invest them (i. e. with the priesthood) lit. 'fill their hand'. In Assyrian 
we meet with the same idiom I Rawl. 35 No. 3, 4 sa A§ur malknt 
la §anS.n umallfl k^tuSu 'whom Agur has invested (lit. filled his 
hand) with rule without equal'. (Fried. Delitzsch, Proleg. eines neuen 
Hebr.-Aram. Worterb. p. 48.) Comp. Vol. I p. 204 (line 2 of inscrip- 
tion there quoted). 

Deut. VIII. 15 ^iQ^JriD "llli- There seems to be a close etymological 
connection between this word ^^^D*?!!) designating a hard stone and the 
Assyrian ilmi§u signifying apparently 'diamond' IV Rawl. 68, 33 c 
niir §a ilmisi ina p&n Aiurahiddina uSanamara "diamond- 
light will I cause to shine (Shaf. Impf. II n a mar u to shine) before 
Asarhaddon." — Fr. Delitzsch ibid. p. 86 footn. 

Deut. XX. 19. 20. The prevalent custom of cutting down fruit trees 
round a besieged town is here forbidden. Other Semitic nations fre- 
quently resorted to this practice in warfare. Prof. Robertson Smith 
(O. T. in Jewish Ch. p. 368) remarks that "in Arabic warfare the 

have also meant Israel's land, viz. Canaan , and that the prophet was 
thinking of an Assyrian invasion and prospective exile. Comp. Canon 
Cheyne's own note on Hos. IX. 15, and the commentaries of Nowack 
and Wiinsche on Hosea, and lastly W. R. Smith, 'Prophets of Israel' 
p. 170 foil, and 'Old Testament and the Jewish Church' p. 355 foil. 


destruction of an enemy's palm-groves is a favourite exploit." Simi- 
larly Tiglath-Pileser II in describing his operations against Chinzer 
(II Eawl. 67, 23. 24) says: — 24. kiri is musukkani sa dih duriSu 
akisma iStin ul izib. 24. "The plantations of palm which were close 
to his fortress I cut down , a single one did I not leave" (see Vol. I 
p. 226). With this, moreover, we may compare the policy recommended 
by Elisha to Israel in the war against Moab 2 Kings III. 19. 

Deut. XXXII. 41. 'If I have whetted my glittering sword' (p12 
12"1|-| lightning of my sword). Fried. Delitzsch observes that the Baby- 
lonian script represents the notion 'lightning' (birku) and 'sword' 
(namsaru) by the same ideogram. (Zeitsch. fiir Keilschriftforschung 
1885 p. 387). Comp. Nah. III. 3, Hab. III. 11. 

Josh. XV. 59. J-)1i^ n^3 ^ to'"*'Q i"! Judah. Comp. also pijy Ji^3 
in the tribe of Naphtali Josh. XIX. 38, Judg. I. 33 mentioned along 
with tJ^O^ n^3 *^ places in which the Canaanite was permitted to 
remain. These places seem to have been devoted to the cultus of the 
Semitic deity Anat. Prof. Sayce (Hibbert Lectures 1887 p. 187) reminds 
us that in the annals of Thothmes III (circ. 1580 B. C.) mention is 
made of one of these towns called Beth Anath. Anat was the Semitic 
feminine counterpart of the Semitic supreme god of Heaven, Anu (of 
pre-Semitic origin). Anat, in contradistinction to Anu 'Heaven', 
designated the Earth ; comp. the list III Rawl. 69 No. 1 (Fritz Hommel, 
Semitische Volker und Sprachen p. 373). Probably Shdmesh among 
the Canaanites (Babyl. Samai) took the place of Anu as the male 
counterpart of Anat, while Ashtoreth (Babyl. I Star) was the companion- 
goddess of Baal, the Canaanite deity. It is important in this connexion 
to observe that among the ancient Babylonians themselves Anu and Samai 
were blended together (see Zimmern, Busspsalmen p. 60). Is it possible, 
however, to connect the p}^ in ni<~n^D with the Babylonian Anu ? 
And can the Aegyptian An (Georg Ebers , Durch Gosen p. 507) be 
similarly combined? (The interchange of y (c) and J^ in Semitic 
languages presents no difHculty. Respecting Aegyptian and Semitic 
see examples in Hommel, Semit Volker. Nachtrage p. 440). 

2 Kings V. 10. Oo and wash, seven times in the Jordan- Similarly 
washing the person is prescribed as a final process in connection with 
leprosy in Levit. XIV. 8. 9. With this we may compare the following 
passage, descriptive of Nimrod's (Izdubar's) cure from leprosy, cited in 
Jeremias, Vorstellungen vom Lebeu etc. p. 90 from the Nimrod-epic lines 
225 foil, in which Pir (or Sama§)-napistim with a view to Nimrod's 
recovery directs his servant Arad-Ea in the following words : — 
amilu sa tallika panasu iktasu malu pagarsu 
masku uktattfl dumuk si'risu 


likiSuma Arad-I'a ana namsi bllSuma 

maliSu ina mi' kima illi limsi 

liddi maskiSuma libil tS,mtum tabu lu sa-pu zumursu 

"The man before whom thou hast gone is covered (Ifte. Impf. 

HDD) i° ^^^ body with leprosy, 
Leprous-skin has destroyed the beauty of his flesh ; 
Arad-Ea, take him , bring him to the place of washing, 
His leprosy let him in water wash-clean (Prec. Kal i^DQ) like snow, 
Let him shed (Prec. HHi) ^i^ leprous-skin, let the sea carry it 

away (Precat. ^2")), fair may his body appear" (sapii 

comp. Heb. HDif)- 

T T 

The following lines refer to the garments which are to be renewed for 
the hero to serve for his return-journey (comp. Levit. XIII. 52 foil.). 
The success of the cleansing is stated in the lines 237 foil. : 
malisu ina mi' kima illi imsi 

iddi ma§kiiuma ubil tSmtum tabu issapi zumurSu. 
His leprosy in water like snow be washed clean, 
shed his leprous-skin, the sea carried it away, fair appeared 
(Nifal) his body. 
Vol. I p. 273 line 12 from above. From an article by Di*. Hayes 
Ward in Hebraica for January 1886 we may conclude that there is some 
reason to expect that the Sipar of Anunit is to be identified with An- 
bar, a ruined site of very considerable extent about a mile from the 
present bed of the Euphrates. "It is a double city" says the writer 
"and the principal or apparently older city is surrounded by walls from 
30 to 50 feet high ... To the East of this city and its wall is ano- 
ther on a lower level, separated from the first by what seems to have 
been a canal or moat." It is possible that this is the actual Sephar- 
vaim or Double-Sipar of Scripture. A fragment of a tablet obtained 
by Dr. Ward exhibits a portion of the Sumirian column of a bilingual 
inscription read by Mr. Pinches as follows 

Sipar D. P. (? Anunit) 
Sipar idina D. P. 
Sipar uldua D. P. 
Sipar utu D. P. 
which leads us to infer that there were not two but four districts or 
cities called Sipar, the last being the Sippara of Sama§ (Sumirian utu 
= Sama§) identified by Mr. Rassam with Abu Habba. Sipar idina 
(Sipar of the plain; see Vol. I pp. 26. 27) will prove of some impor- 
tance as a clue to the geographical position of Eden discussed in Prof. 
Delitzsch's interesting monograph on the Site of Paradise. 

Haldvy in Zeitsch. fiir Assyr. 1887 p. 401 combines Qll-IDD with 
D'"I3D ^^ Ezek. XLVII. 16 situated between Hamath and Damascus 


and which is the town of Sabara'in destroyed by Salmanassar IV. 
But this identification □^^"IDD = D^"1DD '^ arbitrary since (1) The 
absence of monumental evidence of a destruction of Sippara by a pre- 
decessor of Sennacherib is not conclusive proof that no such conquest 
ever took place. It may well have been accomplished in the year 721 
by Sargon (see Vol. I pp. 268 foil., 273 foil.; Vol. II p. 9 foil.). (2) In 
2 Kings XVII. 30. 31 Sepharvaim is connected not only with Hamath, 
but also with Babylon and Cuth (where Nergal was worshipped). 
[Compare also respecting Sabara'in or Samara' in H. Winckler in 
Zeitsch. fiir Assyr. 1888 No. 1. — Schr.] 

Isaiah X. 18 o^ij CTDDS- The root DDJ has been usually been 
connected, as in the 10*'" ed. of Gesonius' Lexicon, with the Syriac 
]r^ -m^ ill J ^▲^▲J weak and Canon Cheyne follows the traditional 
interpretation 'like a sick man's pining away' but in the 'Critical 
notes' (Vol. II p. 145) looks upon the phrase with suspicion. Fried. 
Delitzsch suggests that the root should be connected with the Assyrian 
nasdsu 'weep', 'lament'. We should therefore render 'like the pining 
away of a mourner'. The idea would be parallel to that of Is. XXIV. 
4; XXXIII. 9. Amos I. 2 (Prolegg. p. 64). 

Vol. II pp. 79. 80. Comp. Vol. II p. 156 and also Jeremias, Die 
Babylon. -Assyr. Vorstellungen vom Leben nach dem Tode pp. 81 foil. 
109 foil, and Canon Cheyne, Expositor, Jan. 1888 p. 22 foil. 

Isaiah XXXIV. 14. n^^"*^ LUith. In one of the magical formulae 
quoted by Fritz Hommel (Vorsemit. Kulturen p. 367) occurs the phrase 

"The (male) Liila, the (female) Lilla, the maid of Lilla".* 
Lilith, or in Babylonian lilS.tu (or lilitu), is the Semitic forpi of 
this demon which is placed in this incantation in juxta-position with 
the pest-demon Nam-tar. According to Prof. Sayce (Hibbert Lectures 
1887 p. 145 foil.) Lilatu was confounded with the Semitic lilatu 
'night' and so "became a word of terror denoting the night-demon 
who sucked the blood of her sleeping victims." Consult Canon Cheyne's 
Commentary ad loc. 

Isaiah XLI. 18 QiJ^ ""i^SlD- I have already in another place (Ex- 
positor Dec. 1886, p. 479 foil.) called attention to the fact that Assyrian 
seems to corroborate the rendering vSQayioyol 'water-channels' given by 
the LXX. "In the parallel passage contained in the later appendix to 
Psalm CVII (evidently based on this utterance by the Deutero-Isaiah) 
D'D ^i^i^lD is translated by Sis^odoi while in 2 Kings II. 21 the same 
Greek equivalent is used. It is also the term employed to render the 
QiQ 'J^© o^ Ps. I. 3." While the LXX, however, render thus in all 
cases except Is. LVIII. 11, the Aramaic versions (Targum and Syriac) 

* Prof. Sayce reads "The lilu, the lilat, the hand-maid of lilu." 


give as their equivalents niipDD or {^IQ-J {^ipDD (Syr. . . . )2ka£^^ 
or ^.^^j },lna^). This may have been partly due to the fact that in 

Is. XXXV. 7 we have a parallel passage in many respects analogous 
to this and to Ps. CVII. 33 foil. In Isaiah XXXV. 7 Qiip ^^13D 
stands in place of Qi^ iNIiiD- ^ut we have no more right to take 
the two phrases as synonymous than to assume a like equivalence for 
3'^t^ and "ISID hecause the one takes the place of the other in the 

T T T : ■ 

parallel passages I'eferred to, — Now the older tradition, preserved in 
the LXX, apppears to be confirmed by the usage in Babylono-Assyrian. 
Of this two examples will be given and it is to be no*ed that they 
are taken from the Babylonian of Nebucadnezzar. Thus in an inscrip- 
tion of Nebucadnezzar, describing the restoration of the temple of Bor- 
sippa and the ruinous state in which the building existed prior to that 
restoration, there occurs the phrase col, I. 32 la sutiSuru mflsi 
mi'sa 'there was no regulation of its water-gutters' (or water-drains). 
Comp. Vol. I p. 109 and Dr. Schrader's comment, on p. 111. Also in 
another inscription of Nebukaduezzar (on a cylinder) published by 
H. Winckler in the Zeitsch. Inr Assyriologie April 1887 p. 126 foil., 
in a minute description of a splendid edifice erected by the monarch 
we are told col. I. 25 nkv mu-si mi-i-Su as-ni-ik-§u 26 iua ku- 
up-ru u a-gu-ur-ru 27. ab-na-a su-uk-ki-su col. II. 1 a§-gum ina 
nSr mu-si-i mi-i-§a .... 4 la i-ri-bi 5 ina pa-ar-zi-il-lum i-lum- 
tim a.s-ba-at mu-sa-a-su i. e. col. I. 25 "a water-channel I afiixed to 
it 26 with bitumen and tiles I built its bed col. II. 1. In order that 

into its water-channel 4 might not enter, 5. I surrounded 

its channel with polished (gleaming) iron." In both these passages the 
context indicates that musu does not simply mean 'out-flow' but bears 
the specialized signification of 'channel', 'watercourse'. Further cita- 
tions from the Hebrew text tend to establish the meaning proposed 
for the phrase which we have seen to be common to both languages. 
In the Siloam-inscription (see Gesenius, Hebr. Grammar ed. Kautzsch 
p. 377) there occurs the passage nD13n biH, mTiT) p D-iDH d'?''1 
"and the water flowed from the channel into the pool [along a distance 
of 1200 cubits]." Here ofcourse the ordinary rendering given to J^tj^Q 
is "spring." It is adopted by Prof. Sayce, and certainly gives a per- 
fectly intelligible meaning. But let us compare this passage with 
2 Chron. XXXII. 20 "Likewise it was Hezekiah who stopped up the 
upper water-channel of the Gihon (ivbyPl jirT^J ''lO^P i^^iD) and guided 
the waters straight downwards to the West of the city of David". 
Prof. Sayce in his discussion about the Siloam inscription in "Fresh 
Light from the Ancient monuments" p. 103 cites this very verse and 
there translates by "upper water-course." Indeed, the interpretation 


"upper spring" involves us in topographical as well as exegetical diffi- 
culties since, as he says, there was only 07ie natural source, the Vir- 
gin's spring near to Jerusalem and sufficient to satisfy the conditions 
of the problem. And this rendering is confirmed by a comparison of 
the following passages viz. 2 Kings XX. 20, Is. VII. 3, XXXVI. 2 (see 
also Is. XXII. 9. 11), from which it is evident that the word }^li"iQ is 
used by the Chronicler as the equivalent of n^VPi ^'^ ^^^ earlier re- 
cords. We may also infer that the upper conduit led to the upper 
pool (nD^3) mentioned by Isaiah and the lower conduit to the lower 
pool, both being supplied from the same source viz. the Virgin's spring. 
— The use of Q^J^ ^{^liiD as 'water-channels' employed in irrigation 
would thus stand parallel with similar terms in Is. XLIV. 4 , Ezek. 
XXXI. 4 (riTibyp)- "^^^ Vulgate in its rendering hovers between 
fontes and rivi aquarum. On the use of i^JjiQ as material object or 
instrument consult Stade, Heb. Gram. §§ 268 — 9. 

Isaiah LIII; Is. XXV. 8; Hos. XIII. 14. In the Proceedings of the 
Soc. of Biblical Archaeology Jan. 1885, Mr. Pinches draws attention 
to a remarkable text in Rawl. IV, pi. 61 No. 2, which appears to in- 
dicate that the ancient Babylonians (perhaps 3000 B. C.) had concep- 
tions which might be called Messianic. "It begins with the reflections 
of some ancient hero, who looking on the land and the people around 
him, saw on all sides nothing but evil. The ruler (as it seems) broke 
ofi prayer and discontinued supplication, did not teach his people reve- 
rence and honour, and did not himself call upon God. He, however, 
the speaker, was wise : the day for the worship of the gods was the 
delight of his heart, and the prayer of a king — that was joy. The 
writer goes on for several lines in the same strain and speaks of one 
who had learned the glorious path of the god" 

i-ka-a-ma il-ma-da a-lak-ti ili a-pa-a-ti 
Sa ina a m-mat ib-lu-tu i-mut ud-di-is. 
How did he learn the path of god glorious, 
who in the world lived, died, renewed? 
ik&ma perhaps another form of aki 'like' (= ki) with suffixed ma. 
The meaning, though not quite certain, is clearly that of an interrog. 
particle [? Kal Impf. Q^n]- "' alakti constr. state of alaktu 'path' 
from al9.ku 'to go'. — S,pSti fem. constr. of &pfl (not found) 'to shine 
forth brightly' probably connected with the root of gflpu (Shaf) 'to 
cause to shine forth' and with f-|Q"i and J^Ql. apati agrees with 
§,lakti. — amm&t (for ammatu — one of the peculiarities of this 
text being the omission of the terminations in one or two cases). This 
word occurs with the meaning 'earth' on the first creation-tablet. — 
iblutu aorist [Imperf.] Kal of balatu 'to live' Hebr. {^^Q. — imflt 


aor. Kal of m§.tfl, to die Hebr. niD- — uddig aor. Pael of adSgu 'to 
be new' Heb. ^~\'p,. 

The writer then seems to speak of some misfortune which overtook 
himself; his goddess had not mercy on him and did not go by his 
side. But suddenly his tone changes 

pi-ti ki-mah ir-§u-u Su-ka-nu-u-a 
a-di la mi-tu-ti-i-ma bi-ki-ti gam-rat* 
Open the great place, they have. my pardon (?) 
until not death be and weeping be ended. 
Pit! imperat of pat^ or pitii, to open, Hebr. nHD- — Kimah (or 
Kimahha accusat.) a compound word from the Accadian ki 'place' 
and mah 'supreme', 'great'** (= high place). — ir§u 3 pers. plur. aor. 
Kal of ra§u 'have', 'possess' Aram. ^^"^ [also with meaning 'grant' 
according to glossary under ^^l]. — sukaniia apparently noun from 
the Shafel of the root kanii (Heb. HiS) ^i^h the suffixed pron. -a 

T T 

'my'. Both the meaning and derivation of gukanu are, however, 
doubtful. — mitutima. This word comes from mitutu 'death' 
(mStu Heb. fT)Q) with the lengthening i and the suffix -ma 'and'. — 
bikiti "weeping" from baku 'to weep' Heb. nD3- — gamrat 3 pers. 
fem. sing, permans. Kal of gamaru 'to complete', 'put an end to', 
Hebr. -103. 

- T 

"After a few more lines the tablet comes to an end. This was 
considered by the Assyrians or Babylonians important enough to have 
a kind of running glossary in which all the difficult or unusual words 
are explained by others better known." 

The above details are quoted from the article by Mr. Pinches in 
the Proc. of the Soc. of Bibl. Arch, and also from a private communi- 
cation from him to myself (Febr. 1888) in which the writer makes the 
following reservation "Whether, when I have made out the full mean- 
ing of the context the signification of the passages will be greatly 

* In IV Rawl. 19. lib Marduk is called bilu rimu §a miti 
bullutu ir^mu "merciful lord, who loves giving life to the dead" 
IV Eawl. 29 No. 1 Rev. attama muballit [miti] attama mu§al- 
lim[u] riminu ina il§,ni "Thou givest life to [the dead], thou the 
giver of peace, merciful among the gods" and also in another passage 
riminu §a bullutu ba§u itti§u "the merciful with whom is the 
summoning-to-life". The same thing is said of Nebo murrik 
(= mu'ar-rik (Piel Partic. 'l")}^) umi muballit miti "thou who 
prolongest days, givest life to the dead", see Jeremias, Vorstellungen 
p. 101; Zeitsch. fiir Assyr. 1886 p. 206. 

** Or should we read in Semitic Assy rio- Babylonian asra raba? 


modified or not, I cannot say. The meaning of the passages in ques- 
tion is fairly certain, and what further researches I have made only 
tend to confirm the rendering." 

Vol. II p. 120 Ezek. VIII. 14. 'And behold there the women were 
sitting bewailing Tammuz', comp. Zech. XII. 11 (Vol. II p. 154), comp. 
also Amos VIII. 10 and Jer. XXII. 18. Prof. Sayce cites the Greek 
parallels in Hibbert Lectures p. 228. With this we may compare the 
following difficult passage in the Descent of Istar lines 132 foil. 

ik-rim a-hi-§a tas-mi tam-ha-as (ilu) Til(Bi?)-li-Ii su-tar-ta §a 

* * * * 

a-hi i-du la ta-hab-bil-an-[ni] 

ina u-mi (ilu) Dumuzi il-la-an-ni* gibu ukni §imir santi 
it-ti-§u il-la-an-ni 

it-ti-§u il-la-an-ni inini(?)u ininati (?) 
I am indebted to the kindness of Mr. Pinches for these last two lines 
and their interpretation which is appended below. The last line in 
the poem is not quoted on account of its obscurity. 

"The goddess Tillili (Bilili) heard of her brother's death, broke the 
jewelled circlet (so Sayce) .... 

. . . (saying) my only brother, let me not perish. 

On the day when they bring up Tammuz to me, a circlet of uknu 
a ring of santi with him they shall bring up to me. 

With him they shall bring up to me the male and female mourners". 
By uknu we are to understand "a stone mottled blue and white — a 
kind of lapis lazuli with white marks in it , if we may may trust an 
inscription on a disc of this stone, which a dealer has now for sale" 
(Pinches). This passage evidently contains a reference to the death 
of the 'bridegroom of Istar', Tammuz, for whom mourning is made. 

Vol. II p. 124 foil. Consult the suggestive articles of Prof. Fuller 
on the "Book of Daniel in the light of recent discoveries" (Expositor, 
March and June 1885). He draws attention to a tablet published by 
Mr. Pinches in Trans. Soc. Bibl. Arch. VII. 210 from which it is in- 
ferred that Nebucadnezzar twice attacked Egypt. Prof. Fuller ingeniously 
conjectures that Nebucadnezzar's golden image in Dui*a was suggested 
to the Babylonian monarch, during his campaign in Aegypt in 572, by 

* The interpretation of this word is very doubtful. Mr. Pinches 
translates it "bring-up-to me" (making Dumuzi the object) from ilu 
rise used also in a transitive sense. Perhaps we ought to translate 
with Prof. Sayce 'Tammuz bound on me a ring etc' illanni being 
the Kal 3 sing. Aorist-Imperf. (for ilulanni) of alalu 'to bind' (comp. 
subst. allu 'chain'). A new sentence will then begin with inini. — 
simir stat. constr. of simiru 'ring'. 


the colossus of Eameses at Tanis. — On the capture of Babylon by 
Cyrus, see Budge's Babylonian Life and History p. 79 foil. 

Vol. II p. 155 foil. The Hebrew poetry of the Old Testament forms 
only a very small portion of an ancient Semitic treasure of poesy and 
song secular as well as religious, dramatic and lyric as well as didactic, 
comp. Amos VI. 5, Is. XXIII. 16, Ezek. XXVI. 13 and the titles to 
Pss. IX, XXII, XLV, LVI, LVII, LX. That the Canaanite had epithalamia 
as stately as Psalm XLV and lyrical dramas as full of charm as the 
Song of Songs , and that his religious hymnal litui'gies in honour of 
Baal or Ashtoreth were constructed as well as chanted in analogous 
forms to those which exist in the Hebrew Psalter, may be regarded 
as extremely probable. But, in the complete wreck of the once great 
and seductive civilization of Canaan and Phoenicia and the utter ex- 
tinction of all its literature, we are unable, from the varied monumental 
records that have been discovered, to show the profoundly interesting 
resemblances of form which doubtless subsisted between Hebrew and 
ancient Canaanite poetry. Of ancient Hebrew praeexilic poetry we 
possess only a slight remnant , an anthology divinely inspired, and 
limited by a divinely inspired principle of selection. How much has 
been abandoned to oblivion we can only imagine. How colossal was 
the destruction of North-Israelite literature we may dimly surmise 
from the records of overwhelming disaster and desolation befalling 
the Northern kingdom which are contained in the Annals of Tiglath 
Pileser and Sargon. If an ancient Israelite (or Ephraimite) , as well 
as an ancient Judaean, national literature had survived to any consi- 
derable extent and had come into our hands in forms other than 
through Judaean recensions, how great would have been the gain to 
the Biblical and historical student! How many books and hypotheses 
would never have seen the light! 

In default of any contemporary Semitic parallels lying nearer 
to the original home of Hebrew literature, the poetry of Babylono- 
Assyria acquires an exceptional importance. The ancient Babylono- 
Assyrian hymns are in a large number of instances translations from 
older non-Semitic Sumiro-Akkadian lays. Many of these hymns are 
merely formulae of incantation of which numerous examples may be 
found in Leuormaut's Chaldaean Magic or in Appendix III of Prof. 
Sayce's recently published work. But there were liturgical songs of 
a more exalted character addressed to Anu, Samas, I§tar and Merodach 
of which examples are given in the above-mentioned work. We have 
also a certain class of hymns that are called 'Penitential Psalms', of 
which Dr. Zimmern has given a collection, the texts having not only 
the Semitic Babylonian rendering, but also the Akkadian original. 
Dr. Zimmern, however, considers that these psalms were originally com- 


posed In Semitic Babylonian, "because, in spite of their bilingual texts, 
they must have proceeded from a Semitic atmosphere of thought on 
account of the character of the conceptions contained in them. More- 
over the Assyrian is no mere interlinear version, but in forms, syntax 
and vocabulary belongs to the most finely developed portions of Baby- 
lono-Assyrian literature." Without entering into so disputable a matter, 
it is sufficient to say that this ancient poetic literature of Babylonia 
shows a marked resemblance in its form to Hebrew poetry. In Baby- 
lonian hymns we see undoubted prevalence of the parallelismus mem- 
hrorum which characterizes Old Testament poetry and in many cases 
it is quite possible to trace a strophical arrangement. Of parallelism 
we have an indubitable instance in the opening lines of the Descent of 
Istar quoted in Vol. II p. 156, comp. the Creation-tablet transcribed 
and rendered in Vol. I p. 2 (where we find not only parallelism but 
apparently a strophic arrangement of six lines). The following examples 
will exhibit the facts in a clearer light. The first is a brief extract 
from a 'penitential psalm' addressed to I§tar (Zimmern pp. 34 and 42). 

[akal] ul ikul bikitum kurmati 
[mi' ul asti] dimtu maStiti 
[libbi ul ihdi] kabitti ul immir 

[food] have I not eaten, weeping was my refreshment, 
[water have I not drunk] tears (Heb. nVD*!) were my drink 

(root nn^), 

[my heart rejoiced (Heb. T\1T]) '^ot] my disposition was not 
bright (root 

In spite of the lacunae in the text, the parallelism of phrase is clearly 
visible. The passage possesses a further interest because the expres- 
sions are identical with those of Psalm XLII. 4 Qp^ TVDl "^b nrT^n 
comp. also Pss. LXXX. 6, CII. 10. 

Another example will be given in Prof. Sayce's rendering : — 

"My Lord in the anger of his heart has punished me, 

God in the strength of his heart has taken me, 

IStar, my mother, has seized upon me and put me to grief. 

God, who knoweth that I knew not, has afflicted me, 
litar, my mother, who knoweth that I knew not has caused 

I prayed and none takes my hand, 

I wept and none held my palm, 

I cry aloud and there is none that will hear me, 

I am in darkness and hiding, I dare not look up. 

\^iiy - 


To God I refer my distress, I utter my prayer, 
The feet of Istar, my mother, I embrace, 
To God, who knoweth that I knew not, my prayer I utter, 
To IStar, my mother, who knoweth that I knew not, my prayer 
I address." 

Here both strophical arrangement and parallelism are very conspicuous. 
The Babylonian psalms are characterized by much repetition of phrase 
a feature that usually appears in all religious litanies, and is especially 
prominent in the Babylonian formulae of incantation. But the Psalms 
of the Old Testament present numerous examples of refrains and 
recurrent phrases e. g. Pss. XXIX, XLII, XLIII, LXXX, CXV. 9—12; 
CXVIII. 1-5; CXXXV. 19. 20; CXXXVI. Comp. Is. IX. 8— X. 4; 
Amos I. 3 — II. 8. It is interesting to note that one liturgical term 
bearing reference to religious hymns seems to be common to Assyrian 
and Hebrew, the Hebrew ll'^iti^ being represented by the Assyrian s i g u 
(both from the same root r!JK')i t^e latter signifying 'penitential psalm'.* 

The Babylonians had several kinds of musical instruments including 
the harp and the flute. The harp comes down from very ancient 
times. On a fragment of a basrelief assigned to the age of king Gudia 
which is to be found figured in Fritz Hommel's Hist, of Babylo'nia 
and Assyria p. 243, there is a representation of a harp with twelve 
strings and a musician standing by with out-stretched hand fingering 
the middle string. 

Psalm LXXIX. 3 Q^SS DOT IDDEJ'- They have shed their blood like 
water. This passage is analogous to the following line cited from the 
fragment of a penitential Psalm addressed to IStar (Zimmern p. 74) : 

ina r-UL(?)-bar bit piristiki dami' kima mi' innaku 
"in I'-Ulbar, temple of thine oracle, blood like water is poured out" 
(Niph. Imperf. nakii, see Glossary Ip^). This fragment (IV Raw]. 19, 
No. 3) is throughout very interesting as afi'ording a close parallel to 
Ps. LXXIX. In both the historic groundwork is an invasion by a 
powerful foe (nakru gabSu) by whom sacred cities have been over- 
thrown and desecrated: ina aliki risti Uruk sumu ittaskan 
"in thine august city Erech desolation (?) hath been wrought"; compare 
Ps. LXXIX. 1. 

Ps. CXVI. 9 "I will walk before the Lord in the lands of the living" 
similarly IV Rawl. 61, 41a ina kakkar sulmi mahraka littallak 

* So Zimmern who quotes silatti limi §irim u lilfiti sigfi i§asi 
"three days morning and evening he is to repeat a §igii". — ina umi 
magiri ligfl ana la iiasi "On a propitious day he shall utter a 
Sigii to £a." In both cases sigu is phonetically written si(si)-gu-u. 


"in the land of peace before thee may he walk" (Ifte. pvecat. al^ku); 
balat umi rukuti maharki lutallak "that I may walk before 
thee a life of many days" (lit. distant days). Sargon in Khorsab. 174 
says a§su tabu napisti umi rukuti nadanimma u kunnu 
palia na'dis akmis "in order to the well-being of my life and the 
bestowment of distant days and firmness of my rule, I solemnly 
(adv. root ^{^J , see Glossary) bowed myself" (Kal impf. 1. pers. 
kam&su), comp. Exod. XX. 12, Prov. III. 16 etc. 

Job I. 1 yy^ V"|J^- Fried. Delitzsch draws attention to the phrase 
Sasi mar (mat) Us-sa-a "Sasi son of an Uzzite" occurring in line 
154 of Salmanassar IPs black obelisk. This land Ussu lay not far 
North (?) of Aleppo and also stood in connection with Patin and like 
the latter lay towards the Syro-Arabian desert. Parad. p. 259 ; Zeitsch. 
fiir Keilsch. 1885 p. 96 foil. 

Job II. 11 ir^l^n nbH- Fried. Delitzsch ibid. p. 91 combines 
nitt' with the Assyrian suhu (foreign JJ^ represented by Q in Assy- 
rian). This was a region which stretched from above the mouth of 
the Belich to the mouth of the Chabiir. It lay therefore lower down 
the stream than Karchemish. 

Job VIII. 20 D''V'1P I"*? P''Tn"' N'b taketh not hold of the hand of 
evil-doers i. e. renders evil-doers no aid. The phrase "^13 p''Tnn 
meaning to 'support' or 'assist' occurs also in Is. XLI. 13, XLII. 6. In 
Assyrian we have an exactly similar expression kata sabfitu. Comp. 
Smith's Assurbanipal 100. 19: uirba uSibilsuma asbat katsu 
"corn I caused to be brought to him (Shafel imperf. ^3*1 abalu with 
pron. suiSx) and gave him aid" (lit. held his hand). The phrase often 
occurs in proper names e. g. Nabii-ka ti-sabat "Nebo, take hold of 
my hand" = come to my aid; Bi'1-kati-sabat eponym official for 
811 B. C. 

Job XXII. 21 Tjn{^13n. comp. nDN^DD, t)eut. XXXIII. 16 and 
^nN"2Fl 1 Sam. XXV. 34. These are understood by Dillmann to be 
hybrid forms arising from the addition of Perfect afl'ormatives to the 
imperfect of the verb {^"J3 (comp. Ewald, Lehrbuch § 191 c). Tjni<"i3n 
is explained as rii^lSD with the suffix attached. But these are such 
unparalleled forms that it is much safer with Barth, Zeitsch. fiir Assyr. 
1887 p. 208 to assume a stem {v3P (3. sing. Perf.), and this is con- 
firmed by the existence of an Assyrian root tibu *<o come'' of which 
itba is the 3. sing. Imperf. Kal. See Glossary sub voce ^"2^. 

Song of Songs V. 10 nDDlD b^Ti- Fried. Delitzsch, Prolegg. p. 60 
suggests the translation '■gazed at by ten thousands' and would com- 


pare the Assyrian dagalu 'to gaze upon' (with interest, affection or awe). 
From the same root we have d i g 1 u 'banner' (an object of contempla- 
tion), comp. Ps. XX. 6, see Glossary sub voce ^y\- This appears to 
be a more satisfactory interpretation than that which is based on the 
comparison of the Arabic |J>^0 'to cover' — the noun ^jr| banner be- 
ing explained as that which covers up the pole upon which it is car- 
ried. — The truth appears to be that the original sense of the verb 
^JT] is 'to gaze at' from which the subst. ^'yr\ designates 'banner' as 
being the object gazed at. In this primary sense the passive partic. 
^>\yT\ is to be understood in the above quoted passage (Song of Songs 


V. 10). But ^yT\ is also to be taken as a denommative from the subst. 
^JT] meaning 'bear a banner'. Thus in Song of Songs VI. 4. 10 the 
Niphal ni^illi signifies 'bannered hosts' and in Ps. XX. 6 the Kal 
^j|"l^ should be rendered 'bear our banner'. Fried. Delitzsch's inter- 
pretation of this last passage is very forced. Possibly we ought to 
read ^Tjj;3 (LXX). 

Vol. II p. 161 foil. On the subject of Biblical chronology during 
the regal period the reader may also consult Geo. Smith, Assyi-. 
Eponym Canon, chaps I and VII ; Samuel Sharpe, Hebrew Nation and 
Literature pp. 381 foil. 389 foil.; Wellhausen, Einleitung in das A. T. 
p. 264 foil., Prolegg. zur Gesch. Isr. (1883) p. 285 foil.; Robertson 
Smith, Journal of Philology X. p. 209 foil. Prophets of Israel p. 146 
foil. 413 foil, and Stade, Geschichte p. 88 foil. 558 foil. As mention 
has been made on several occasions of Prof. Kamphausen's scheme of 
chronology for the Hebrew royal period, it will not be inappropriate if 
I subjoin it here (see Chronologie der Hebr. Konige p. 32). The 
bracketed dates are my own proposed alterations. I have also , con- 
sistently with ordinary usage, sometimes modified Kamphausen's dates 
by a year so as to make the date of the initial year of a king's reign 
identical with that of the final year of his predecessor. 

Saul 1037—1018 

David 1018—1011 (Judah), 1010—978 (over Israel and Judah) 

Solomon 978—938 

Jeroboam I 938—916 







Jehoshaphat877— 852 
Jehoram 852-843 
Ahaziah 843—842 



















































Azariah or 


Jeroboam II 


Jotham as 




Jotham as 





735 — 715 





























The purpose of this system of dates is to harmonize the existing 
Biblical Chronology with that of the Assyrian eponym canon, so as to 
entail as little disarrangement as possible of the numerical statements 
of the Books of Kings and at the same time no disturbance of the 
general synchronism of the Jewish and Israelite reigns and of the 
fabric of Judaeo-Israelite Biblical history. This Dr. Kamphausen has 
been successful in accomplishing, chiefly because he has a wholesome 
respect for the integrity of Old Testament history and a wholesome 
scepticism towards artificial theories of "Zahlenspielerei." At the sane 
time it must be frankly admitted that several further adjustments are 
necessary before the proposed chronology can be accepted as adequately 
harmonizing with the data of modern archaeological discovery. In 
order to accomplish this result I have placed on the left hand in 
square brackets the dates I should propose to substitute for those in 
Prof. Kamphausen's scheme. 

It will be observed that the disturbance of the Biblical numerical 
statements occurs mainly in the Judaeo-Israelite cross references by 
which the redactors fixed the relative chronology of the Israelite and 
Judaean kings. One single error in such a harmonistic scheme will 
obviously generate others. That these harmonistic Judaeo-Israelite 
cross-references are the chief source of our chronological difficulties is 
shown by the fact (which Stade has already pointed out in Geschichte 
Isr. p. 558) that after 722 B. C, when we have Judaean history only 
to deal- with, the chronological statements are comparatively free from 



difficulty.* — Another source of divergence may have consisted in the 
mode in which a king's fractional closing year was reckoned. It is 
well known that the Biblical chronology gives us integers only, and 
we are justified in assuming that the final surplus fraction of a year 
was reckoned in the Biblical chronology as though it were a whole one. 
Moreover the statement of the Mishna tractate, Rosh Hashshana 2 *, is to 
be noted : "Nisan is for the kings the beginning of the year and a 
day in the year (after Nisan) is reckoned as a year." Whether this 
principle was strictly carried out in ancient Israel it is difiicult to say. 
At any rate the above considerations render it possible for us to shor- 
ten or lengthen a reign (as stated in the O. T.) to the extent of nearly 
one year without traversing the accuracy of the Biblical statement. 

In the dates for the Judaean kings, I have very few modifications 
to suggest. The year 715 assigned by Kamphausen to the death 
of Ahaz is recommended by the consideration that it afi"ords a clue to 
the foreign policy of Judah during the siege of Samaria. This can 
hardly have been anything else but one of friendly neutrality towards 
Assyria and such an attitude is best explained by the assumption that 
Ahaz, who was a steadfast ally of Assyria, still controlled the policy 
of the Southern kingdom. With the death of that monarch the policy 
of Isaiah became ascendant and involved resistance to the encroach- 
ments of the Ninivite power. Moreover, I believe that we may with 
good reason assume that in the year 726 Hezekiah was associated with 
his father in the kingdom. Does Isaiah scornfully allude to this in 
Chap. Ill, 4, 12? At all events the above assumption agrees better with the 
Biblical statement respecting the contemporary reigns of Hezekiah and 
Hoshea (comp. also superscription to Hosea's oracles) while it dispenses 
with the necessity, to which Kamphausen is driven, of shortening the 
reign of Manasseh. For the reasons above stated it is safer to assume 
the correctness of the numerical statements in the Bible after the 
overthrow of Samaria. At the same time, if we place the death of 
Ahaz and the beginning of Hezekiah's sole reign in 715, the diffi- 
culties involved in 2 Kings XVIII. 13 (Vol. II pp. 6, 165 and footn.) 
disappear. From 2 Kings XV. 5 we know that Jotham reigned during 
the life-time of his parent. The theory of conjoint reigns was recog- 

* Doubtless the Judaean chroniclers would have information less 
complete respecting the annals of the North-Israelite kings, more espe- 
cially on account of the enormous destruction and wholesale deportations 
of inhabitants which took place during the reigns of Tiglath Pileser, 
Salmanassar and Sargon in the Northern kingdom. The perplexing 
confusion which occurs in Judaeo-Israelite chronology precisely at this 
point is very noticeable. 


nized by the late Mr. Samuel Sharpe as a very reasonable mode of 
avoiding the difficulties created by the apparently undue length of 
time occupied by the successive reigns of both Judaean and Israelite 
monarchs (comp. Stade , Gesch. Isr. p. 559). But this method was 
carried by him to excess. See also 'Additions and Corrections' to 
Vol. II. p. XV. 

Among the modifications which I have proposed in the scheme of 
Prof. Kamphausen it will be observed that a much longer reign has 
been assigned to Omri. This has been effected by sacrificing the 
length of the reign of Baasha to the extent of about 10 years. The 
reign of Ahab must have extended to at least 853 B. C, for we know 
from Salmanassar II's monolith-inscription that Ahab's troops were in- 
volved in the overthrow of the Battle of Karkar. At that time Ahab 
was in alliance with the Syrian monarch (1 Kings XX. 34), probably 
owing to a common fear of the growing power of Salmanassar II. But 
the overthrow of Benhadad (= Hadadidri = Hadadezer) in that battle 
and the apprehension of a like disaster from the colossus of the East 
impelled Ahab to an altogether different policy (comp. Vol. I pp. 189 
— 190 and also Prof. Francis Brown, 'Assyriology, its Use and Abuse' 
pp. 53 — 62); and this involved him speedily in war with his former ally. 

The extension of the period of Omri's rule to at least 25 years is 
rendered highly probable by the fresh collation of the Stone of Mesha 
by Professors Smend and Socin. In lines 7. 8 we read 
7 1J^ ^D ni< nDV ^l"'"! 

Adopting the most natural construction, which takes Omri as subject 
throughout, we render "And Omri took possession of all the land of 
Mehdeba and dwelt in it during his days and half the days of his 
son forty years." At first sight it would appear as though Ahab was 
associated with Omri during the last portion of the latter's reign 
which would thus extend to forty years. But this supposition, though 
quite possible, does not harmonize well with the express statement that 
precedes in line 6 "and his son succeeded to him (nD^H^l) ^"^^ ^^^^ 
'I will oppress Moab'", and it would therefore be safer to understand 
the last clause '\y[ IJini ^^ referring to the separate reign of Ahab 
during a part of which Israel still occupied Mehdeba, as in the time 
of Omri. Again, in lines 4 — 5 we read 

* I take this to be an Imperf. sing, ending in "j. This is made 
nearly certain by the form (line 6) ^J^i^ 'I will oppress' (Moab) ; comp. 
Hebr. i^y. 



"Omri was king of Israel and oppressed Moab many days". 
From these passages we infer (1) that Omri's reign extended over a 
long period and (2) that Ahab's reign and Omri's considerably exceeded 
forty years in duration. (It is not necessary to take ^jjf) as an exact 
mathematical expression.) This inference respecting Omri's reign is 
confirmed by notices extraneous to the fragmentary annals contained 
in the Books of Kings. From these notices it is easy to see that his 
rule was marked by energetic administration and produced so deep an 
impression outside the limits of the Northern kingdom that we find a 
reference to him and his successor in the oracles of Micah, the prophet 
of the Southern kingdom 150 years later (Mic. VI. 16), while the 
Assyrian annals continued to designate the Northern kingdom as (m&t) 
Bit Humri or 'land of the House Omri' from the days of Salman- 
assar II (854) to those of Sargon (720), Jehu, though a usurper, being 
called Ja'ua abal Humri (comp. Vol. I p. 260 ad fin.). Respecting 
the equivalence Humri = *r\t^)J and the cuneiform data generally 
see Dr. Schrader in Vol.1 pp.179— 180, also Assyr.-Babyl. Keil. p. 198 
note 3; Keilinsch. u. Gesch. p. 217; Z. D. M. G. XXXIII p. 330. 

In conclusion we commend to the reader the following historic veri- 
fications of the chronological system advocated above. 

(1) In 2 Kings XIII. 5 we are told that Jehoabaz , king of Israel, 
was very hard pressed by the power of Syria. But the Lord sent him 
a 'deliverer' so that they went out from under the hand of the Syri- 
ans. This 'saviour' (j^^tt'lD) ^^"^ have been none other than the 
Assyrian king Ramm^nnir^ri who created a powerful diversion by the 
signal overthrow wrought by him in the year 803 B. C. See the 
inscription quoted in Vol. I pp. 203 foil. The eff"ects of this disaster 
on the Syrian states seem to have endured for some time, for we 
learn from verse 25 that Jehoash , the successor of Jehoahaz, was 
enabled to recover from Benhadad (= Mari) the cities which his father 
had lost. The synchronism is therefore not with Jeroboam II, as 
Dr. Schrader supposes p. 208, nor is the "deliverer" to be identified with 
Salmanassar, as G. Smith proposes in Assyr. Eponym Canon p. 192. 
The victories won by Hazael, predecessor of Benhadad, over Jehoahaz 
synchronize with the disturbed reign of Samsi-RammSn III (Tiele, Bab. 
Assyr. Gesch. p. 205). See Max Duncker, Hist, of Antiq. II. p. 258. 

(2) How are we to account for the easy victories won by Jeroboam II 
over his Northern enemy? Syria in all probability never fully reco- 
vered from the defeat inflicted by RammannirSri. Moreover fresh 
humiliations from Assyria were in store. Jeroboam, it may be assumed, 
followed the traditional policy inaugurated by Jehu of yielding tribute, or 
at least compliance, to the Assyrian king; and his annexations of terri- 
tory to the North are probably to be connected with the expeditions of 


Salmanassar HI marked down in the List of Governors for the year 775 
ana m&t irini (to the Cedar-country, Phoenicia) and in 773 ana ir 
Dimalka (to Damascus). 

(3) Amos prophesied during the reign of Jerohoam II, but never 
mentions the name of Assyria. This is easily to he accounted-for by 
the fact that during the reigns of A§urdanilu and his successor A§ur- 
nirari, pestilence and internal revolt paralyzed for a time the power 
of Assyria, so that the empire ceased during that interval to exercise a 
potent influence over the politics of the Western kingdoms. On the other 
hand, when Hosea's prophecies were being uttered, the Assyrian power 
once more began its victorious and destructive career, Tiglath Pileser 
"the Struggler" (31^) coming into repeated collision with the Palesti- 
nian states. Hence we find frequent references to A§§ur in the oracles 
of this prophet 

Vol. II p. 178 foil. On the subject of Assyrian as compared with 
Hebrew proper names I have no space to do more than indicate a few 
parallels. Among other literature the reader may be referred to 01s- 
hausen, Lehrbuch der Hebr. Sprache § 277; Nestle, Die Israelitischen 
Eigennamen nach ihrer religionsgeschichtlichen Bedeutung, and Fried. 
Delitzsch, Prolegomena eines neuen Hebraisch-AramaischenWorterbuchs 
p. 188 foil., as well as Prof. Schrader's statements in his Excursus, die 
assyrisch-babylonischen Eigennamen, in Assyr.-Babyl.Keilinschrr. (1872) 
p. 115 — 167. Most of the ancient Semitic names are religious in cha- 
racter and this remark ofcourse includes the large number of Phoeni- 
cian-Canaanite names which have been preserved on Phoenician monu- 
ments and in Assyrian transcription and which exhibit close analogies 
to the Old Testament proper names (see Vol. I p. 88 foil.). In both Assy- 
rian and Hebrew-Canaanite names we often have a designation conferred 
on the infant soon after birth commemorating some pious wish, prayer 
or prophecy with reference to the child in which the name of the deity is 
invoked. In some cases the child's personality seems hardly present 
to the thoughts of the parent, but rather the parent himself as in the 
name Abu-ina-ikalli-lilbur (precat. lab^ru 'to be old') 'may the 
father grow old in the palace'; comp. the Hebrew □JJ'i^^J? 'my father 
is darling'; or some national event maybe thought-of, as in the names 
given by Hosea (comp. also Isaiah) to his children; comp. Nirgal- 
§ar-usur, NabG-sar-usur "Nergal, Nebo , defend the king". Or we 
may have only a reverent ejaculation of pious trust Gabbi-ina-katS,- 
Samag "all is in the hands of Samas". The following brief list, which 
might be indefinitely prolonged, will be found suggestive : 
TlK^^ipN 'my father is a wall' Abu-durQ 'the father is a fortress' 

"l^i^i^ (^i^) 'my father is a light' Ahu-nuru 'the brother is a light' 


in'5^^) n^DX) ^J^''5ii?> DJ^V etc. Bil-abfia, SamaS-abfla 'Bel, Sa- 

mag is my father' 
n'Tl^^' ri'li 'Jahve is my light' Sama§-nuri 'SamaS is my light' 

( '^TJ^^'?<!^. '""y ^°^ ^^ help' 

) ^hR. '^^•i ^^^ ^«^P«d' ^Ramman-nirari 'Ramman is my 

f rrn. 'J^^^« ^^' l^^lP^d' ^Aiui-nirari 'Asur is my help' 

!?i<"''11i{> ^lt&'^TlU Bi'l-sadfta, Marduk-§adua 'Bel, 

Merodach is my mountain' 

^Pi^liSJ^ Ilu-ittija 'God is with me' 

^i^"'3^D, n*3^D> 'nbD''!?i< • • • Samas-malik, Nirgal-malik , 

•• • : - T • : - I V V • v: 

Adar-malik, Bi'1-malik 
Jin^Nj n^iin Bl'l-mudammik, Nirgal-mudam- 

mik 'Bel, Nergal shows favour' 

ni^"l^ niiT' Bi'l-imurani 'Bel hath seen me' 

^^Ql^j^ 'my God is deliverance' Nirgal-ubaUi t 'Nergal has pre- 

V V ■ v: 

served alive' 
(iirii) pi^^l);^ 'who is like Jahve' ? (Mannu-ki-Ramman 'Who is like 

T TT • / 

biO^D '^to is like God' ? \ Eamman ?' 

bikini) n^ini 'Jahve (God) hath Adar-iddin 'Adar hath given' 


■Tj^QI^^ Abu-malik 

liT'Tni^ 'Jahve hath held' B i'l-k a ta-sa bat 'Bel, take the hands' 

(= helped me) 
Vol. n p. 279 Glossary sub voce VIH- According to Haupt, Nach- 
richten von der koniglichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Got- 
tingen 1883 no. 4 p. 95, there is good reason for taking tarsu as mean- 
ing 'reign' and in a tarsi as 'in the reign of . .' Apart from the fact 
that it is used in reference to kings or governors e. g. Monolith of 
Salmanassar col. II. 37 ina tarsi A§ur-kirbi sar (mat) AsSur and 
other passages, we have the same sign for itillu 'lord', malku 
'prince' and §arru 'king' as we have for tarasu (II Rawl. 26, 15 c, 
S" 180, V Rawl. 31, 64. 63 e, II Rawl. 38, 67 a, VEawl. 16, 7 a); comp. 
Zeitsch. fiir Keilschriftforschung 1885 p. 106 and Dr. Craig in Hebraica 
July 1887 p. 228. tarsu, meaning rule or reign (sarrfltu), is thus 
easily connected with the root-signification of tarasu 'guide straight', 

'direct', 'put straight'. Syriac ,9.^, ^'^^ etc. 




As some of my readers may desire to examine and test for them- 
selves the original cuneiform texts communicated in transcription in 
the course of the present work, or may be stimulated to pursue their 
studies further and obtain a more thorough acquaintance with Assyrian 
and Babylonian, I have thought it well to append a list of the most 
important grammatical and lexical publications likely to aid the stu- 
dent in his investigations. I have also made reference to special trea- 
tises or dissertations bearing upon the subject in hand. 


E. Botta, mdmoire sur IMcriture Assyrienne (Journal Asiatique 1847); 
comp. the author's Monument de Ninive (Paris 1849. 50), tome V. 

Jules Oppert, d^chifFrement des inscriptions cun^iformes (tome II 
of the author's Expedition en M^sopotamie), Paris 1869. 4'*. 

Edward Hincks, on the Khorsabad inscriptions. Dublin 1849. 
Comp. the same author's articles in Transactions of the Royal Irish 
society XXII, 1852; XXIII, 1854; in Journal of sacred literature and 
biblical record 1855. 56. 

Henry Rawlinson, Babylonian text of the Behistun inscription in 
Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society XIV, 1. 1851. 

Justus Olshausen, Prufung des Charakters der in den assyri- 
schen Keilinschriften enthaltenen semitischen Sprache (Abhandluugen 
der Konigl. Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften belonging to the 
year 1864. Berlin 1865. pp. 475—496). 

Eb. Schrader, die assyrisch - babylonischen Keilinschriften. 
Kritische Untersuchung der Grundlagen ihrer Entzifferung (Separate 
publication from Vol. XXVI. of the Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenl. 
Gesellschaft). Leipzig 1872, 



Jules Oppert, Duppe lisan Assur. Elements de la grammaire As- 
syrienne. II. ^d. Paris 1868. 

Joachim Menant, Manuel de la langue Assyrienne (also with the 
title, Elements d' dpigraphie Assyrienne). I. la Syllabaire; II. la gram- 
maire; III. choix de lectures. Paris 1880. 

A H. Sayce, an Elementary Grammar with full syllabary and pro- 
gressive reading book. London. 

— , an Assyrian Grammar for comparative purposes. London 1872. 

D. G. Lyon, an Assyrian Manual. Chicago 1886. 

Ernest Budge, Assyrian Texts. London 1880. 

Theoph. G. Pinches, Texts in the Babylonian wedge-writing. I. 
London 1882. 4°, 

Eb. Schrader, der grammatische Bau (der assyrischen Sprache). 
[Part II of the work : die Assyrisch-Babylonischen Keilinschriften.] 

Friedrich Delitzsch, Assyrische Grammatik, Berlin, H. Reuther 
(will be published in summer 1888). 

— Assyrische Lesestiicke, nebst Paradigmen, Schrifttafel , Textana- 
lysen und kleinem Worterbuch. 3rd ed. Leipzig 1885. 

L. Abel and H. Winckler, Keilschrifttexte zum Gebrauch bei Vor- 
lesungen. Mit Schrifttafel u. Worterverzeichnifs. Berlin, H. Reuther 
(will be published in autumn 1888). 

C. Bezold, Prolegomena zu einer babylonisch-assyrischen Grammatik. 
Wien 1887. 

Paul Haupt, Prolegomena to a comparative Assyrian grammar 
(Proceedings of Amer. Orient. Soc. Oct. 1887). 

Bruto Teloni, chrestomazia Assira, con paradigmi grammaticali. 
Eoma-Firenze. Torino 1887. 

George Smith, the phonetic values of the cuneiform characters. 
London 1871. 4". 

Eb. Schrader, assyrisches Syllabar. Mit den Jagdinschriften 
Asurbanipal's. Berlin 1880. 4°. 

A. Amiaud et L. M^chineavx, tableau compart des ^critures 
Babyloniennes archaiques et modernes. Paris 1887. 

R. E. Briinnow, a classified list of all simple and compound cunei- 
form Ideographs etc. I. Leiden 1887. 4". 




In addition to the works or dissertations upon the above-mentioned 
subjects by Hincks, Rawlinson, Oppert and others we mention 

Paul Haupt, Assyrian Phonology, with special reference to Hebrew, 
in "Hebraica" 1885, Jan. p. 175 foil. 

— , Beitrage zur assyrischen Lautlehre (phonology) [insbesondere zur 
Lehre von den Zischlauten], in "Nachrichten von der K. Gesellschaft 
der Wissenschaften zu Gottingen" 1883, No. 4, p. 89 foil., 92 foil. 

Eb. Schrader, iiber die Aussprache der Zischlaute (sibilants) im 
Assyrischen, in den Monatsberichten der K. Preuss. Akad. der Wissen- 
schaften 1877, p. 79—95. 

— , zur Frage nach der Aussprache der Zischlaute im Babylonisch- 
Assyrischen, in Zeitschrift fiir Keilschriftf. I (1884) p. 1 — 18; 178 f 

Fritz Homme 1, iiber die Zischlaute im Assyrischen wie im Semi- 
tischen iiberhaupt , in his work Zwei Jagdinschriften Asurbanipal's, 
Leipzig 1879 p. 19—49. 

Stan. Guyard, quelques remarques sur la prononciation et la 
transcription de la chuintante et de la sifflante en Assyrian , in Zeit- 
schrift f. Keilschriftforschung I (1884) p. 27-31. 

Theoph. G. Pinches, on the consonants §, r and 1, in Proceedings 
of Soc. of Bibl. Arch. 1881, Apr. 5 p. 82 foil. 

J. Barth, Verschiebung der Liquiden im Assyrischen, in Zeitschr. 
fur Assyr. HI (1888), p. 57—94. 

P. Haupt, iiber den Halbvokal u im Assyrischen, in Zeitschi'ift f. 
Assyriologie II (1887) p. 259—286. 

— , the Assyrian E-vowel. Baltimore (Johns Hopkins University) 

F. Ho mm el and C. Bezold, zur Lautbestimmung von i, in: Zeit- 
schrift f. Keilschriftforschung I (1884) p. 72—74. 

Eb. Schrader, iiber den Lautwerth der Zeichen a-a und i-a im 
Assyrischen, in den Monatsberichten der K. Preuss. Akad. der Wiss. 
1880 p. 271 — 284. 

— , zur Aussprache der Zeichen a und ia im Assyrischen, in Zeitsoli. 
fiir Assyr. Ill (1888), p. 1 — 16. 

Rich. Cull, on the expression of the soft sound of the Hebrew y, 
in Proceedings of Soc. of B. Arch. 1880, May 4, p. 62 foil. 

Occasional remarks on Assyrian phonology by B. Stade, F. Phi- 
lippi and others are quoted in the above-named papers. 



Edw. Hi neks, specimen chapters of an Assyrian grammar, in Journ. 
of Roy. Asiat. Soc. N. S. II, 1866 p. 480 foil. 

Theoph. G. Pinches, papers upon Assyrian grammar, I. II, in 
Proceedings of the Soc. of Bibl. Archaeology 1882, Nov. 7, p. 21 foil; 
1884, Jan. 8, p. 62 foil. 

P. Haupt, the oldest Semitic verb-form, in Journal of E. Asiat. 
Soc. N. S. X p. 244—252. 

Gr. Bertin, Notes on the Assyrian and Akkadian pronouns, in 
Journal of Roy. Asiat. Soc. N. S. XVII, 1. 

— , the Assyrian numerals , in Transactions of Soc. of Bibl. Arch. 
VII, 1882 p. 370—389. 

A. H. S a y c e , Notes on the Assyrian numerals , in Proceedings of 
Soc. of Bibl. Archaeology 1882, June 6, p. 105 foil. 

Theoph. G. Pinches, the Akkadian numerals in ibid. Ill foil. 

C. F. Lehmann, iiber protochaldaische Zahlworter (Proto-Chaldaean 
numerals), in Zeitschrift fiir Assyriologie I (1886) p. 222 foil. 

J. Barth, das Nominalprafix na im Assyrischen, in Zeitschrift fiir 
Assyriologie II, 2 (1887) p. HI foil. 

— , das semitische Perfect im Assyrischen, Zeitsch. fiir Assyr. 1887, 
p. 375.* 

* [A brief notice of this important article will not be out of place. 
Dr. Barth endeavours to show that "The present forms [otherwise called 
'present-Imperfect' as opposed to the 'aoristic Imperf.' ik§ud] viz. 
i-kaSad (Kal), u-ka§sad (Pael), u-saksad (Shafel) are nothing more 

than the old-Semitic Perfect t^^^S, l\av^5', iAam^.w. As in Assyrian 
the Semitic Imperfect [i. e. aoristic impf. ikgud (Kal), uka§§id (Pael), 
u§aksid (Shaf.)] has assumed the functions of the perfect, so, on the 
other hand, the Semitic Perf. [i. e. the present i-kaSad etc.] in Assy- 
rian has passed over to the position and function of an Imperf. The 
two tenses have simply exchanged their usual functions. This is the 
more easily conceivable because in Old-Semitic there was no proper 
tense or time-distinction between the two forms. The single peculia- 
rity in the Assyrian as compared with the other Semitic perfects con- 
sists in the fact that the personal pronouns appear as preformatives 
instead of suflSxes." (It is also held that the so-called ^ Permansive' is 
no proper tense ; see below Dr. Schrader's remarks in Appendix II.) 
Such a theory, if accepted, tends to overthrow the primary or Sanskrit 
rank of Assyrian in the Semitic family and confirms the view taken up 
by Fritz Hommel whereby a more isolated position is assigned to Baby- 
lono- Assyrian (see his classification Semit. Volker, p. 442 , comp. also 


J. F. Mc Curdy, the Semitic perfect in Assyrian, in the Actes du 
sixieme Congrfes international des Orientalistes. Deuxieme partie, sect. 
I. Leide, E. J. Brill, 1885 p. 507 foil. 

C. B'ezold, eine eigenthiimliche Statusconstructus-Erscheinung , in 
Zeitschrift fur Keilschriftforschung 11 (1885) p. 316. 

Ernst Millie r, grammatische Bemerkungen zu den Annalen Asur- 
nassirpal's, in Zeitschrift f. Assyriologie I (1886) p. 349 foil. 

P. Haupt, in Die suraerischen Familiengesetze I (1879), passim. 


Fox Talbot, Assyrian Glossary. Part I— III, in Journal of Roy. 
Asiat. Soc. New Ser. Ill, 1 foil. (1867 foil.). 

Edwin Nor r is, Assyrian Dictionary. Part I — III. London 1868 
—72. 4". 

Stan. Guyard, Notes de lexicographie Assyrienne. Par. 1883. 

J. N. Strassmaier, alphabetisches Verzeiclmiss der assyrischen und 
akkadischen Worter der cuneiform inscriptions of Western Asia vol. II. 
Leipzig 1886. 4». 

Friedrich Delitzsch, assyrisches Worterbuch. Lief. I. II. Leipzig 
1887 S. 4". — Compare the treatise by the same author "The Hebrew 
language viewed in the light of Assyrian research." London 1883; 
Prolegomena eines neuen hebraisch - aramaischen Worterbuchs zum 
A. T." Leipzig 1886. 

Glossaries to separate Babylono-Assyrian texts or collections of texts 
are published by J. Oppert, H. Pognon, E. Budge, F. Delitzsch, 
W. Lotz, P. Haupt, T. G. Pinches, C. Bezold, D. G. Lyon, 
H. Zimmern, S. A. Smith, H. Winckler and by the author of 
this book. 

Transcribed cuneiform texts, in historical arrangement and with 
added German translation, will be found in the work Keilinschriftliche 
Bibliotheh , Sammlung von assyrischen und babylonischen Texten in 
Umschrift und Uebersetzung. Bd. I. Historische Texte des altassyri- 
schen Reichs. In Verbindung mit Dr. Abel, Dr. Bezold, Dr. Jen- 
sen, Dr. Peiser, Dr. Winckler herausgegeben von Eberh. 
Schrader. Berlin, H. Reuther (will be published in the autumn 1888). 

pp. 16. 62) and the claims of South-Arabic are duly maintained. The 
extreme view of Prof. Sayce (Hibbert Lectures p. 46) "to compare 
Arabic and Hebrew together is like comparing Latin with modern 
German" will hardly commend itself. — Transl.]. 





In reference to the terms employed by the author to designate the 
moods and tenses of the Assyrian verb, it may be explained that 

(1) The term Imperfect (abbreviated Impf.) signifies the tense of 
narration, corresponding in its use to the Greek Aorist and in its for- 

mation to the Hebrew Imperfect ^tOp^> 133'' (Arab. JOCJU etc.). These 
Imperfects in Assyrian have the form i§kunu, isbatu etc. 

(2) The term Present is employed by the writer in common 
with most Assyriologists to designate the second imperfect, formed from 
the preceding, as in Ethiopic, by the introduction of the vowel a after 
the first radical e. g. iSakal, isabat (issabat), iSarak (iSarrak), 
inaddin [also inakki Vol. I p. 19 inscr. line 32, see Glossary under 
^py The form akki is the aoristic imperf. — Tr.]. 

(3) Another tense, also with present meaning, occurs in Assyrian 
under the form §akin (3. pers. masc), gaknak(ku) (1. pers.) etc. 
This tense has been usually designated by Assyriologists since Edward 
Hincks by the name " Permansive tense." In agreement with Oppert I 
am still unable to recognize this as an actual and special tense. 
Taken in connection with compound forms like iarraku "I am king", 
ri§t&naku, kainak etc. I am disposed to regard the former as com- 
binations of subject and predicate, standing on the border-land between 
the syntactical union of a sentence and the close and intimate com- 
bination of predicate (participle or noun) and subject (pronoun) in the 
proper verbal tense. Compare the analogous combinations in Aramaic, 
more especially Biblical-Aramaic i. e. the so-called Chaldaean "Pe'il 
conjugation." Consult my Assyrisch-Babylonische Keilinschriften (1872) 
p. 266 footn. 4; 304 foil. 

(4) By Precative (Prec.) is meant according to traditional usage the 
verbal form lissur (root "iJi^) , lisbat (root flDiJ)- "^^^^ arises from 
the prefixed preposition or rather conjunction li. Comp. Hebr. 
^, Arab. 0, the form being analogous to those found in Arabic. 

The statements made by the author in his work Assyrisch-Babylon. 
Keilinschriften (1872) p. 390 foil, are to be corrected and supplemented 
in accordance with the above. 







[From Dr. Schrader's essay: Die keilinschriftliche babylonische Konigsliste p. 29 
(= 607) to illustrate Vol. I p. XXXII and to supplement and correct Vol. II p. 198.] 


Babylon, list of 











2 Years 

Xlv'C,riQoq xul 



1 M. 12 Days 

























lA^aaiX. TiQwz. 


Sin-ab-irba (sic!) 


Frater Sina- 



1 Month 


30 Days 



6 Months 


6 Months 




Bi'1-ibni (ibu§) 



3 Years 










Ni'rgal-uSi'zib (sic!) 








li/iaolX. devTSQ. 


Sin-ab-irba (sic!) 







8 Years?* 






21 Years 





Frater ejus 

21 Years 

* The proof that the length of reign (8 years instead of 13), here wrongly 
assigned to Axerdis-Asarhaddon, arises from a transposition of the numbers for 
the duration of anarchy and for Asarhaddon's reign, may be read on p. 21 
(= 599) footn. 3 of the above-mentioned essay of Dr. Schrader. 

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